(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report"

OF MARYLAND 

1955 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/report00mary_64 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



ixty- Ninth Annual R eport 

OF THE 

\£^^ii.. State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1935 




THE MAURICE LEESER COMPANY 
BALTIMORE. MD. 



1 IBRARY. LNIVERSITY OF MARYLAM' 



'In 



STATE OF MARYLAND 



' ' ' ■ STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

TASKER G. LOWNDES, President Cumberland 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU : Sharon 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY Baltimore 

CHARLES A. WEACLY Hagerstown, R F. D. 

WENDELL D. ALLEN Baltimore 

EDWARD H. SHARPE Frederick 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

2014 Lexington Building, Baitimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown)..... Supervisor of High Schools 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr Supervisor of High Schools 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS (Cumberland) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD ...Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON : Supervisor of Colored Schools 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Director of Vocational Education and Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON (3 E. 25th St.) 

Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Educat'oi 

THOMAS D. BRAUN (3 E. 25th St.) ...Rehabilitation Assistant 

tDR. WILLIAM BURDICK (7 E. Mulberry St.) .... Supervisor of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT, (Enoch Pratt Library, 400 Cathedral St.) Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS.. Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE.. Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY Stenographer 

ERNA OPITZ BENSON (3 E. 25th St.) Stenographer 

€LARA McD. SIMERING ...Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF Statistical Assistant 

DOROTHY HARRIS Statistical Assistant 

PRESIDEr TS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 

LI DA LEE TALL State Teachers College - Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE.. State Teachers College Frostburg 

J. D. BLACKWELL ...State Teachers College. Salisbury 

LEONID AS S. JAMES, Principal Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students) Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

2004 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR. State Comptroller and Chairman 

HOOPER S. MILES - - State Treasurer 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME ...Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MILDRED MEDINGER Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



t Deceased, December, 1935. 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1935-1936 



County Address 
ALLEGANY— Cumberland 

Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 

Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 

Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 

Winifred Greene, S. T. 

L. Grace Shatzer, S T. 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 

George Fox, Supt. 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 

BALTIMORE— Towson 

C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt 
Viola K. Almony, S. T.l 
Emma A. Boettner, S, T.2 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.2 
M. Annie Grace, S. T.2 
Nellie Gray, S. T.* 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T.3 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor2 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 

Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 



CAROLINE— Denton 

B. C. Willis, Supt. 

A. May Thompson, S. T. 



CARROLL — Westminster 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Charles Reck, S. T. 



CECIL— Elkton 

Howard T. Ruhl, Supt.t 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 



CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, S. T. 



DORCHESTER— Cambridge 

James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, S. T. 



FREDERICK— Frederick 

E. W. Pruitt, Supt. 

Hal Lee T. Ott, S. T. 

Helen Woodley, S T. 

A. Drucilla Worthington, S. T. 



County Address 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne, S. T.4 
Flossie Skidmore Shields, S. T.f 

HARFORD— Bel Air, 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Mary L. Grau, S. T.5 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
Herbert C. Brown, Sunt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 

KENT— Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Sunt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome. Supt. 
Grace Alder, S. T. 
Mary Gertrude Cross, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson, S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Catherine R. Green, S. T.f 
Mary Kemp, S. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centre ville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S— T.«onardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young, S. T. 

SOMERSET— Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
/ Jane D. Wilson, S. T. 

TALBOT— Easton 

Willard S. Davis, Supt. 
William R. Phipps, S. T. 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford, S. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 



WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 
C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
Hazel J. Hearne, H. T. 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 



1 Sparrows Point 3 203 Burke Ave., Towson S. T Supervising Teacher 

2 200 W. Saratoga St., Baltimore 4 Grantsville H. T. Helping Teacher 
* Catonsville 5 Havre de Grace f Resigned, Dec. 1935 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal 5 

The State Public School Budget for 1936 6 

1934 White School Census 9 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment, Decline in Birth Rate, Parochial and Private Schools, Length 

of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, Withdrawals 14 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 25 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 33 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turn- 
over 40 

Men Teaching, Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries 46 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Capital Outlay 51 

Size of Schools and ConsoHdation 67 

Supervision 70 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 75 

Courses Taken; Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Failures, With- 
drawals, Teachers; Standard Tests 92 

Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turnover, Sex 

of Teachers 106 

Number and Size of High Schools 113 

Ratio of Pupils to Teachers, Salaries 115 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, Health, 

Capital Outlay 121 

Supervision 133 

1934 Colored School Census 135 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment, Decline in Birth Rate, Length of Session, Attendance, Late 

Entrants, Withdrawals 140 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions, Tests 148 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore 156 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, Turn- 
over, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 163 

Cost per Pupil, Transportation, Libraries, Capital Outlay, Value of School 

Property 174 

No. of Approved High Schools, Size of Schools, Physical Education, 

Health and Cleanliness Contests, P. T. A.'s 182 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other than County Funds; Supervision 191 

Bowie Normal School 194 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 197 

Summer Schools, Evening Schools, Emergency Adult Education Program, 

Vocational Rehabilitation 204 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil 214 

Financing the Vocational Education Program.... 227 

Emergency Federal Aid for School Buildings and Sanitation 230 

Transportation of Pupils 232 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Bond Issues, Value of School Prop- 
erty 238 

County Residents Attending School Outside County 246 

1935-36 County Budgets; Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools; Assessments; 

Tax Rates 247 

Parent-Teacher Associations; Receipts and Expenditures from Other than 

County Funds— White Schools 256 

County School Administration; Conference Programs; Certification of Teach- 
ers and Changes in Certificate Regulations 261 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges — Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury 268 

The State Teachers' Retirement System 278 

Financial Statements; Statistical Tables 282 

Index 330 



June 1, 1936. 



Honorable Harry W. Nice, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Dear Goi'ernor Xlce: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of 
Maryland, the sixty-ninth ''annual report, covering all operations 
of the State Department of Education and the support, condition, 
progress, and needs of education throughout the State" for the 
school year ending in June, 1935, and considerable data for the cur- 
rent school year 1935-36 is herewith presented to you. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school pro- 
gram, its simple and efficient plan for organization, administration, 
supervision, and financing, as well as the enthusiastic cooperation 
received from all county teachers, clerks, attendance officers, super- 
visors, and superintendents, who have in most cases been given the 
whole-hearted moral and financial support of their patrons, county 
boards of education and county commissioners have made possible 
the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary Treasurer. 
State Board of Education. 

TaSKER G. Lowndes, President 

Wendell D. Allen 
Thomas H. Chambers 
J. M. T. Finney, M. D. 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Edward H. Sharpe 
Charles A. Weagly 



THE STATE SCHOOL BUDGET FOR 1935-36 



The total appropriation in the State PubHc School budget for 1936 
made by the 1935 Legislature which was shown in the Sixty-Eighth 
Annual Report to be $5,374,904, exclusive of fees from students at 
the Teachers Colleges and Normal School, was increased in August, 
1935, to $5,500,798. This increase of $125,894, was possible because 
of allocations from the so-called 1936 reserve fund by the Board of 
Public Works. (See Table 1.) 

The largest addition was made to the Equalization Fund, $104,183, 
in part to provide for restoration in Equalization Fund counties of 
one-fourth of the cuts which had been made in the minimum salary 
schedule of county teachers by legislation in 1933 and 1935. The 
reductions in percentage cuts from the minima scheduled in the law 
were as follows: 

Salary Basis Percentage Reduction in 



A small part of the additional $104,183 was made available to 
provide for increasing the State aid for transportation of high school 
pupils in Equalization Fund counties from 50 per cent of the cost to 
slightly over 60 per cent. In this way the Board of Public Works 
carried out in part the authorization and request included in Section 
6 of Chapter 477 of the laws of 1935 which reads as follows: 

"And be it further enacted, That the Governor and or the Board 
of Public Works be and they are hereby, authorized, empowered and 
requested to pay out of any of the contingent funds in the budget the 
cost of the bus transportation for the public schools of Maryland, the 
said payment to be made into the "Equalization Fund," and to be dis- 
tributed through it as now provided by statute. And the Governor 
and or the Board of Public Works are further authorized, empowered 
and requested, if any budget funds are available, to restore the schedule 
of teachers' salaries, hereinbefore prescribed to the extent of one-half of 
the respective amount so specified. " 

It has therefore been possible at State expense to give every teacher 
in the Equalization Fund counties a slight restoration in salary 
beginning in September, 1935. Allegany County was added to the 
thirteen counties which had previously been sharing in the Equaliza- 
tion Fund. The EquaHzation Fund counties were also assisted in 
meeting the costs of high school transportation. (See Table 1.) 

State aid for high schools, for which the original 1936 appropria- 
tion of $525,923 had been the same as the 1935 expenditure, was in- 
creased by $2,500 allocated from the ''Reserve Fund." 



1936 and 1937 



1934 and 1935 



Under $1,200 

$1,200 to $1,799. 
$1,800 to $2,399, 




10% 
11% 
12% 



6 



The 1936 State Public School Budget 



7 



TABLE 1 

1936 Public School Budget After August, 1935, Amendments 





1936 


Purpose 


Budget 



Amounts Distributed to Counties, Baltimore 
City and Retirement System: 
Retirement System: 

1 County Teachers i $133,956 

2 Baltimore City Teachers.... 497,945 

3 Expense Fund 10,000 



4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 
10 
11 



12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



21 
22 
23 
24 



High School Aid 

Colored Industrial Fund 

Part Payment of Salaries 

Books and Materials 

Fund Distributed on Basis of Census 

and Attendance 

Equalization Fund 

Reduction of County Taxation 

Physically Handicapped Children 



State Board of Education 

Vocational Education 

Physical and Health Education 

Bureau of Educational Measurements 

Publications and Printing 

Medical Examinations 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

Consultant Architect 

State Department of Education 



State Teachers College, Towson ... 
State Teachers College, Salisbury.. 
State Teachers College, Frostburg 
Bowie Normal School 



a$641,901 
528,423 
27,000 
154,649 
250,000 

1,800,000 
502,529 
1,250,000 
15,000 



800 
4,947 
15,000 
10,000 
4,500 
1,500 
10,000 
750 
56,144 



bl76,896 
b64,725 
b58,143 
b40,661 



$5,169,502 



103,641 



340,425 



Total fb$5,613,568 



Fees Teachers Colleges and Normal School. 



bll2,770 



Total from State : $5,500,798 



a Excludes $350,000 provided by bond issue. 

b Includes the following amounts for fees: 

Towson $49,430 

Salisbury 29,340 



Frostburg $21,000 

Bowie. 13,000 



The allowance of $8,500 for vocational education was reduced to 
$4,947, because of the temporary transfer of the Director of Vocation- 
al Education to take charge of the National Youth Administration 
and the adult educational program of the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration. The amount for publications and printing was increased by 



8 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

$500 so that it would not be necessary to curtail the printing of 
blanks and bulletins which are annually furnished the counties by 
the State office. The State Department of Education allowance of 
$56,144 made it possible to continue salaries at the reduced level paid 
in 1933-34 and 1934-35 when salaries were cut by from ten to fifteen 
per cent, but made unnecessary an additional reduction which would 
have meant a total decrease of fifteen to twenty-one per cent. The 
funds for travel and transportation expense of the supervisors who 
spend the major portion of their time in field work were increased 
to provide at State expense for the travel of the third State high 
school supervisor. (See Table 1.) 

Appropriations for the Teachers Colleges and Bowie Normal School 
for 1936 were increased by $17,911, after actual fall enrollment data 
were reported. 



College 


ORIGINAL 


REVISED 


Total 
Appro- 
priation 


Fees 


State 
Appro- 
priation 


Total 
Appro- 
priation 


Fees 


State 
Appro- 
priation 


Towson 

Frostburg 

Salisbury 

Bowie Normal . 

Total 


$170,245 
53,643 
55,225 
37,411 


$50,940 
21,000 
21,840 
13,000 


$119,305 
32,643 
33,385 
24,411 


$176,896 
58,143 
64,725 
40,661 


$49,430 
21,000 
29,340 
13,000 


$127,466 
37,143 
35,385 
27,661 


$316,524 


$106,780 


$209,744 


$340,425 


$112,770 


$227,655 



THE 1934 SCHOOL CENSUS OF WHITE CHILDREN 

The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland counties 
in the fall of 1934 enumerated 197,424 white children of ages 5 to 18 
years, inclusive. This was an increase of 726 over the 1932 and of 
10,215 over the 1930 enumeration (See Table 2.) 

TABLE 2 

Census of White Children Five and Under Nineteen Years of Age Inclusive 
Residing in the 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1934 



Age 



Total 



Boys 



Girls 



Total, 1930 
1932 
1934 

18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 



187,209 
196,698 
197,424 

10,597 
11,931 
13,458 
13,219 
15,510 
15,277 
15,125 
15,228 
15,285 
15,496 
14,620 
14,797 
14,382 
12,499 



95,682 
100,505 
100,925 

5,550 
6,206 
6,762 
6,802 
7,939 
7,770 
7,740 
7,725 
7,793 
7,964 
7,534 
7,401 
7,366 
6,373 



91,527 
96,193 
96,499 

5,047 
5,725 
6,696 
6,417 
7,571 
7,507 
7,385 
7,503 
7,492 
7,532 
7,086 
7,396 
7,016 
6.126 



The enumeration is most nearly complete for ages 6 to 14 years, 
and, for each age group within these limits, the 1934 county census 
included between 14,382 and 15,510 white children. It will be noted 
that the number of county children aged 6, 7, and 8 years is defin- 
itely smaller than the number of ages 9 to 14 years inclusive. The 
white children of ages 9, 13, 14, 16, and 18 years are the only groups 
larger in the 1934 than in the 1932 school census. The decreases are 
probably a result of the defining birth rate. (See Table 7, page 15, 
showing birth rates.) 

There are in every age group more white boys than girls. This is 
reflected in the public school enrollment, which also includes more 
boys and girls in every grade from 1 to 7. (See Table 2 and Chart 2, 
page 26.) 



White Children Seven to Fifteen Years Old In and Out of School 

The census enumeration indicates that nearly one-half of the 
counties had more children of ages seven to fifteen years in public 
schools in 1934 than they had in 1932. Those having fewer were the 
nine Eastern Shore counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, and Garrett. 



9 



10 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The parochial and private school enrollment was lower in 1934 than 
in 1932 in nearly one-half of the counties, the decreases appearing in 
six Eastern Shore counties and in Charles, Anne Arundel, Carroll, 
Baltimore, and Allegany Counties. (See Table 3 and Chart 1.) 



CHART 1 



PER CENT OF WHITE 


CHILDREN OF AGF^ 7-16 YEARS, 


INCLUSIVE, 






ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1954 




IN 


PUBLIC, 


PRIVATE 


, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND 


IN NO SCHOOL 

Per Cent 




Total 


Per Cent 
Per Cent in No 


In Private 
and 


_ ^ No. of 
County ^^.^^ 

Children 


in 
Public 
Schools 


School 


Parochial 

Schools 
f — 1 
1 1 


Total and 
Co. Av. 










T 1.A c:C7 


86 .6 






Mont. 


9,024 


85.9 






Pr. Geo. 


10,725 


88.0 






Talbot 


2,077 


96.5 






A. A. 


7,171 


90.1 


m 'V 1 




Allegany 


15,092 


85.9 






Q. A. 


1,950 


95.5 






Caroline 


2,454 


95.6 






Cecil 


4,252 


85.1 


til 10.8 1 




Howard 


2,712 


84.5 


11.4 1 




Charles 


1,998 


81.0 


BW i4.2 1 




Harford 


5,201 


89.7 






Washington 


12,106 


91.9 






Kent 


1,726 


92.5 






Baltimore 


22,012 


79.7 


I^Sf 15.1 1 




St. Mary's 


2,261 


51.7 




1 


Carroll 


5,847 


90.1 






Worcester 


2,585 


95.7 






Somerset 


2,625 


95.5 






Dorchester 


5,499 


95.5 






Garrett 


4,705 


91.7 






Wicomico 


4,248 


92.1 






Calvert 


966 


88.9 






Frederick 


9,545 


64.9 

















The 1934 School Census of White Children 



11 



Of the 134,557 white county children of ages seven to fifteen years, 
116,557, or 86.6 per cent, were enrolled in pubhc schools; 11,644, 
or 8.7 per cent, had their instruction in parochial and private schools; 
and the remaining 6,356 children, 4.7 per cent of the total, were not 
in any school in November, 1934. There was a decrease from 1932 
to 1934 in the number and per cent not enrolled in any school. 



TABLE 3 

Number and Per Cent of White Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 Years In- 
clusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School 
November, 1934 



NUMBER 



PER CENT 



COUNTY 



In 
Public 
School 



In Private 

and 
Parochial 
School 



In No 
School 



Total 



In 

Public 
School 



In Private 

and 
Parochial 
School 



In No 
School 



Total and Average: 



1930 _ 109,927 

1932 115,870 

1934 116,557 

Montgomery 7,750 

Prince George's 9,439 

Talbot 2,000 

Anne Arundel 6,464 

Allegany 12,667 

Queen Anne's 1,842 

Caroline 2,346 

Cecil 3,616 

Howard 2,287 

Charles 1,619 

Harford 4,665 

Washington 11,122 

Kent 1,596 

Baltimore 17,541 

St. Mary's 1.168 

Carroll 5,270 

Worcester 2,422 

Somerset... 2,455 

Dorchester 3,263 

Garrett 4,316 

Wicomico 3,913 

Calvert 859 

Frederick... 7,937 



11,047 


7,018 


127,992 


11,196 


6,623 


133,689 


11,644 


6,356 


134,557 


1,119 


155 


9,024 


1,037 


247 


10,723 


22 


55 


2,077 


479 


228 


7,171 


1,940 


485 


15,092 


16 


72 


1,930 


14 


94 


2,454 


460 


176 


4,252 


310 


115 


2,712 


284 


95 


1,998 


283 


253 


5,201 


370 


614 


12,106 


42 


88 


1,726 


3,332 


1,139 


22,012 


962 


131 


2,261 


233 


344 


5,847 


5 


158 


2,585 


8 


162 


2,625 


11 


225 


3,499 


80 


309 


4,705 


45 


290 


4,248 


35 


72 


966 


557 


849 


9,343 



85.9 


8.6 


5.5 


86.7 


8.4 


4.9 


86.6 


8.7 


4.7 


85,9 


12.4 


1.7 


88.0 


9.7 


2.3 


96.3 


1.1 


2.6 


90.1 


6.7 


3.2 


83.9 


12.9 


3.2 


95.5 


.8 


3.7 


95.6 


.6 


3.8 


85.1 


10.8 


4.1 


84.3 


11.4 


4.3 


81.0 


14.2 


4.8 


89.7 


5.4 


4.9 


91.9 


3.0 


5.1 


92.5 


2.4 


5.1 


79.7 


15.1 


5.2 


51.7 


42.5 


5.8 


90.1 


4.0 


5.9 


93.7 


.2 


6.1 


93.5 


.3 


6.2 


93.3 


.3 


6.4 


91.7 


1.7 


6.6 


92.1 


1.1 


6.8 


88.9 


3.6 


7.5 


84.9 


6.0 


9.1 



The counties vary considerably in the percentage of white children 
of compulsory school attendance ages, from seven to fifteen years 
inclusive, in pubhc schools. In twelve of the counties from 90 to 
nearly 96 per cent of the white children of these ages are in public 
schools. But in St. Mary's County only 52 per cent, in Baltimore 
County 80 per cent, in Charles 81 per cent, and in Allegany and 
Howard 84 per cent are in public schools. The five counties just 
mentioned and Montgomery have the highest per cent of children 
in parochial and private schools. In St. Mary's over 42 per cent and 
in the other four counties from 11 to 15 per cent of the white children 
of ages seven to fifteen years inclusive are in parochial and private 
schools. (See Table 3.) 



12 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The counties are ranked in Table 3 and Chart 1 according to the 
per cent of white children of compulsory school attendance ages not 
in any school, the county with the smallest percentage being ranked 
first. The per cent of children out of school ranged from less than 3 
per cent in three counties to over 7 per cent in two counties. (See 
Table 3 and Chart 1.) 

White Children Not in S"chool 

Of the 6,356 white children not in school, 464 were reported as 
physically and 270 as mentally defective, and 2,766 were reported 
over fourteen years and employed. This means that 55 per cent of 
those not attending school could be excused from attendance for 
legal reasons. Another 2,264, or 36 per cent, were over fourteen years 
old. This leaves 592, or 9 per cent, of the children out of school of 
ages seven to thirteen years who are not defective. Some of these 
children may have permission for private instruction at home, but 
the others should not be permitted to grow up without obtaining their 
chance for an education during the years when society has provided 
the opportunity for securing it. (See Tables 4 and 5.) 

TABLE 4 

Defective White Children Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties, School 
Attendants and Non-School Attendants, Distributed According to Type of 
Defect and Age Groups November, 1934 





Physically 


Defective 




Mentally Defective 


County 


School 
Attendants 


Non-School 
Attendants 


School 
Attendants 


Non-School 
Attendants 




Ages 
(7-13) 


Ages 
(14-15) 


Ages 
(7-13) 


Ages 
(14-15) 


Ages 
(7-13) 


Ages 
(14-15) 


Ages 
(7-13) 


Ages 
(14-15) 




















1930 - 


575 


147 


269 


126 


180 


44 


152 


78 


1932 -- - 


634 


141 


301 


143 


210 


36 


150 


85 




838 


223 


317 


147 


184 


44 


178 


92 




122 


28 


31 


13 


21 


1 


13 


4 


Anne Arundel 


62 


16 


16 


6 


4 


1 


5 


1 




104 


36 


45 


24 


26 


3 


23 


13 




2 


1 


1 




1 




1 






22 


8 


7 


"7 


5 


"5 


3 


2 


Carroll - 


51 


18 


13 


6 


29 


5 


13 


9 


Cecil 


27 


6 


8 


2 


9 


2 


6 


5 




11 


1 


6 


2 


2 


3 


1 


3 




22 


6 


9 


6 


1 




8 


1 


Frederick 


152 


40 


21 


18 


12 




19 


6 




37 


9 


28 


15 


12 


■4 


10 


3 




17 


5 


16 




1 


1 


9 


1 




23 


5 


4 


"1 


2 


3 


4 


1 




5 




2 


2 


1 


1 


6 
8 


id 


Montgomery 


38 


8 


11 


5 


20 


4 


Prince George's.. 


10 
6 


2 


25 


5 


1 




12 


9 


Queen Anne's 


3 


2 


1 


3 


"2 


3 




St. Mary's 


25 


5 


2 


1 


3 


1 


3 


'3 




11 


1 


8 


1 


5 


1 


1 


3 


Talbot 








1 






4 


1 

10 


Washington 


71 


24 


41 


21 


'9 


'5 


8 




14 


1 


11 


7 


14 


1 


16 


5 




6 




10 


3 


3 


1 


2 


2 





















White Children of Ages 7-15 Years Not in School, November, 1934 13 

TABLE 5 

Not Defective White Non-Scbool Attendants Enumerated in 23 Maryland 
Counties, Distributed According to Employment and Age Groups 
November, 1934 





EMPLOYED 


NOT EMPLOYED 




Children 


of Ages 


Children 


of Ages 


County 










(1 1 Q ^ 


(14—15) 








286 


3,408 


523 


2,175 


1932 


253 


3016 


519 


2156 


1934 


242 


2J66 


350 


2,264 


A 1 1pGT!) n V 


1 


98 


48 


277 


Anne Arundel 


1 


57 


23 


119 


Baltimore 


66 


523 


60 


385 


Calvert 


2 


18 


9 


41 


Caroline 


1 


60 


1 


13 


Carroll 


16 


241 


5 


41 


Cecil 


2 


108 


1 


44 


Charles 


3 


22 


16 


42 


Dorchester 


14 


98 


9 


80 


Frederick 


53 


381 


61 


290 


Garrett 




132 


9 


112 


Harford 


10 


100 


24 


93 


Howard 


6 


75 


3 


21 


Kent 




73 


2 


3 


Montgomery 


2 


59 


7 


53 


Prince George's 




88 


3 


105 


Queen Anne's 




42 


3 


21 


St. Mary's 


8 


38 


11 


65 


Somerset 


6 


58 


18 


67 


Talbot 




12 


4 


33 


Washington 


20 


275 


15 


224 


Wicomico 


25 


147 


13 


66 


Worcester ._ 


6 


61 


5 


69 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



DECREASE IN ENROLLMENT 

The 1935 total enrollment in county white public elementary 
schools was close to 111,700. For the second consecutive year the 
county elementary enrollment was lower than that for the preceding 
year. The reduction, however, was only slightly over 200 from 1934 
to 1935, whereas it had been approximately 600 from 1933 to 1934. 
Compared with 1923 the 1935 enrollment showed an increase of 
over 5,600. 

The counties are arranged in Table 6 according to size of white 
enrollment in public elementary schools in 1935. Baltimore County 
with nearly 17,550 is first, followed by Allegany and Washington 
with over 12,900 and 11,400, and Prince George's and Montgomery 
with nearly 8,700 and 8,200 elementary school pupils. Kent, St. 
Mary's, and Calvert have fewer than 1,500 white elementary pupils 
in public schools. (See Table 6.) 



TABLE 6 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
July, 1923, 1934 and 1935 



County 


Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 




1923 


1934 


1935 


Total Counties . 


*106,06S 


*111,907 


*111,696 


Baltimore . 


13,333 


17,482 


17,549 


Allegany 


11,107 


12,723 


12,922 1 


Washington 


10,859 


11,508 


11,425 


Prince George's. .. 


6,421 


8,494 


8,642 


Montgomery 


4,524 


7,883 


8,166 


Frederick 


8,505 


7,661 


7,575 


Anne Arundel 


4,947 


6,641 


6,472 


Carroll 


5,902 


5,106 


5,055 


Harford 


4,290 


4,437 


4,395 


Garrett.. 


5,373 


4,195 


4,175 


Wicomico 


3,986 


3,803 


3,710 


Cecil 


3,405 


3,394 


3,370 



County 



Dorchester ... 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Balto. City 

Total State 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1923 


1934 


1935 


3,432 


3,149 


3,107 


3,059 


2,351 


2,280 


2,984 


2,309 


2,262 


3,025 


2,216 


2,201 


2,241 


2,138 


2,140 


2,105 


1,820 


1,757 


2,101 


1,641 


1,614 


1,803 


1,540 


1,535 


1,748 


1,496 


1,487 


2,117 


1,094 


1,058 


1,060 


807 


809 


t*79,124 


t*76,560 


t*76,158 


t*185,193 


t*188,467 


tn87,854 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and enrollment in 
vocational schools. 

For enrollment in counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 286. 



Only six counties — Baltimore, Allegany, Prince George's, Mont- 
gomery, Howard, and Calvert — increased in white elementary en- 
rollment from 1934 to 1935. The largest increases were found in 
Montgomery, Allegany, and Prince George's. The largest decreases 
occurred in Anne Arundel, Wicomico, Frederick, and Washington. 
(See 2 able 6.) 



14 



Decrease in White Elementary School Enrollment and in Birth Rate 15 



®13 

St 

-on 



-.22 

^£ 



ooimooi^ 



o "5 CO eo • 



I lo C5 in t- lo 00 o 05 
' CO eo 



uo:)3uiqsBA\, 



s^auuy uaanf) 



s.aSjoaf) 



Xjauio3:^uoi^ 



n ecic ^ -cj" 



Ouax 



pjBMOJJ 



' T« (~3 lO ( 



to 4C m M ' 



m 00 (N 00 1> c<i ai 



j^Duapaj^ 



jar^saqojoQ 



saiJBqo 



auipjBQ 



' c<i o a; o 00 



o cc t- 05 1- ■ 



' o IN rc 05 



00 
00 

eg _ _ _ ^ 



• C- OS 



as ^ c- 00 00 



IM 'S- IN t- I 
Ol C- t> ' 



■^40N«OiN-^i^t>c~Ciccir:cc< 

(NiOlNCOI^CO^ — OXC^iOtCtCi 



; ^ ir; in !C 



' 00 — ?0 IN t- 00 

i 00 50 00 00 « 



m IN <N < 



CD (N a; ic ci 1 



' O (N O CO «C O 



ajompiBa:' 



XuBSaiiv 



I IN t- 
I Ui 00 



oooot-cDineccC'-^'-iOii 



'OOi-iOOJN'-tOTJ'tOi 
lOOOOt-t-CDt-iXiin-^rf- 



■INt>m^Oa:T5<(N<N — !OC0« 



sai:}uno3 es 



iC(N(Nt-;DC;OO00-H' 



lO TT m (N < 



HvaA 



I I 1 : 

o — 1 N co' ■<i< in' o t-' oci cs' o —i co" CO 

INNOJ(NC<llNNC<I<NIN«MCOCCeCi 



16 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



When the 1935 white elementary public school enrollment for 
individual counties is compared with that for 1923, it will be evident 
that all of the counties, except Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, 
Prince George's, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, and Harford, have 
decreased in enrollment. The increases in these seven counties have 
more than offset the decreases in the remaining counties. (See Table 
6.) 

Since the decline in the birth rate is probably a most important 
factor in explaining the decrease in enrollment, the birth rates in each 
county and Baltimore City for the years 1920 to 1934, furnished 
through the courtesy of the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the State 
Department of Health, are included in Table 7. 

The 1934 figures indicate a continuance of the decline in birth rates 
in thirteen of the counties, but 10 counties,^ — Allegany, Dorchester, 
Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, St. Mary's, Somerset, 
and Wicomico, — have higher birth rates in 1934 than in 1933. In 
Baltimore City also there was a slight increase for 1934 over 1933. 
For the 23 counties the 1934 birth rate was the lowest during the 
period from 1920 to 1934. 

TABLE 8 

White Elementary School Enrollment in Non-Public Schools 



YEAR 


Catholic 


Non-Catholic 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


1925 


5,331 


22,236 




* 


1926 


6,083 


25,319 


* 


* 


1927 


6,536 


25,942 


1360 


t605 


1928 


8,000 


27,285 


t455 


t908 


1929 


8,351 


28,274 


t567 


tl,312 


1930 


8,626 


29,002 


1,354 


2,024 


1931 


8,976 


29,462 


1,381 


1,970 


1932 


9,309 


29,957 


1,337 


1,817 


1933 


9,532 


30,614 


1,183 


1,595 


1934 


9,762 


31,387 


1,212 


1,552 


1935 


9,509 


31,135 


n,354 


^1,639 



* Data not collected. t Incomplete, See Tables III-V, pages 287 to 290. 

° Includes schools for which data had not previously been reported. 



From 1934 to 1935 the white elementary enrollment in the Catholic 
schools showed a decrease of 253 in the counties and 252 in Baltimore 
City. One school at Woodstock in Howard County was closed as 
was the parish school at Curtis Bay in Baltimore City. From 1934 
to 1935 the enrollment reported from non-Catholic non-public ele- 
mentary schools showed an increase of 142 in the counties and 87 
in Baltimore City, chiefly because reports were secured from a larger 
number of schools than formerly. (See Table 8.) 



White County and City Non-Public and Public School Enrollment 17 



The white elementary school enrollment in the counties, including 
both pubhc and non-public schools, was 122,559 in 1934-35, in con- 
trast with 108,932 in Baltimore City. Although the public school 
enrollment in the counties greatly exceeds that in Baltimore City, 
the reverse is the case for the enrollment in non-public schools. 
Combining all elementary school children, the counties have 53 per 
cent of the white elementary enrollment in contrast with 51 per cent 
of the total white population according to the 1930 federal census. 
(See Table 9.) 

TABLE 9 

Comparison of White Elementary Enrollment in Counties and City 



Type of School 



1935 White Elementary Enrollment 
Counties Baltimore City 



Public 




111,696 


76,158 


Catholic 




9,509 


31,135 


Private non- 


-Catholic 


1,354 


1,639 




Total 


122,559 


108^932 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The county public white elementary schools were open on the 
average 185.6 days in 1934-35, a decrease of 1.3 days from the year 
preceding. The counties ranged from a session of 191 days in Balti- 
more County to 180 days in Carroll County, the latter number being 
the minimum number of days required by law. (See Tabie 10.) 

TABLE 10 

Length of Session in White Elementary Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



County 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Garrett 

Kent 

Allegany 

Howard 

Washington 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Charles 



Average 
Days 

in 
Session 



185.6 

190.9 
189.1 
188.3 
187.0 
186.8 
186.7 
186.7 
186.6 
185.5 
185.4 
185.4 
185.0 



School Year 
1934-35 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/10 

9/5 

9/5 

9/5 

9/10 

9/5 

9/4 

9/4 

9/10 

9/6 

9/5 

9/10 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/21 
6/20 
6/14 
6/14 
6/14 
6/14 
6/11 
6/12 
6/14 
6/12 
6/14 
6/21 



County 



Prince George's 
Montgomery .... 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel .. 
Queen Anne's ... 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Wicomico.. 
Carroll 

Baltimore City 

Total state 



Average 
Days 
in 
Session 



183.8 
183.6 
183.3 
182.8 
182.4 
182.0 
181.6 
181 .5 
181.3 
180.7 
180.1 

190.0 

187.4 



School Year 
1934-35 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



9/11 

9/12 

9/5 

9/5 

9/10 

9/5 

9/3 

9 /6 

9/3 

9/4 

9/4 

9/6 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/21 

6/14 

6/14 

6/12 

6/19 

6/7 

5/31 

6/11 

5/31 

5/31 

6/7 

6/21 



18 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In September, 1934, two counties opened the white schools on the 
third in contrast with another county which postponed the opening 
of schools until the twelfth. The closing dates extended from May 31 
in three counties to June 21 in three counties. (See Table 10.) 

There were 34 white elementary schools in session fewer than the 
minimum number of days required — 180, a larger number than in 
any year since 1929. Except for 5 schools in Garrett County which 
opened a month late, these schools were short the required number 
of days by from one day to four days. In Carroll County this was 
true of 17 schools. By planning to keep schools open from five to 
six days longer than the necessary minimum, all schools can make the 
required number of days even though a few schools because of bad 
weather, illness of teacher, or other reasons must be closed for a few 
days. (See r^/'/^ 11.) 

TABLE 11 

Number of County White Elementary Schools in Session Fewer Than 180 Days, 
Year Ending July 31, 1935 



For All Counties by Year For 1935 by County 







Having 


Having 








Having 






More 






Having 


More 




Total 


One 


Than One 




Total 


One 


Than One 


Year 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


County 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


1926 


124 


109 


15 


Frederick.... 


1 


1 




1927 


83 


68 


15 


Kent 


1 




1 


1928 


33 


25 


8 


St. Mary's 


1 


1 




1929 


62 


45 


17 
6 


Cecil 


3 


3 




1930 


28 


22 


Montgomery .... 


3 


3 




1931 


12 


7 


5 


Prince George's 


3 


1 


2 


1932 


9 


8 


1 


Garrett 


5 


*5 




1933 


5 


2 


3 


Carroll 


17 


4 


13 


1934 


8 


6 


2 








1935 


34 


18 


16 











♦Opened a month late. 

PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE 

The average per cent of attendance in 1934-35 in white elementary 
schools was 90.9, an increase of .4 over the attendance for the year 
preceding, which had been unusually low. All of the counties except 
five — Allegany, Washington, Garrett, Kent, and Charles — had a 
higher percentage of attendance in 1935 than in 1934. The counties 
ranged in per cent of attendance from less than 90 in Calvert, Charles, 
Garrett, Harford, and Montgomery to 92 per cent or more in Caro- 
Hne, Prince George's, Allegany, and Talbot. (See Tabte 12.) 

When the elementary schools are classified as one-teacher, two- 
teacher, and graded, attendance in the one-teacher schools is lowest 
with 88.9, the two-teacher come next with 89.9, and the graded 
schools are highest with 91.2 per cent of attendance. The range from 
the county lowest to the county highest in percentage of attendance 
was much greater in the rural than in the graded schools. Calvert's 



Length of Session, Per Cent of Attendance White Elementary Schools 19 

TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1933, 1934, 1935 



County 


1923 


1933 


1S34 


1935 


County Average. 


.84. 


2 


92 


.2 


90. 


5 


90. 


9 


Caroline 


86. 


5 


92, 


.0 


t92. 


,1 


92. 


4 


Prince George's.. 


.84. 


• S 


t93 


.5 


rPi, 


.1 


t82. 


3 


Allegany 


89. 





*94, 


.1 


*92. 


5 


*92. 


2 


Talbot 


85. 


.8 


92 


.8 


92. 


,0 


92. 





Anne Arundel 


84. 


.5 


92 


.4 


90. 


,7 


91. 


5 


Wicomico 


86. 


.5 


92 


.4 


90. 


,6 


?1. 


5 


Queen Anne's. .. 


85. 


4 


90 


.6 


91, 


.3 


91. 


5 


Somerset 


83. 


.3 


90 


.6 


90. 


.4 


91. 


3 


Dorchester.. 


81. 


.2 


90 


.1 


t90, 


.7 


91. 


2 


Frederick 


S3. 


,6 


t9S 


.4 


t90. 


,9 


t91. 


1 


Washington 

St. Mary's 


84, 


.9 


*92 


.7 


=•91. 


.5 


=<90. 


9 


74, 


.5 


91 


.4 


90, 


2 


90. 


9 



Includes Junior High School, grades 7- 8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 



County 1923 1933 li.34 1935 

Worcester 83.5 90.7 88.2 90.8 

Kent 86.7 S2.4 5>1.4 90.6 

Baltimore.. 84.0 t91.3 t89.8 ^^O.b 

Carroll 7* .4 91.6 89.5 90.4 

Cecil..._. 84.8 £1.7 89. 6 90.1 

Howard 84.0 90.9 88.6 £0.0 

Montgomery 81.9 *fl.8 *88.7 *89.7 

Harford 84.5 91.8 88.5 89.5 

Garrett 83.9 92.7 91.1 89.1 

Charles 79.5 89.9 88.9 88.0 

Calvert 79.9 88.6 80.9 85.0 

Baltimore City 89.8 ='91.1 =''89.7 *90.4 

Entire State 86.7 91.7 90.1 90.7 



one-teacher school had 80.9 per cent of the average number belong- 
ing in average attendance, while Talbot's one-teacher schools had 
93.8 per cent in attendance. Charles' two-teacher schools had 82.3 per 
cent of the number belonging in average attendance, while this was 
the case for 95.1 per cent of the pupils in Talbot's two-teacher school. 
For the graded schools Calvert was lowest with 84.2 per cent, while 
Allegany and St. Mary's were highest with 92.5 per cent. (See 
Table 13.) 

TABLE 13 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Year Ending in June, 1924, 1934 and 1935, by 
lypes of White Elementary Schools 



Schools Having 
One Teacher 



County 


1924 


1934 


1935 


County Aver. 


80.9 


88.8 


88.9 


Talbot 


87.3 


94.7 


93.8 


Anne Arundel 


77.6 


93.8 


92.8 


Carohne 


88.3 


93.0 


92.5 


St. Mary's 


79.3 


92.2 


92.4 


Kent 


84.8 


93.3 


92.4 


Somerset. 


81.7 


89.6 


91.0 


Wicomico 


83.9 


88.3 


90.6 


Pr. George's .. 


..83.3 


89.7 


90.0 


Cecil 


81.7 


88.4 


89.8 


Carroll 


..78.2 


89.0 


89.8 


Queen Anne's 


82.9 


88.3 


89.7 


Howard 


82.5 


86.4 


89.2 


Baltimore 


82.3 


88.4 


89.1 


Frederick 


79.6 


89.9 


88.9 


Dorchester 


81.3 


87.6 


88.4 


Garrett 


81.2 


89.9 


88.1 


Washington 


80.1 


87.8 


88.1 


Harford 


82.7 


86.4 


87.7 


Worcester 


77.0 


86.2 


87.7 


Allegany 


82.9 


88.1 


87.4 


Charles 


77.3 


90.5 


86.6 


Montgomery... 


.78.1 


84.5 


84.1 


Calvert 


77.2 


79.5 


80.9 





Schools Having 




Two 


Teachers 


County 


1924 


1934 


1935 


County Aver. 


.83.9 


89.8 


89.9 


Talbot 


86.7 


94.8 


95.1 


Wicomico 


86.3 


90.5 


93.1 


Anne Arundel 


81.8 


93.8 


92.9 


Somerset 


83.3 


90.8 


92.8 


Caroline 


87.9 


90.6 


92.3 


Cecil 


86.5 


91.0 


91.9 


Pr. George's... 


.85.8 


90.2 


91.9 


Allegany 


88.9 


93.5 


91.7 


Garrett. 


87.7 


92.9 


90.7 


Queen Anne's. 


.86.5 


90.8 


90.7 


Frederick 


80.3 


89.1 


90.0 


St. Mary's 


81.4 


89.3 


89.7 


Carroll... 


81.4 


89.8 


89.7 


Baltimore 


82.5 


88.7 


89.4 


Howard 


81.9 


88.9 


88.9 


Kent 


85.8 


89.8 


88.8 


Washington . 


.80.6 


90.0 


88.7 


Dorchester 


86.7 


90.0 


88.4 


Montgomery 


80.5 


88.4 


88.0 


Harford 


85.6 


87.8 


87.7 


Calvert 


81.7 


83.8 


87.5 


Worcester 


82.6 


80.0 


86.8 


Charles 


84.3 


85.0 


82.3 



Graded Schools 
County 1924 1934 1935 

County Aver 88.3 *90.8 *91.2 

Allegany 92.4 *92.6 =*=92.5 

St. Mary's 90.0 92.5 

Prince George's 89.0 t91.3 92.4 

Dorchester 89.5 t91.5 92.4 

Caroline 89.9 t92.9 t92.4 

Queen Anne's 88.3 91.8 91.8 

Talbot 88.5 91.6 91.7 

Worcester 89.3 89.3 91.6 

Washington 88.8 *92.1 *91.6 

Wicomico 89.3 91.1 91.5 

Anne Arundel ....87,9 90.4 91.5 

Frederick 86.4 t91.2 t91.4 

Somerset 86.7 90.5 91.1 

Kent 88.3 91.0 90.7 

Baltimore 86.2 t89.9 t90.6 

Carroll 84.3 89.5 90.5 

Howard 85.8 89.4 90.5 

Harford 88.9 89.2 90.4 

Montgomery 86.3 *89.0 =*=90.3 

Cecil 87.3 89.7 89.8 

Garrett 89.9 92.0 89.5 

Charles 88.4 89.5 88.8 

Calvert 79.8 84.2 



* Includes Junior High School, grades 7-8. 
t Includes Junior High School, grade 7. 



20 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Nine counties had the poorest attendance in one-teacher schools 
and the best in graded schools, but two-teacher schools showed the 
lowest attendance in eight counties and the highest in four counties, 
while in two counties the one-teacher schools had the highest attend- 
ance and the two-teacher schools the lowest attendance. 

There were nine counties whose one-teacher schools had a lower 
percentage of attendance in 1935 than in 1934, eleven in which this 
was true for two-teacher schools, and only six for graded schools. 
(See Table 13.) 

Monthly Attendance 

The enrollment in white elementary schools reached its maximum 
in November and decreased gradually thereafter each month. The 
two-teacher schools had their maximum enrollment in October. 
(See Table 14.) 



TABLE 14 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1935 





average NUMBER 


PER CENT OF 








BELONGING 




ATTENDANCE 




MONTH 


















All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 




All Ele- 


One- 


Two- 






mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


mentary 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


September 


105,626 


9,252 


10,816 


85,558 


96.0 


94.1 


95.4 


96.3 


October 


107,870 


9,690 


11,064 


87,116 


94.2 


92.5 


93.0 


94.6 


November 


108,002 


9,745 


11,027 


87,230 


92.8 


91.5 


92.1 


93.0 


December 


107,755 


9,735 


10,976 


87,044 


90.4 


88.6 


89.7 


90.7 


January 


107,525 


9,693 


10,796 


87,036 


82.5 


78.4 


79.5 


83.4 


February 


107,264 


9,657 


10,755 


86,852 


88.6 


85.5 


87.2 


89.1 


March... 


106,737 


9,617 


10,674 


86,446 


91.0 


89.2 


90.7 


91.2 


April 


106,233 


9,589 


10,607 


86,037 


89.7 


87.7 


89.0 


90.0 


May 


. 105,660 


9,489 


10,567 


85,604 


91.2 


89.4 


90.8 


91.4 


June 


*97,710 


*8,406 


*9,773 


*79,531 


94.7 


93.9 


94.3 


94.8 


Average for Year .. 


106,875 


9,644 


10,711 


86,520 


90.9 


88.9 


89.9 


91.2 



* Three counties, in which the schools close May 31, report no pupils enrolled in June. 



The percentage of attendance in every type of school was highest 
in September and thereafter decreased each month until it was low- 
est in January. The steady ascent thereafter until the close of the 
school year received a slight setback in April. Attendance was lowest 
in one-teacher and highest in graded schools in every month. (See 
Table 14.) 

White Elementary Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days 

Although the per cent of pupils in graded schools who attended 
school under 100 and 140 days decreased slightly from the 1934 per- 
centage, there was an increase for the rural schools. The 1935 per- 
centages did not equal the low percentages found in several years 



Monthly Attendance; Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days 21 



preceding. Study of individual cases of long absence by the attend- 
ance officer with the idea of preventing recurrence in the future will 
probably bring reduction in the number having long absences for 
preventable causes. Nearly 5 per cent of the white elementary pupils 
attended school under 100 days and over 12 per cent under 140 days. 
The one-teacher schools showed the highest percentage of pupils 
with long absence and the graded schools the lowest percentage. (See 
Tabte 15.) 

TABLE 15 

Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 and 
140 Days for Ten Years Past and by County for 1934-35 



PER CENT OF COUNTY WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING 



Year 


Elementary 


One-Teacher 


Two-Teacher 


Graded 


County 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under lO'O 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


1925 


12.2 


26.1 


19.6 


39.7 


13.2 


29.0 


8.5 


19.2 


1926 


11.3 


24.9 


17.8 


38.1 


11.9 


26.9 


8.6 


19.1 


1927 


10.1 


21.9 


16.1 


33.7 


10.9 


24.8 


7.8 


17.1 


1928 


8.2 


18.2 


13.3 


28.3 


8.7 


19.7 


6.6 


14.7 


1929 


8.4 


19.3 


13.3 


29.4 


9.6 


22.5 


6.8 


16.0 


1930 


6.6 


15.2 


9.3 


23.2 


7.4 


17.2 


5.8 


13.1 


1931 


5.5 


12.9 


7.7 


18.3 


5.8 


13.8 


5.0 


11.7 


1932 


5.3 


12.3 


6.8 


16.6 


5.7 


13.4 


5.0 


11.4 


1933 


4.6 


11.0 


6.4 


15.7 


4.8 


12.0 


4.4 


10.3 


1934.. 


4.9 


12.8 


6.2 


17.1 


5.0 


14.0 


4.7 


12.2 


1935 


4.9 


12.4 


6.9 


18.0 


5.0 


14.5 


4.6 


11.5 



ATTENDING UNDER 100 AND 140 DAYS BY COUNTY, 1934-35 



TotalNumber 


5,267 


13,394 


679 


1,764 


541 


1,564 


4,047 


10,066 


Caroline 


1 


8 


6 


9 


2 


5 


6 





.7 


7.9 


2.0 


6.8 


Queen Anne's 






7 


2 






7 







3.6 




7.9 


Pr. George's 


2 


3 


7 


9 


5 


6 


16 


7 


4.6 


11.5 


1.8 


7.0 


Kent 


2 


5 


8 


7 


1 


8 


7 





4.2 


12.7 


2.2 


8.0 


Allegany 


4 


5 


10 





6 


4 


20.6 


3.5 


8.8 


4.5 


9.6 


Frederick 


3 


5 


10 


4 


10 


7 


14 


6 


3.9 


12.4 


3.1 


10.0 


Baltimore 


4 


9 


10 


8 


11 


4 


18 


5 


4.0 


12.2 


4.8 


10.5 


Dorchester .. 


4 


3 


11 


7 


6 


3 


17 


5 


5.7 


17.6 


3.6 


9.2 


Washington .. 


5 


7 


13 





9 


8 


22 


1 


8.1 


17.4 


4.8 


11.2 


Talbot 


5 


9 


13 


2 


4 


7 


8 


1 




2.4 


6.2 


14.1 


Harford 


5 


4 


13 


2 


9 


4 


19 


6 


6.5 


16.7 


4.2 


10.9 


Anne Arundel 


6 


3 


13 


6 


12 


8 


17 





3.2 


10.5 


6.4 


13.7 


Garrett 


2 


7 


14 


1 


3 





16 


6 


1.0 


11.7 


2.8 


11.9 


Wicomico 


5 


5 


14 


2 


4 


8 


14 


6 


3.2 


11.1 


5.9 


14.4 


Carroll 


4 


2 


14 


3 


4 


7 


18 


5 


6.5 


18.4 


3.9 


13.4 


St. Mary's .... 


4 


1 


14 


7 


3 


9 


10 


2 


4.6 


18.4 


3.1 


9.8 


Somerset 


5 


1 


14 


9 




2 


17 


6 


3.3 


13.0 


4.9 


14.7 


Howard 


6 


9 


15 


1 


6 


4 


16 


1 


6.8 


15.0 


7.1 


14.9 


Worcester 


5 


7 


15 


4 


6 


6 


22 


5 


12.0 


28.7 


4.7 


12.7 


Cecil 


7 


2 


15 


6 


11 


2 


19 


6 


4.2 


12.4 


6.3 


14.8 


Charles.- 


5 


7 


17 


2 


3 


7 


3 


7 


8.6 


24.7 


5.3 


16.4 


Montgomery 


8 


1 


18 


6 


13 


7 


32 


3 


10.6 


25.7 


7.5 


17.0 


Calvert 


10 


9 


25 


3 


29 


4 


41 


2 


5.0 


20.2 


12.2 


26.4 



The counties ranged all the way from Queen Anne's having no 
white elementary pupils who attended fewer than 100 days to Mont- 
gomery which had 8 and Calvert 11 per cent who attended for so 
short a period. Four counties, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Prince Geor- 
ge's, and Kent, had fewer than 9 per cent who attended fewer than 



22 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



140 days, while Charles, Montgomery, and Calvert had 17, 19, and 
25 per cent of their children who lost more than two months of school. 
(See Table 15.) 

LATE ENTRANTS 

With the exception of the year 1934, there were fewer late entrants 
to white elementary schools after the first month for negligence or 
indifference and employment than for any year preceding. Only 
1,045 pupils entered late for these causes, less than 1 per cent of the 
enrollment. Negligence and indifference accounted for .6 and em- 
ployment for .3 of one per cent of the late entrants. The per cent 
entering late for neglect and /or indifference showed an increase from 
.5 to .6 of 1 per cent from 1934 to 1935. (See Tabte 16.) 

TABLE 16 



Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or 
Neglect, for Ten Years Past and by County for 1934-35 





Total 
Number 
Entering 

Late 


Per Cent Entering Late by Cause 


Rank 


Year 
County 


Total 


Negli- 
gence 
or Indif- 
ference 


*14 Yrs. 
or More, 
Employed 


*Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence 
or Indif- 
ference 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



Late Entrants by Year 



1925 


6,455 


5 


.7 


2.1 


2.8 


00 00 








1926 


5,840 


5 


.1 


1.6 


2.7 








1927 


4,720 


4 


.1 


1.4 


2.2 


.5 








1928 


3,703 


3 


.2 


1.1 


1.7 


.4 








1929 


3,525 


3 


.0 


1.0 


1.6 


.4 








1930 


2,744 


2 


.3 


.9 


1.2 


.2 








1931 


1,843 


1 


.6 


.7 


.8 


.1 








1932 


1,456 


1 


.2 


.6 


.4 


.2 








1933 


1,168 


1 





.6 


.3 


.1 








1934 


1,008 


9 
9 


.5 


.3 


.1 








1935 


1,045 




.6 


.2 


.1 


























Late Entrants by County, 1935 


Wicomico 


13 
36 




3 


.2 


.1 




4 


5 


1 


Pr. George's 
Cecil 




4 


.4 






7 


1 


1 


15 




4 


.2 


.2 




3 


9 


5 


Garrett 


20 
9 




5 




.4 


.1 


1 


15 


9 


Kent 




6 


.1 


.4 


.1 


2 


18 


8 


Allegany 


85 




6 


.5 


.1 




9 


8 


4 


Baltimore 


121 




7 


.6 


.1 




12 


2 


6 


Caroline 


17 




8 


.3 


.3 


.2 


5 


11 


17 


Anne Arundel 


52 




8 


.6 




.1 


14 


6 


10 


Montgomery 


73 




9 


.8 


!i 




18 


7 


1 


Frederick 


76 


1 





.6 


.3 


.1 


10 


12 


14 


Queen Anne's 


18 


1 


1 


.3 


.7 


.1 


6 


21 


7 


Harford 


50 


1 


1 


.7 


.3 


.1 


16 


13 


13 


Dorchester 


36 


1 


1 


.6 


.3 


.2 


13 


14 


16 


Somerset 


28 


1 


2 


.6 


.4 


.2 


11 


16 


18 


Charles 


19 


1 


2 


.8 


.1 


.3 


21 


3 


21 


"Washington 


163 


1 


3 


.8 


.4 


.1 


20 


17 


12 




71 


1 


3 


.6 


.5 


.2 


15 


19 


20 


St. Mary's .... 


16 


1 


4 


.4 


.7 


.3 


8 


22 


19 


Howard 


35 


1 


6 


1.3 


.1 


.2 


22 


4 


15 


Talbot 


31 


1 


7 


.8 


.8 


.1 


19 


23 


11 


Worcester 


40 


1 


7 


.7 


.7 


.3 


17 


20 


22 


Calvert 


21 


2 


6 


1.5 


.2 


.9 


23 


10 


23 



* 13 years, 1926-1930, inclusive. 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals, White Elementary Schools 23 



Wicomico, Prince George's, Cecil, and Garrett showed the lowest 
percentage of late entrants for neglect, indifference and employment, 
while Talbot, Worcester, and Calvert showed the highest percentage 
of late entrance for these causes. A careful check and follow-up of 
the families which habitually start their children to school long after 
it has been in operation will probably be effective in reducing the 
number of such late entrants. (See Tabie 16.) 

WITHDRAWALS FROM COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 17 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools by 
Year, 1925 to 1935 and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1935 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 



Total 
Number 



Total 
Per Cent 



PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 







Over and 








Mental 


Under 








and 


Compul- 






Employ- 


Physical 


sory At- 


Poverty 


Other 


ment 


Inca- 


tendance 




Causes 




pacity 


Age 







Withdrawals by Years 



1925 


12,209 


10.7 


7,110 


7 





3.7 


1.3 


.8 


.8 


.4 


1926..._ 


12,092 


10.6 


6,431 


6 


3 


3.1 


1.4 


.8 


.7 


.3 


1927 


12,570 


10.9 


6,017 


5 


9 


2.8 


1.4 


.7 


.6 


.4 


1928 


12,416 


10.8 


5,473 


4 




2.2 


1.3 


.6 


.4 


.2 


1929 


12,276 


10.6 


4,937 


4 


3 


2.0 


1.2 


.5 


.4 


.2 


1930 


12,718 


10.9 


4,105 


3 


5 


1.7 


1.0 


.4 


.2 


.2 


1931 


11,479 


9.8 


3,642 


3 


1 


1.3 


1.1 


.3 


.3 


.1 


1932 


12,008 


10.1 


2,966 


2 


5 


.8 


1.1 


.3 


.2 


.1 


1933 


12,008 


10.0 


2,932 


2 


4 


.9 


.8 


.3 


.3 


.1 


1934 


11,447 


9.6 


2,897 


2 


4 


.8 


1.0 


.3 


.2 


.1 


1935 


11,295 


9.5 


3,036 


2 


5 


.9 


1.0 


.1 


.2 


.3 



Withdrawals by County, 1934-35 



Queen Anne's 
Howard 


198 


11. 


7 


6 




4 




.1 


.2 






.1 


227 


10. 


2 


32 


1 


4 




.2 


.6 


.3 




.3 


Pr. George's 


973 


10. 


I 


142 


1 


6 




.3 


.9 


.1 




.3 


Harford 


578 


12. 




79 


1 


I 




.6 


.7 


.1 


.1 


.2 


Baltimore 


1,655 


9. 


1 


352 


1 






.7 


. 7 


.2 




.3 


Talbot 


170 


9. 


2 


38 


2 






.8 


.7 


.2 


.4 




Anne Arundel 


678 


10. 


2 


146 


2 


\ 




.6 


1.0 


.1 


.1 


.4 


Caroline 


219 


9. 


6 


50 


2 


2 


1 


1 


.7 




.1 


.3 


Dorchester 


215 


6. 


6 


72 


2 


2 


1 





.3 


.2 


.4 


.3 


Charles 


109 


7. 





36 


2 


3 ! 




6 


.7 


.1 


.7 


.2 


Montgomery 


892 


10. 


4 


206 


2 


4 ' 




.5 


1.3 


.1 


.2 


.3 


Carroll 


446 


8. 


5 


127 


2 


4 


1 


.1 


1.0 


.1 


.1 


.1 


Cecil 


373 


10. 


5 


88 


2 


5 \ 




.5 


1.2 


.5 


.1 


.2 


Garrett 


420 


9. 


6 


121 


2 


8 




.4 


1.5 


.2 


.2 


.5 


Kent 


172 


11. 





46 


3 







.9 


1.6 




.2 


.3 


Washington .. 


1,179 


9. 


6 


367 


3 





1 


.2 


.9 


.1 


.4 


.4 


Wicomico 


639 


15. 


6 


123 


3 







.9 


1.5 




.5 


.1 


Calvert 


63 


7. 


7 


27 


3 


3 


1 


.6 


.9 


.2 


.4 


.2 


Frederick 


668 


8. 


4 


273 


3 


4 


1 


.5 


1.5 


.1 


.2 


.1 


Allegany 

St. Mary's .... 


1,018 


7. 


6 


469 


3 


5 


1 


.1 


1.1 


.3 


.5 


.5 


107 


9 


6 


39 


3 


5 


1 


.5 


1.0 


.3 


.3 


.4 


Somerset 


110 


4 


7 


95 


4 


1 


1 


.8 


1.2 


.1 


.8 


.2 


Worcester 


186 


7 


9 


102 


4 


3 


1 


.8 


1.4 


.2 


.6 


.3 



24 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



There were fewer withdrawals of county white elementary pupils 
for renloval, transfer, commitment, and death in 1935 than in any 
year preceding, but even so, these withdrawals included 11,295 
children or 9.5 per cent of the enrollment. Somerset with 110 or under 
5 per cent of its white elementary school enrollment moving about 
showed the low extreme in these withdrawals, while Wicomico with 
639 withdrawals for removal, transfer and death showed the oppo- 
site high extreme, over 15 per cent of the enrollment. (See first two 
columns in Table 17.) 

Withdrawals for ''other causes, " employment, mental and physical 
incapacity, ages outside those for which compulsory school attend- 
ance is required, and poverty, accounted for 3,036 pupils or 2.5 per 
cent of the total enrollment. Withdrawals for employment and 
''other causes" showed a slight increase from 1934 to 1935. (See 
Table 17.) 

TABLE 18 

An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools 
for School Year Ending June 30, 1935 













TXT ■PT?T? 






PER CENT 


OF 




OF 




COUNTY 
















Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


County Average. 


90.9 


.9 


2.5 
















Prince George's 


92.3 


.4 


1.6 


2 


2 


3 


Caroline 


92.4 


.8 


2.2 


1 


8 


8 


Queen Anne's.... 


91.5 


4.1 


.4 


7 


12 


1 


Anne Arundel 


91.5 


.8 


2.2 


5 


9 


7 


Wicomico 


91.5 


.3 


3.0 


6 


1 


17 


Baltimore 


90.5 


.7 


1.9 


15 


7 


5 


Allegany 


92.2 


.6 


3.5 


3 


6 


20 


Talbot 


92.0 


1.7 


2.1 


4 


21 


6 


Dorchester 


91.2 


1.1 


2.2 


9 


14 


9 


Cecil 


90.1 


.4 


2.5 


17 


3 


13 


Kent 


90.6 


.6 


3.0 


14 


5 


15 


Harford 


89.5 


1.1 


1.7 


20 


13 


4 


Garrett 


89.1 


.5 


2.8 


21 


4 


14 


Frederick 


91.1 


1.0 


3.4 


10 


11 


19 


Howard 


90.0 


1.6 


1.4 


18 


20 


2 


Montgomery 


89.7 


.9 


2.4 


19 


10 


12 


Washington 


90.9 


1.3 


3.0 


11 


17 


16 


Carroll 


90.4 


1.3 


2.4 


16 


18 


11 


Somerset 


91.3 


1.2 


4.1 


8 


15 


22 


Charles 


88.0 


1.2 


2.3 


22 


16 


10 


St. Mary's 


90.9 


1.4 


3.5 


12 


19 


21 


Worcester 


90.8 


1.7 


4.3 


13 


22 


23 


Calvert 


85.0 


2.6 


3.3 


23 


23 


18 



* For employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the smallest percentage of 



late entrants is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. The county 
having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first 



Withdrawals; Index of Attendance; Grade Enrollment 25 



Among the counties the per cent withdrawn for employment, in- 
capacity, poverty, and causes other than removal, transfer, death, 
and commitment, ranged from .4 of one per cent in Queen Anne's 
to over 4 per cent in Somerset and Worcester. (See Table 17.) 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance thus 
far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance, and with- 
drawals for preventable causes, the 23 counties have been arranged 
in order according to their average rank in these three items for 
public white elementary schools. That county is considered highest 
which has a high percentage of attendance accompanying a low per- 
centage of late entrance and withdrawal. A county which makes 
little effort to get its children to school when they open and permits 
them to withdraw before the close of the year may keep them in 
regular attendance while they are enrolled, but it is undoubtedly 
helping all of its pupils to secure an education less v^^ell than a county 
which brings all of its children into school at the beginning of the 
year, discourages withdrawals, and still keeps a high percentage of 
attendance. (See Table 18.) 

Using this index as a basis for judging attendance, the counties 
making the best record are Prince George's, Caroline, Queen Anne's, 
Anne Arundel, Wicomico, and Baltimore. Those making the poorest 
record are Calvert, Worcester, St. Mary's, Charles, Somerset, and 
Carroll. (See Table 18.) 

GRADE ENROLLMENT IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

The number of white county pupils enrolled in the first grade, 
17,127, was considerably larger than that in any other grade. The 
enrollment of approximately 15,000 in each of grades, 2, 3, 4, and 5 
showed little change from grade to grade. Thereafter for each suc- 
ceeding grade there was a decrease of about 1,000 until there were 
just over 13,000 in grade 7. Grade 8 is offered in three counties only 
which have the 6-3-3 plan of organization. (See Cliarl 2.) 

A drop of 2,000 brought the enrollment in the first year of high 
school to over 11,000. Nearly 3,000 were lost between the first and 
second years, and with the losses in later years, the fourth year en- 
rollment including post graduates was 5,263. (See Charl 2.) 

Boys exceeded the girls enrolled in every grade of the first seven 
and in the first year of high school. According to the school census 
there are more white boys than girls in every age group enumerated. 
Because more boys than girls are retarded and more boys than girls 
withdraw from school, the girls exceed the boys in the last three years 
of high school. (See Chart 2.) 



26 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Compared with the preceding year, county enrollment in the odd 
numbered elementary grades and in the first three years of high school 
showed increases and in the even numbered elementary grades and 
last year of high school exhibited decreases. (See Chart 2.) 



CHART 2 



Grade 
or Year 

Kgn. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

I 
II 
III 



rv 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLEDt BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JULY 51, 1935 



Total 
419 

17,127 
15,013 
14,952 
15,131 
15,197 
13,904 
13,111 
3,051 



Boys 



I 1 Girls 



213 
206 



17,893 



7,161 



1 7,074 



I 7, 279 



|g.861 



6.450 



1 1,558 




t Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to institutions. Also 
excludes 71 boys and 23 girls in special classes. 
* Includes 65 boys and 88 girls, post graduates. 

For grade enrollment in individual counties and Baltimore City, 
see Table 19. 



Enrollment by Grades in White Public Schools 



27 



to 
.S 
s 



osa5»-i'^oiin^«ociO'«j'ooco"5«£>'fOTtc<ioooc<i-^ wooio 

in t> O rH «D rr t-T CO oT IC N r-n* oi" O" N T-T c^' eg" CO* rf Ift CC* 00 N 

^ N * i-H * r-i ooin-i^ 



; t- io ec CO N 



0(Nooc5CiCiTi<ca5ix:a>t-«;c-cc0505(Noo^t-ecoo 

in(N«0 i-iNi-l T-HCOC^N i-iCOCC' 



»-i .-I -<t Tl ^ <£> 



I- 



01005 i-< CO IN 1-1 ^ (N N --I ^ eg ^^incg^ 



t-OlOOl'^OOiMOC^OOCOOCtDt-i-'SCCC-C^KNC-iOeC-^ 
OOlON CC ^ (N iM CC ^ i-H IC 1-1 ^ lO CO "-I 



OOOO'^t-C-mtO'-i^iOCJ'-KMCOOOOi-H^DiOaiOiOOO 

oorj'a5iN(N<Nt-0(NT-imc<i«Dina>c--cgc--^oioix> 

(Nt-«C (N lO Tj< ,-( CO C- CO rj> (M tH «C t- rH r-H N (M 00 in W 



c-iocoo-^aicoino5eot-o«Dt-"'#o;D-^oo?ooioo 
■^^Dioooioooo-^ioooot-asr-i-sftc-^^oco^c- 
■^oO'-i !N in Tf 1-1 CO o inic i-H 00 o — I --i (N (N ^ M 



H ?D O 1-1 «5 (M »i 



CO N O 1* C<I a> O 1* O «5 (M iX> CO c- ^ 

c<iO'S<.-'t-iNi-icieoc-inc~-t>05ncoa;-^cocooi 

•>* 00 (N —I (N«0— 

i-T (N 



!c-mr-c-5^«JCOo;'^cococ3 
< O; ID in N (N 00 ^ CO (N 



in m 



Ninajt-cjasinTfinot-N-^inino^ciasi^c-t-in 
— H o lo (M o ^ 00 t- ^ (N in -<j- o 

i«^.O;DC0^a5iM(Ni-iC0Cg^inc0 



00 X 
in in 
CO CO 
oo"«" 



(Noocot-«o-^'*(Mcot-oocoina5-^i-icoin^Tfo;otc 
ooooaioin^Dco-^Tjiinaji-icoO'^^Tj'incoooinco 
inoo-^ CO c- T)< (N o in in CO >-( o 1-1 IN T-i CO (N 1* in CO 



CD CD 
00 00 
IN IN 



in-<^<Oa>i-H00'3<0;(NiNC5C0C-lN(NI>(N->S<0>^«Din;C 

TjHtDt-oast-'S'i-iin— iinoowow(N(Ninoeooo(Na5 
inooeoi-iCJ«D-<i'iNTtoininiN(Na;^iN'-ieo(N-^inM 



(N (N 



«50coco(Na3CDi-iNt-coiNt-t-oc-cot-i-i-^oinoo 
t>'*coi-ioo^in^Ttint>(x«oo(N'*i-HCJ05coooiNO 
inoO'^'-icotDTi-oa-^oininiNcgO'-ioj^CvJWS'inco 



CO CO 
in in 
CO CO 



IN 



^oiiNOt-oto—ioo^ctcincot-cDOoaioooinotD 
Tt<in(NTi<iN«c^coooc:cT550t-eoiNOc~cococD«Da!t> 

00O5ini-iCOt-iniNr)i^5OiDINlN^CO(N^C0(N00'*CO 



I- 



bo HI-- 



-f^ o 0) o rt _J 



5 o c _ 



«D CD 
00 00^ 

com 



iill 



= c rt c8 ca rt oix o £ ca cs o a; O'c 3^ o rt-^'-C^S ^ 



o ,-1 01 

£ ? C M 

*J O OJ Q) 

2 3 So 
-^^ S c 

^ (IJ " ^ 
u O O g 

^^^^ 

? _<n c 



5 "5.0 'I 



28 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 
CHART 3 



County 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES 
IN 1935 COUNTY WHITE ELMENTARY SCHOOL EKROLLMMTt 
Number 

Boys Girls Per Cent Boys i 1 Per Cent Girls 



Total and 5,190 




Co. Average 




5,719 


Kent 


87 


86 


St. Mary's 


64 


61 


Frederick 


397 


468 


Garrett 


222 


244 


Anne Aimidel 


326 


372 


Cecil 


174 


192 


Howard 


107 


124 


Harford 


217 


234 


Talbot 


97 


84 


Queen Anne ' s 


79 


83 


Dorchester 


143 


177 


Pr. George's 


413 


434 


Wicomico* 


194 


169 


Worcester 


107 


121 


Carroll 


234 


271 






Baltimore 


829 


853 


Caroline 


93 


116 


Allegany* 


560 


609 


Calvert 


26 


45 


Charles 


65 


68 


Somerset 


93 


107 


Montgomery* 


300 


345 


Washington* 


363 


456 



^5 



B5 



REE] 

113.3 



mi 

U.9 



45 iTTT 



9.3 



t Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, death and commitment to institutions. 
* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization. 
+ Includes mid-year graduates. 

The counties had the largest number of girls ever graduated from 
white elementary schools, 5,719. The boys who graduated showed a 
slight decline from the number which was at its peak the year pre- 



Graduates of White Public Elementary Schools 



29 



ceding. There were more girls than boys graduated as has always been 
the case. Whereas the girls who graduated represented 11 per cent 
of the white elementary school girls enrolled, the boy graduates 
included only 9.2 of the white elementary school boys enrolled. (See 
Table 20.) 



TABLE 20 

County White Elementary School Graduates 







Number 




Per Cent 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


3,200 


4,136 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


1924 


3,360 


4,210 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.5 


1925 


3,705 


4,549 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


1926 


4,054 


4,599 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


1927 


*4,290 


*5,059 


=^9,349 


*8.1 


no.2 


*9.1 


1928 


*4,329 


* *5,029 


*9,358 


*8.1 


no.i 


*9.1 


1929 


*4,742 


*5,186 


*9,928 


*8.8 


*10.4 


*9.6 


1930 


*4,857 


*5,283 


*10,140 


*9.0 


*10.5 


*9.7 


1931 


*4,757 


*5,156 


*9,913 


*8.7 


no.2 


*9.4 


1932 


*5,183 


*5,642 


*10,825 


*9.3 


*10.9 


no.i 


1933 


*5,121 


*5,653 


no,774 


*9.1 


no.9 


*9.9 


1934 


*5,227 


*5,618 


*10,845 


*9.3 


no.8 


no.o 


1935 


*5,190 


*5,719 


no,909 


*9.2 


ni.o 


no.i 



* Includes seventh or eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 

All of the counties, except Talbot, Wicomico, St. Mary's, and Kent, 
had more girl than boy graduates. In Talbot and Wicomico the boy 
graduates represented a slightly larger proportion of the elementary 
school enrollment than did the girls. Boy graduates included from 7 
per cent of the elementary enrollment in Calvert to over 11 per cent 
in Kent and St. Mary's. Less than 10 per cent of the elementary en- 
rollment of girls were graduated in Charles, while this was true of 
over 13 Der cent in Kent, St. Mary's, Frederick, and Anne Arundel. 
(See Chart 3.) 

The three counties, — Washington, Montgomery, and Allegany, — 
having eight grades below the last four years of high school were not 
mentioned in the above comparisons because these counties have an 
extra grade included in the elementary enrollment which would tend 
to bring them to the bottom of Chart 3. 

NON-PROMOTIONS DECREASE 

There were only three preceding years when the number of boys 
who had to repeat the work of the grade they had been in was lower 
than in 1935 and for girls there were only two years which showed a 
smaller number of non-promotions than in 1935. However, the per 
cent of boys not promoted in 1935, 16.5, is lower than for any year 
previously reported and for girls, 10.5 per cent in 1935, is lower than 
any year previously reported, except 1931. (See Tat)te 21.) 



30 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Among the counties non-promotions for boys ranged between 7.5 
per cent in Montgomery and over 24 per cent in Kent. Only 5 per 
cent of the girls in Montgomery failed, whereas this was the case for 
15 per cent of the girls in Kent. (See Chart 4.) 

CHART 4 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNT"f WHITHl ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED . 1955 



County 

Total and 
Co. Average 


9 


Number 
Boys Girls 
,283 

5,447 


Montgomery- 




297 


194 


Queen Anne's 




85 


48 


Cecil 




187 


116 


Frederick 




505 


299 


Howard ' 




143 


85 


Talbot 




137 


53 


Garrett 




296 


178 


Calvert 




63 


29 


Harford 




317 


205 


Allegany 


1 


,049 


584 


Charles 




120 


75 


St. Mary's 




101 


36 


Carroll 




443 


214 


Pr. George's 




705 


423 


Worcester 




211 


98 


Caroline 




208 


94 


Somerset 




197 


130 


Anne Arundel 




538 


350 


T(icomico 




352 


179 


Dorchester 




333 


158 


Washington 


1 


,122 


712 


Baltimore 
Kent 


1 


,691 

183 


1,092 
95 



Per Cent Boy: 



VZZn Per Cent Girls 




llZZZZZZZZZZX 



m 



9.3 '//////7///////A 

I 



9.8 

^^^^^^^^ 



no /////////////////A 



V77///7////A 



113.0 V///////777////////A 



115.0 ^///////////////////////X 



In every county there were many more boys than girls who were 
not promoted. This is a condition which shoula challenge supervisors 



NoN Promotions by Year, County and Grade 31 



TABLE 21 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary Schools 







XTtttv/tuit' r> 
i> UMrSlliK 




Per Cent 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


13,435 


8,586 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


1924 


11,999 


7,193 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


1925 


10,673 


6,336 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


1926 


10,392 


6,140 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


1927 


9,954 


6,134 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


1928 


10,346 


6,109 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


1929 


9,147 


5,609 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


1930 


8,962 


5,371 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


1931 


9,231 


5,293 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 


1932 


9,597 


5,675 


15,272 


17.2 


11.0 


14.2 


1933 


10,503 


6,244 


16,747 


18.6 


12.0 


15.4 


1934 


11,037 


6,809 


17,846 


19.7 


13.1 


16.5 


1935 


. 9,283 


5,447 


14,730 


16.5 


10.5 


13.6 



and teachers to study the underlying causes and if possible remove 
those which are remediable. 

Non-Promotions by Grades 

Non-promotions were lower in every grade in 1935 than in the 
preceding year. As usual, they were highest in the first grade with 24 

CHART 5 



NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES IN COUNTY WHITE ELET.ffiNTARY MD 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN 
JUNE, 1935 

Number 

Grade Bays Girls HBPer Cent Boys 1////J Per Cent Girls 
1.456 HbT V///////////////////////////////A 


« 1,201 

626 

7 1,007 

^ 562 

4 1,162 

^ 717 










^ 691 j 

^ 575 
7 1,197 

676 

q 270 

2 148 




^^^^^^^^^^^ 


10 4 V///////////////X 

95 Y/////////////A 



32 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



per cent of the boys and 18 per cent of the girls having to repeat the 
work. This is due in part to greater irregularity of attendance of 
first grade children, many of whom lose more time because of illness 
than do children in upper grades, and in part to the lack of maturity 
of some entrants who are not alDle to master work planned for the 
first grade. In other grades the non-promotions for boys were lowest 
in grade 3, nearly 13 per cent, and highest in grades 7 and 8, just over 
18 per cent. For girls, non-promotions were lowest in grade 3, just 
under 8 per cent, and highest in grade 7, over 10 per cent. (See 
Charts.) 



TABLE 22 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Promoted 
for Year Ending July 31, 1935, and for Preceding Ten Years 



YEAR AND 
COUNTY 


Total Not Prcmoltd 




Per Cent of Pupils Not 


Phomoted by 


Cause 




All Causes 


Unfortunate Home 
Conditions and 
Lack of Interest 


Mental Incapacity 


Personal Illness 


is O 03 


Transfer from 
Another School 


*14 Years or Over 
and Employed 


Late Entrance 


other Causes 








BY 


YEAR 














1925 


17,009 


16.8 


3.9 


2.9 


1.8 


2.9 


.8 


2.0 


.9 


1.6 


1926 


16,532 


16.3 


4.1 


2.9 


2.0 


2.7 


.8 


1.7 


.7 


1.4 


1927 


16,076 


15.6 


3.9 


3.0 


1.9 


2.2 


.8 


1.5 


.8 


1.5 


1928. 


16,428 


16.0 


5.0 


3.0 


1.9 


2.0 


.8 


1.3 


. 5 


1.5 


1929 


14,756 


14.3 


4.3 


2.5 


1.9 


2.0 


.8 


1.1 


.4 


1.3 


1930... 


14,333 


13.7 


4.5 


2.7 


1.7 


1.4 


.8 


1.0 


.3 


1.3 


1931.. . 


14,524 


13.7 


4.8 


2.7 


1.6 


1.2 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1.5 


1932. 


15.272 


14.2 


5.4 


2.6 


1.8 


1.2 


.8 




.3 


1.4 


1933.. 


16;747 


15.4 


5.8 


3.0 


1.5 


1.3 


.8 


'.1 


.2 


2.1 


1934 .. . 


17,846 


16.5 


5.8 


3.3 


2.3 


1.5 


.9 


.6 


.2 


1.9 


1935. 


14,730 


13.6 


4.7 


2.5 


1.9 


1.3 


.7 


.7 


.1 


1.7 



BY COUNTY. 1935 



Montgomery. 


491 


6 


4 


1 


7 




7 


1 


3 




6 




3 




4 


.2 


1.2 


Queen Anne's 


133 


8 

9 


9 


3 


7 


2 


6 




6 








7 








o 


Cecil . 


303 


5 


3 





2 


1 


1 


1 


1 







5 




5 


.1 


l!2 


Frederick 


804 


11 





3 


5 
9 


3 





1 


5 




8 




5 




9 




.8 


Howard.. 


228 


11 


3 


2 


3 


6 


1 


1 


1 






8 




5 


o 


.7 


Talbot .. 


190 


11 


4 


4 


2 


2 


5 


1 


8 


1 


1 




5 




6 




.7 


Garrett 


474 


11 


9 


3 


5 


1 


8 


4 


5 


1 




4 




4 


.2 


1.0 


Calvert 


92 


12 


1 


6 


7 




9 


1 


6 


1 


9 




3 




4 


.3 




Harford.. 


522 


12 


7 


4 


9 




8 


1 


6 


1 


8 




7 




9 


.4 


1.6 


Allegany 


1,633 


13 


1 


3 


7 


3 


7 


1 




1 


3 




4 




9 


.1 


1.3 


Charles ... 


195 


13 


5 


4 


1 


2 


9 


1 


7 


1 


8 




6 




6 


.1 


1.7 


St. Mary's.... 


137 


13 


5 


5 


3 




5 




8 


1 


8 


1 


4 


1 


4 


.1 


2.2 


Carroll... 


657 


13 


6 


3 


8 




1 


1 


4 


1 






6 




8 


.1 


.3 


Prince George's 


1,128 


14 


1 


A 


3 


4 


8 


1 






8 


1 







3 


.1 


1.1 


Worcester.. 


309 


14 


2 


5 


6 


1 


4 


2 





1 


1 




7 


1 


6 


.5 


1.3 


Caroline. 


302 


14 


6 


7 


2 


1 


7 


1 


6 




6 








8 


.2 


1.8 


Somerset 


327 


14 


8 


6 


7 


2 


7 


1 


6 


1 






7 






.1 


1.0 


Anne Arundel . 


888 


14 


8 


5 


6 


3 


5 


1 


6 


1 


2 


1 







7 


.1 


1.1 


Wicomico.. 


531 


15 


3 


7 


4 


3 


1 


2 


3 




1 




4 


1 


2 


.1 


.7 


Dorchester 


491 


16 


3 


4 


5 


3 




1 


4 


2 


8 




7 


1 


.2 


.1 


1.9 


Washington 


1,834 


16 


5 


6 


4 


3 


2 


1 


6 


2 


1 






1 


1 


.2 


1.2 


Baltimore 


2.78? 


16 


8 


5 


6 






2 


8 


1 


6 


1 


1 




7 




4.7 


Kent. 


278 


19 


9 


7 


6 


1 


2 


2 


8 


1 


5 


2 





1 


.0 




3.8 





















* 13 years, 1925-1931. inclusive. 



Causes of Non Promotion: Testing, County White Elementary Schools 33 

Causes of Non-Promotions 

The chief causes of non-promotions reported by teachers were un- 
fortunate home conditions and lack of interest. Nearly 5 per cent 
of the children failed for these reasons. The development of a long 
term social welfare program in each of the counties with the aid of 
federal and State funds for dependent children in the social security 
program should eventually help to reduce failures due to this cause. 
Mental incapacity given as the reason for the failure of 2.5 per cent 
of the pupils includes immature first grade children, as well as those 
who are mentally handicapped. The development of more special 
classes for mentally handicapped children in the larger centers 
should eventually reduce the number of failures from this cause. 
Nearly 2 per cent of the children were not promoted because of illness 
which kept them out of school and made it impossible for them to 
attempt the work of a higher grade without making up the work 
they had missed. Irregular attendance not due to illness caused 1.3 
per cent of the white elementary pupils to fail. (See Table 22.) 

Kent, Wicomico, and Caroline County teachers reported that over 
7 per cent of the white elementary pupils failed because of unfortunate 
home conditions and lack of interest. Close to 5 per cent of the Car- 
roll and Prince George's County pupils were reported as failures be- 
cause of mental incapacity. Over 4.5 per cent of the Garrett County 
elementary pupils were held back by illness, while this was the case 
for nearly 3 per cent in Baltimore and Kent. Worcester and Wash- 
ington had the largest proportion of pupils not promoted because of 
irregular attendance for causes other than illness. Nearly 2 per cent 
of the Kent County elementary pupils were reported as failures be- 
cause they transferred from other schools. Employment brought 
about the failure of the largest percentage of pupils in Worcester and 
St. Mary's. ''Other" causes affected the failure of a large percentage 
of white elementary pupils in Baltimore and Kent Counties. (See 
Table 22.) 

TESTING IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
State-Wide Tests 

All county elementary pupils from grades 2 to 7 (8) were given 
Form A of the Progressive Achievement Tests early in 1935. There 
were tests of reading vocabulary and comprehension, arithmetic 
reasoning and fundamentals, and language. The per cent of white 
county elementary pupils in each grade in one-teacher, two-teacher, 
and graded schools at or above standard norms in each of the five 
parts of the test is given in Table 23. 

In general the standard norm was reached and exceeded by the 
white pupils in graded schools as a group in every subject and grade, 
except the seventh in language. The pupils in one- and two-teacher 
schools as a group reached standard or above in all grades and sub- 



34 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



jects, except reading vocabulary in grades 5, 6, and 7, language in 
grade 7, and arithmetic fundamentals in grade 5. Pupils in one-teach- 
er schools were also below standard in arithmetic fundamentals in 
grades 6 and 7. (See Table 23.) 



TABLE 23 

Progressive Achievement Tests — Form A, January to March, 1935 
Per Cent at Standard or Above in Grade 

(Per Cent of Pupils Reaching or Exceeding County and Standard Averages for 
All Elementary Schools are in Bold Face) 



grade 

All Grades 2 3 4 5 6 7 8* 



ALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Reading 

Vocabulary 61.1 72.8 74.8 65.2 57.8 50.3 48.9 40.8 

Comprehension 82.2 84.9 81.0 85.8 83.2 77.1 81.1 80.3 

Arithmetic 

Reasoning 85.1 88.2 90.2 88.5 87.1 81.1 78.3 68.6 

Fundamentals 74.8 97.6 96.9 79.1 55.2 63.3 61.5 47.6 

Language..... 72.2 93.0 75.6 76.5 73.4 71.1 48.1 39.4 



ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



Reading 

Vocabulary 52.2 64.2 64.4 55.7 47.7 36.8 35.9 10.2 

Comprehension 74.0 79.9 71.2 79.3 75.9 67.4 66.7 55.5 

Arithmetic 

Reasoning.. 79.0 84.7 85.3 81.6 80.7 69.2 66.1 46.9 

Fundamentals.^.. 67.4 97.6 95.1 69.7 43.4 41.0 43.7 28.6 

Language...^ 66.5 91.3 71.3 69.7 63.9 56.8 32.6 14.3 



TWO-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



Reading 

Vocabulary . ... 55.2 67.6 70.8 55.5 48.6 43.9 42.1 22.2 

Comprehension.. 77.3 81.1 76.3 81.5 76.2 71.6 76.7 69.0 

Arithmetic 

Reasoning 82.7 83.8 87.5 84.6 83.6 79.4 75.2 69.7 

Fundamentals...- 72.8 96.1 95.0 76.8 49.0 57.3 58.2 53.5 

Language _ 70.0 89.7 75.6 71.7 69.0 65.7 42.4 29.3 



GRADED SCHOOLS 



Reading 

Vocabulary 62.8 74.4 76.6 67.7 60.1 52.2 50.5 42.1 

Comprehension 83.6 86.0 82.8 87.2 84.9 78.6 82.6 81.2 

Arithmetic 

Reasoning 86.1 89.2 91.1 89.8 88.3 81.4 79.4 68.9 

Fundamentals 75.8 97.8 97.4 80.5 57.4 66.0 63.1 47.8 

Language, 73.0 93.6 76.2 78.0 75.1 73.0 49.7 40.3 



* Three counties have eight grades below the last four years of high school: Allegany and Wash- 
ington in one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded schools; Montgomery in graded only. 

It will be noted that a larger per cent of pupils were at standard 
or above in the lower than in the upper grades. (See Table 23.) 

When all grades are combined the per cent of pupils in individual 
counties at standard or above exceeded 50 in all subjects, except read- 
ing vocabulary in three counties. Two counties exceeded the average 



State and County Testing, White Elementary Schools 



35 



per cent at standard or above for the counties as a group in every 
one of the five tests and six counties made this record in all except 
one of the tests. Except in a small number of counties, the results are 
exceedingly encouraging. (See Table 23A.) 

TABLE 23A 

Per Cent of County White Pupils in' Grades 2 to 7 (8), at Standard or Above in 
Progressive Achievement Tests — Form A, January to March, 1935 

(Counties Reaching or Exceeding the County Average are in Bold Face) 



COUNTY 


reading 


ARITHMETIC 


Language 


Number 
Tested 


Vocabulary 


Comprehen- 
sion 


Reasoning 


Funda- 
mentals 


Total and 














Average* 


61.1 


82.2 


85.1 


74.8 


72.2 


81,984 


*Allegany 


63.2 


81.3 


79.3 


74.5 


65.9 


9,634 


Anne Arundel . 


60.3 


82.7 


83. S 


78.2 


74.7 


4,572 


Baltimore 


70.0 


88.6 


95.1 


87.3 


81.5 


12,682 


Calvert 


58.8 


83.0 


88.0 


69.7 


79.1 


576 


Caroline 


53.9 


73.5 


79.3 


64.4 


73.6 


1,571 


Carroll 


50.4 


76.4 


83.4 


69.1 


59.3 


3,815 


Cecil . _ 


49.6 


66.6 


62.4 


54.2 


55.4 


2,386 


Charles 


58.7 


77.2 


90.0 


76.3 


74.7 


1,019 


Dorchester 


63.1 


85.7 


83.9 


68.0 


78.8 


2,318 


Frederick. 


65.5 


84.8 


86.2 


75.7 


73.6 


5,423 


Garrett 


55.2 


72.3 


70.4 


61.4 


64.7 


2,904 


Harford 


56.6 


82.3 


92.0 


77.2 


76.8 


3,016 


Howard 


59.1 


79.4 


84.4 


77.7 


70.2 


1,520 


Kent 


46.7 


73.0 


78.3 


67.7 


61.6 


1,132 


*Montgomery . 


62.3 


85.1 


84.9 


70.8 


68.9 


5,789 


Prince George's 


65.5 


89.2 


89.2 


72.2 


76.9 


6,206 


Queen Anne's ... 


71 .7 


72.1 


89.1 


85.1 


82.5 


1,120 


St. Mary's 


47.1 


75.4 


84.2 


74.9 


71.9 


821 


Somerset 


62.4 


80.0 


86.0 


78.3 


78.5 


1,676 


Talbot 


59.2 


82.8 


78.6 


61.6 


70.4 


1,287 


*Washington.... 


51.2 


78.1 


83.3 


74.6 


63.9 


8,220 


Wicomico 


71.2 


87.7 


92.3 


73.5 


8i.7 


2,682 


Worcester 


60.4 


83.4 


85.8 


76.7 


80.6 


1,615 



Includes eighth grade. 



County Testing 

Supplemental to the State testing program just described, a num- 
ber of counties gave intelligence tests or other tests to meet special 
problems. 

The Pintner Cunningham Primary Mental Tests were given in 
Allegany County to those entering school for the first time. The Otis. 
Group and Self-Administering Intelligence Tests were used with re- 
tarded pupils and with those who entered Allegany County schools 
as transfers from other school systems. Kent County used the De- 
troit First Grade Intelligence Test with pupils in Grade 1, the De- 
troit Primary Intelligence Test with those in Grade 4, and the Ter- 
man Group Test of Mental Ability with seventh grade pupils. Chil- 
dren recommended for the special class in Brunswick were given the 
Illinois Intelligence Test as well as the Stanford Achievement Test. 

Frederick, Howard, and Anne Arundel used the Standard Gradua- 
tion Examination with their seventh grade pupils. 



36 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Calvert County used the Metropolitan Achievement Tests with 
pupils in grades 1 to 3. 

The Brueckner curriculum tests in arithmetic fundamentals and 
problem solving were used in Anne Arundel, Harford, Washington, 
and Worcester Counties. 

Pupils in grade 1 were tested in Kent with the Gates Reading Test 
and in Prince George's with the Lee-Clark Reading Test. 

The Maryland History Test prepared by Miss Simpson was used 
in Washington County. 

SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN 
The State Program for the Physically Handicapped 



TABLE 24 

Special Provision for Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland Counties 

Fall of 1935 





Number of Pupils 




















Number 














of 


COUNTY 


In 


Having 




Taught 


Total 


Teachers 




Special 


Physio- 


Trans- 






and 




Classes 


therapy 


ported 


Home 




Physio- 












therapists 


Allegany 


16 


^31 




4 


35 


t4 


Anne Arundel 


1 


4 


5 


3 


Baltimore 








10 


10 


1 


Calvert 








1 


1 


1 


Caroline 








1 


1 


1 


Carroll 






3 




3 




Cecil 








2 


2 


2 


Frederick 




28 


2 




30 


n 


Garrett 




18 


4 


1 


23 




Harford 




8 




1 


9 


t2 


Kent 








2 


2 


1 


Montgomery 








3 


3 


3 


Prince George's 








2 


2 


2 


Queen Anne's 








1 


1 


1 










1 


1 


1 


Washington 


10 


25 


2 


2 


39 


t4 








1 


6 


7 


2 


Worcester 








2 


2 


1 


Baltimore City 






10 




10 














Total: Fall, 1935 ... 


26 


mo 


23 


43 


186 


*32 


1934-35 


22 


°30 


22 


43 


102 


t29 



° Includes 16 pupils in fall of 1935 and 15 in 1934-35, in special class in Allegany County, who also 
have physiotherapy. 

t Includes full-time physiotherapist, 
t Includes part-time physiotherapist. 

* Includes three full-time and two part-time physiotherapists. 



Special Opportunities for County Handicapped Children 37 



Financed with State funds, 102 physically handicapped children 
received some type of special service during the school year 1934-35. 
The children aided were residents of 18 counties and the City of 
Baltimore. As the entire State appropriation of $10,000 was ex- 
pended for the services given these 102 children, the cost per pupil 
was slightly over $98. (See Table 24.) 

The following services were rendered physically handicapped 
children during 1934-35: special classes in Cumberland and Hagers- 
town for 22 pupils; instruction of 43 pupils in their homes; special 
transportation of 10 county and 12 Baltimore City children to reg- 
ular schools; physiotherapy for 30 pupils, including 15 in the special 
class in Cumberland. Three full-time teachers, one full-time physio- 
therapist, and 25 part-time teachers gave instruction to pupils in 
the special classes and in their homes. Of 26 teachers who gave home 
instruction to each handicapped child for at least two hours a week, 
17 also had regular day school classes for which they were responsible. 
(See Table 24.) 

In the fall of 1935, the number of physically handicapped children 
receiving special education service increased to 186, due to the em- 
ployment of four additional physiotherapists, made possible by an 
increase of $5,000 in the State appropriation. Home teaching was 
given to the same number (43) as in 1934-35, while 26 children were 
enrolled in two special classes and 23 were transported to regular 
schools. A total of 94 children, in addition to 16 pupils in the special 
class in Cumberland, were receiving physiotherapy. (See Table 24.) 

In the fall of 1935 Montgomery County followed up its audiometer 
testing program carried out as an FERA project earlier in the year 
by employment of a teacher of lip reading who is giving instruction 
twice a week to 31 hard-of-hearing children in seven different schools. 

Classes for the Mentally Handicapped in the Counties 

The number of counties having classes for the mentally handi- 
capped increased from four in 1933-34 to eight in 1934-35. Allegany, 
Carroll, Frederick, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George's, Talbot, and 
Washington had 22 of these classes financed without State aid. 
Supervisory assistance was given by the State Supervisor of Special 
Education. 

Teacher Training 

Courses in special education were offered again in the summer of 
1935 at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University. 
The enrollment of county teachers was not as large as it had been 
during the previous year. 

The practice of having all the special class teachers in the counties 
spend one day in visiting special schools in Baltimore was continued 
in the fall of 1935. 



38 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Clinical Study of Children 

During 1934-35, there were 48 mental hygiene dinics held in 18 
different counties by psychiatrists working in cooperation with the 
Mental Hygiene Society of Maryland and the State Department of 
Health. Examinations were given to 364 children and recommenda- 
tions were made concerning educational and other services needed. 
These clinics have proved helpful in a number of counties, and efforts 
are being made to expand and improve the service so that the county 
schools will have the benefit of expert advice in the care and educa- 
tion of every maladjusted child. 

The department continued to cooperate with the Maryland League 
for Crippled Children in conducting clinics for crippled children in 13 
counties. 

The Program for Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 

Baltimore City has a Division of Special Education whose work is 
the identification, placement and education of physically, mentally, 
and socially maladjusted children. The Psycho-Educational CHnic 
with a staff of 4 full-time and one part-time examiner, one audiom- 
etrist, and one visiting teacher working in cooperation with prin- 
cipals, supervisors, and social agencies, identifies and recommends 
placement of children. Special full- and part-time classes and home 
instruction are provided to meet the peculiar educational needs of 
each type of handicapped child. 

Education for Physically Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 

There were five types of full-time special classes for physically 
handicapped pupils: open air, orthopedic, sight conservation, hear- 
ing conservation, and deaf. In the second semester of the school year 
1934-35, there were 1,024 white pupils in 39 classes and 222 colored 
pupils in 10 classes of the above types. It was reported that 86.5 per 
cent of the white and 69.2 per cent of the colored physically handi- 
capped children were promoted or making satisfactory improvement. 
(See Table 25.) 

In addition to pupils in the above special classes, there were 793 
white and 291 colored children in regular classes given special in- 
struction in speech correction by 6 white and 2 colored teachers, 
and in lip reading by one white and one colored teacher. Of these 
children instructed each year, Baltimore City reports approximately 
40 per cent are discharged as cured and improvement is secured for 
approximately 75 per cent. 

"The aimi of the speech class is to restore the child to effortless 
communication, and the happiest result of the work is the personality 
growth which inevitably follows improvement in the ability to speak 
intelligibly. A child's education is inadequate if, at the end of his 
school career, he is unable to work successfully in a position which 



Special Education of Baltimore City Handicapped Children 39 

requires at least normal speech in answering questions, using the 
telephone, and the ability to express himself intelligibly in words. 
Most regular teachers are not equipped to correct actual speech de- 
fects, for the correction of stammering, lisping, and unintelligible 
speech is a highly specialized skill which can be secured only through 
training and experience. 

TABLE 25 



Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1935 















Promoted 


Once or 








Returned 






Twice or 


Making 


Kind of 


No. of 


Total 


to 


Average 


Per Cent 


Satisfactory Im- 


Class 


Classes 


Admitted 


Regular 


Net 


of 


provement 








Classes 


Roll 


Attend- 
















ance 


















No. 


tPer Cent 


White Pupils 


Physically 
















Handicapped .. 


39 


1,024 


58 


854 


90.9 


729 


86.5 


Open Air 


17 


491 


45 


400 


90.7 


336 


85.3 


Orthopedic 


11 


320 


12 


256 


91.9 


216 


85.4 


Sight Conserva 


tion 4 


66 


1 


60 


87.2 


53 


93.0 


Hearing Conse 


rvation 2 


42 




36 


93.0 


28 


77.8 


Deaf 


2 


27 




26 


93.0 


25 


96.1 


Mixed* 


3 


78 




76 


91.0 


71 


92.2 


Disciplinary* 


1 


32 




21 


76.6 


15 


62.5 


Mentally 
















Handicapped .. 


141 


3,863 


25 


3,320 




2,651 


80.2 


Opportunity... 


109 


3,049 


22 


2,645 


88.5 


2,136 
386 


80.4 


Shop Center .. 


22 


625 


3 


509 


78.3 


80.9 


Special Center 


10 


189 




166 


84.8 


129 


75.9 



COLORED PUPILS 



Physically 
















Handicapped .. 


10 


222 


3 


199 


86.4 


137 


69.2 


Orthopedic 


3 


79 




76 


90.0 


55 


73.3 


Open Air 


1 


27 




24 


83.0 


15 


65.2 


Sight Conserva 


tion 5 


101 


3 


86 


84.9 


64 


74.4 


Deaf 


1 


15 




13 


85.0 


3 


21.4 


Mentally 
















Handicapped 


46 


1,476 


7 


1,117 




751 


66.7 


Opportunity.... 


25 


818 


2 


633 


81.7 


459 


71.7 


Shop Center 


12 


399 




278 


72.9 


147 


54.6 


Special Center .... 


9 


259 


5 


206 


79.5 


145 


66.5 



* For junior high school pupils. 



There were in Baltimore City six white teachers and one colored 
teacher who gave instruction at home to 87 white and 32 colored 
children too physically handicapped to attend the regular or special 
classes. 

Baltimore City Classes for the Mentally Handicapped 

There are three types of special classes organized in Baltimore City 
for the mentally handicapped : — special center, opportunity and shop 
center classes. In 1984-35, 189 white and 259 colored children were 
in the special center classes. There were 3,049 white and 81 colored 

* Quoted from page 40, 1935 Report of Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore City. 



40 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



children in primary and intermediate opportunity classes, and 625 
white and 399 colored children in shop centers which offer work of a 
vocational character for girls and boys. Each pupil spends two or 
three years in the primary opportunity, the intermediate opportunity, 
and shop center levels. (See Table 25.) 

A large proportion of mentally handicapped children are capable 
of becoming self-supporting citizens. This is not likely to happen, 
however, if these children are merely removed from the regular 
classes and given little more than custodial care in a special class. 
These children need successful, specially prepared teachers to train 
them in minimum requirements of literacy and to develop in them 
work habits and character traits which will last into adult life. It is 
this type of teaching which aids in combating future crime, poverty 
and other social evils, "f 

CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 
Of 2,735 white elementary teachers and principals in service in 
October, 1935, excluding grade (s) 7 (8) of junior and junior-senior 
high schools, 211 held elementary principals' certificates, 21 held the 
new certificate called Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education, 
20 held high school teachers' or high school principals' certificates, 
666 held the advanced first grade certificate, and 1,760 the regular 
first grade certificate. A comparison with October, 1934, shows a de- 
crease of 6 in the total number of elementary positions, exclusive 
of those in junior and junior-senior high schools, an increase of 6 
in principals' certificates, an increase of 256 in advanced first grade 
certificates, and a decrease of 311 in first grade certificates. 

Only 49 white elementary teachers hold second and third grade 
certificates, a decrease of 6 holding second grade certificates from 
1934. These together with 8 substitutes include 2.1 per cent of the 
entire staff. Only four counties have 5 or more teachers on the staff 
who hold third and second grade certificates or are substitutes. 
These counties are Washington, Somerset, Carroll, and Cecil. (See 
Table X, page 295.) 

The one and two-teacher schools had a larger proportion of teach- 
ers holding certificates below first grade than the graded schools. 
Whereas 4.3 of the teachers in one-teacher and 4 per cent of those in 
two-teacher schools held second or third grade certificates or were 
substitutes, this was the case for only 1.3 per cent of the staff in 
graded schools. Of the 41 teachers holding bachelor of science certifi- 
cates, 36 were in graded and 5 in one-teacher schools. (See Table 
XI, page 296.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

There were 655 county white elementary teachers, 24 per cent of 
the white elementary teaching staff in service in October, 1935, who 
attended summer school in 1935. This was a reduction of 151 under 



t Quoted in part from page 105 of the 1934 Report of School Commissioners of Baltimore, 



Certification, Summer School Attendance, County White 41 
Elementary Teachers 



the number who attended the preceding year. Because of the reduc- 
tion in salaries, certificates requiring summer school attendance for 
renewals in 1934 and 1935 were renewed for two years without sum- 
mer school attendance and for six years with summer school attend- 
ance. In ten of the counties over 25 per cent of the staff went to sum- 
mer school. The attendants included at one extreme 7 per cent of 
the staff in Queen Anne's and Wicomico and at the other 40 and 54 
per cent, respectively, in Caroline and Talbot. In addition between 
27.5 and 33.6 per cent of the teachers in Prince George's, Allegany, 
St. Mary's, Carroll, Dorchester, Baltimore, Cecil, and Charles at- 
tended summer school in 1935. (See left half of Table 26.) 

TABLE 26 

County White Elementary Teachers in Service in October, 1935, Reported by 
County Superintendents and /or Colleges as Summer School Attendants in 1935 



County 



Teachers Employed 

Oct., 1935, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1935 



Total and Average 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Prince George's 

Allegany 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Baltimore 

Cecil..- 

Charles 

Garrett 

Frederick: 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Howard 

Washington._ 

Worcester 

Kent 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's 



Number Per Cent 



e655 

*26 
22 
a72 
88 
*11 
*41 
25 
102 
*26 
*11 
25 
39 
37 
t*28 
23 
*9 
a38 
8 
5 
7 
2 
*7 

3 



23.9 

54.2 
40.0 
33.6 
33.2 
32.4 
30.8 
29.4 
29.1 
28.9 
27.5 
22.5 
20.3 
19.7 
18.1 
18.0 
16.1 
14.1 
14.0 
11.4 
10.9 
10.5 
7.5 
7.0 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total. 



University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland 

Columbia University 

University of Delaware 

University of Virginia 

Duke University , 

Harrisonburg State Teachers 

College 

Pennsylvania State College 

Gettysburg College 

Asheville 

Shepherd State Teachers College .. 

Catholic University.^ 

Howard University 

Farms ville State Teachers College. 

University of Vermont _ 

University of Kentucky 

University of West Virginia 

University of California 

Other 

Travel 



Number 

of 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 
School 
Teachers 



d672 

bt280 

43 
c30 
27 
18 
16 

11 

6 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
*9 
2 



* Each asterisk represents one supervisor not included, 
t Each dagger represents one attendance officer not 
included. 

e Excludes 16 supervisors and 1 attendance officer. 



a Excludes 4 supervisors, 
b Excludes 5 supervisors, 
c Excludes 7 supervisors, 
d Includes 16 supervisors and 1 
attendance officer. 



The largest number of attendants from the counties, 280 teachers 
and principals and 6 supervisors and attendance officers, 42.5 per 
cent of the total, attended the University of Maryland. Johns Hop- 
kins summer school had 191 teachers and principals and 3 super- 
visors, 29 per cent of the total. Western Maryland attracted 43 
teachers and principals. These three Maryland colleges, therefore, 
provided the summer school work taken by 78 per cent of the county 
white elementary staff. All of these institutions had a smaller at- 



42 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



tendance of the county elementary teachers in 1935 than they had 
in 1934. 

The number of white elementary county staff who attended Colum- 
bia University, the University of Delaware, the University of Vir- 
ginia, Duke University, and Pennsylvania State College was larger 
n 1935 than in 1934. (See right half of Table 26.) 

MORE VACANCIES IN MARYLAND COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

From 1928 to 1933, there was a smaller number of resignations 
from the county white elementary school staff each succeeding year, 
the total having dropped from 399 to 158. A change from this down- 
ward trend appeared for the first time between October 1933 and 
October 1934 when there was an increase to 168 resignations. The 
number of teachers who resigned because of marriage and to obtain 

CHART 6 

Total Resignations from County White Elementary Schools, and Those 
due to Marriage and Acceptance of Other Than County 
Teaching Positions 

HoA 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 




»*»30- 1931- l«»5Z- »133- 
f<»2*% l<i%0 '*i3l n»3 



Resignations, Turnover of County White Elementary Teachers 43 



work other than teaching or teaching positions outside the county 
elementary school teaching staff showed trends similar to those for 
the total number of resignations, except for the first year. These 
figures give the first indication that teaching is beginning to show 
the effect of the improvement in general economic conditions. (See 
Tabte 27 and Chart 6.) 

TABLE 27 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools* Between October of One Year and October 

of the Following Year 



Year 


Marriage 


c 
£ 


Work Other Than 
Teaching 


Illness 


Inefficiency 


Teachinji in Another 
State or in Private 
School 


Death 


Moved Away 


Position 
Abolished 


Teaching in Baltimore 
(Mty.in State Teachers 
College or Actin? as 
Supervisor or Attend- 
ance Officer 


I'lov. Cert, or Failure 
1 ' Attend Summer 
School 


t: 

2^ :3 
o.S: 

Is 


other and Unknown 


Total 


t; 
c 

o 

GQ 
< 

> 


Transfer to Another 
County 


'i'ransler to Other 
Types of Schools 
within County 


1927-28 


148 


14 


43 


24 


31 


25 


10 


10 




30 


37 




27 


399 


44 


53 


3 


1928-29 


164 


27 


35 


14 


27 


48 


8 


8 




23 


12 




18 


384 


31 


46 


9 


1929-30 


136 


27 


36 


15 


23 


34 


7 


8 




9 


15 




20 


330 


23 


47 


12 


1930-31 


122 


19 


10 


9 


37 


15 


6 


14 




11 


12 




21 


276 


22 


19 


34 


1931-32 


83 


24 


2 


9 


23 


2 


7 


9 


5 




9 


3 


24 


201 


15 


10 


6 


1932-33 


81 


28 




4 


12 
6 


2 


7 


1 


7 




1 




12 


158 


11 


3 


16 


1933-34 


93 


26 


12 


7 


5 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 




5 


168 


13 


7 


8 



* Teachers withdrawing from grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 in junior or junior-senior high schools are 
excluded from this table. They are included in Table 72, page 108. 



TURNOVER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS SLIGHTLY HIGHER 

Turnover of county white elementary teachers was at its lowest 
point in 1932-33 and each year thereafter has shown a slight increase. 
In 1930-31 with a drop of 24 in number of teaching positions the 
turnover was 343 or nearly 12 per cent. In 1931-32, turnover de- 
creased to 275 or 9.5 per cent at a time when the number of teaching 
positions dropped by 61. The following year, 1932-33, there were 81 
fewer positions and the turnover was 140 or 5.3 per cent. The two 
following years, turnover increased to 174 and 195, 6.2 and 7 per 
cent respectively of the staff, with a drop of 29 and 13 in teaching 
positions each year. The lowered turnover has accompanied a de- 
crease in teaching staff following consolidation of schools and a lower 
white elementary school enrollment resulting from a decline in the 
birth rate and has been affected by the depressed economic conditions 
which meant that fewer married teachers resigned and fewer persons 
dissatisfied with teaching gave up their work to seek other fields of 
endeavor. The latter conditions have changed in the last year, as 
was indicated in the discussion of resignations. (^See Table 28.) 

Of the 195 teachers new to the county elementary school staffs in 
1934-35, there were 155 who were inexperienced, 21 who formerly 



44 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



taught in the counties but were out of service the year preceding, and 
10 who had had experience in other states. The number of inex- 
perienced teachers appointed was much larger than for the two 
preceding years. (See Table 28.) 

TABLE 28 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the Ele- 
mentary Schools of Each Individual County During the School Year 
1934-1935, With Comparisons for Preceding Years 



County 



*County Total & Average: 

1930- 31 

1931- 32 

1932- 33 

1933- 34 ___ 

1934- 35 



Calvert 

Worcester 

Talbot 

St. Mary's 

Cecil..... 

Queen Anne's 

Dorchester 

Howard 

CaroHne 

Wicomico 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Garrett. 

Allegany.. 

Baltimore 

Carroll 

Washington 

Somerset 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Kent 

Charles.. 

Prince George's. 



Baltimore City: 

Elementary.... 

Voc. and Prevoc. 



New to 
County 



No. 



t343 
t275 
tl49 
tl74 
tl95 



Per 
Cent 



11.8 
9.5 
5.3 
6.2 
7.0 



Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 
October 

to 
October 



Number New to County Elementary 
Schools* Who Were 



Inex- 
peri- 
enced 



238 
210 
102 
115 
155 



Experienced 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 


in 

County, 
but Not 
Teaching 
Year 

Before 


but 
New 

to 
State 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Junior, 
Junior- 
Senior, 

or 
Regular 

High 
School 


56 
32 
29 
30 
21 


29 
17 
2 
12 
10 


44 
19 
10 
3 
7 


5 
5 
6 
5 
3 


15 
11 
10 
12 
6 
































1 






















1 






1 














1 


1 

2 
















3 






1 


2 








1 


1 


2 
















3 


1 




1 








2 


2 


1 


1 






1 


















8 

7 

5 


4 

1 
2 


4 

5 




2 

°3 
°1 











141 
16 



—3 
—2 
—2 
+2 

—4 



7.1 
7.2 
7.4 



—6 
+ 3 
+ 1 
+ 1 
— 1 



—4 
+ 1 



10.3 



+3 



-f 22 

+25 



125 



* Teachers in grade 7 and grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools are excluded from 
this table. They are included in Table 73, page 110. 

t Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 
° Includes teachers from private schools. 



Among the individual counties, turnover varied from none in Cal- 
vert and 1 in Worcester, Talbot, and St. Mary's to 25 in Baltimore 
and 37 in Prince George's Counties. Charles and Prince George's 
showed the highest percentage of turnover, 15 and 17 per cent respec- 



Turnover of County and City White Elementary Teachers; 45 

Men Teachers 

tively. Only six counties showed an increase in staff and in no case 
was the gain more than 3 in number. (See Table 28.) 

The turnover in Baltimore City elementary and prevocational 
classes increased to 155, nearly 10 per cent of the staff in these schools. 
The turnover was greater than for the three years preceding, in 
each of which the number of classes decreased. There were 43 more 
classes established in 1934-35 and positions were made available to 
132 inexperienced teachers. These appointments have absorbed a 
large percentage of teachers on the eligible lists. (See Table 29.) 



TABLE 29 

Turnover of White Elementary and Prevocational Teachers in Baltimore City 



Year 


Total 
Number 
New to 
Baltimore 
City 
White 
Ele- 
mentary 

and 
Prevoca- 
tional 
Schools 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 


Teachers New to Baltimore City Schools 


Inex- 
per- 
ienced 


Who Were Experienced 


From 
Other 
States 


But Not 

in 
Service 
Preced- 
ing 
Year 


In 

County 
Pre- 
ceding 
Year 


In Other 
Type of 

Balto. 
City 

School 


Other 


1929-30.. 


160 


+ 12 


138 


6 


9 


3 


3 


1 


1930-31.. 


185 


+44 


160 


2 


7 


8 


6 


2 


1931-32.. 


115 


—69 


69 


17 


10 


4 


14 


1 


1932-33.. 


67 


—221 


12 


6 






48 


1 


1933-34.. 


84 


—6 


60 


1 


18 


4 


1 


1934-35.. 


155 


+43 


132 


3 


11 


5 




4 



MORE MEN TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 227 men teaching in county white elementary schools 
in 1934-35, an increase of 6 over the year preceding and continuing 
the steady increase in the number of men teachers which has been 
evident since the year 1929-30. Only in three years since 1922-23|has 
there been a larger number of men teaching in white elementary 
schools and only in two years has the percentage been higher than it 
was in 1934-35, 7.7 per cent. (See Table IX, page 294.) 

Five counties, Calvert, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and 
Wicomico employed no men on their elementary school staffs. Five 
counties employed only one man — Caroline, Charles, Howard, 
Somerset and Talbot. The largest numbers of men were employed 
in Baltimore County which had 50, Washington which had 39, 
Frederick which had 29, Allegany which had 26, and Carroll which 
had 24. As a county secures large consolidated schools men can be 
given positions in upper grade work and as principals. 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



PUPILS PER WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHER 
There were 36.1 pupils belonging per white elementary teacher in 
1934-35, the same number as in 1933-34. The extremes in pupil- 
teacher ratio were St. Mary's with 28.5 and Baltimore County with 
41.9. Approximately one half of the counties increased the pupil- 
teacher ratio, the counties having the largest increases being Caroline 
Howard, Dorchester, and Garrett. (See Chart 7.) 

CHART 7 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 



1933 1934 1935 



Co. Average 


36.2 


36.1 


Baltimore 


41.7 


42.0 


Calvert 


40. S 


38.2 


Anne Arundel 


37.9 


37.3 


Worcester 


36.2 


36 .7 


Pr. George's 


Ob . o 


OO . O 


Frederick 


38.1 


37.1 


Caroline 


34.4 


34.2 


Washington 


36.1 


36.3 


Allegany 


36.4 


35.9 


Charles 


36.4 


36.7 


Garrett 


31.5 


34.5 


Wicomico 


36.8 


37.4 


Cecil 


35.5 


35.2 


Queen Anne ' s 


34.2 


35.0 


Dorchester 


54.0 


33.4 


Carroll 


35.9 


35.4 


Howard 


32.7 


32.5 


Somerset 


33.8 


34.0 


Montgomery 


33.3 


32.5 


Harford 


33.1 


33.0 


Talbot 


35.4 


33.8 


Kent 


31.5 


31.8 


St. Mary's 


29.8 


29.5 


Balto. City 


34.5 


35.6 


State 


35.5 


35.9 





1 Excludes 28.3 pupils for junior high and 20 pupils for vocational sch o]3. 



Number of Pupils per White Elementary Teacher 



47 



Baltimore City decreased the number of pupils belonging per ele- 
mentary and prevocational teacher and principal from 35.6 in 1934 
to 34.3 in 1935. The organization of more classes for the handicapped 
partly explains this reduction. Only seven counties had a lower pupil- 
teacher ratio than Baltimore City. With the reduction in Baltimore 
City, the State average decreased from 35.9 to 35.5 pupils belonging 
per white elementary principal and teacher. (See Chart 7.) 

The average number of pupils per county white elementary teacher 
was lowest in the 365 one-teacher schools, 26.5, next higher for the 
336 teachers in two-teacher schools, 31.9, and highest for the 2,241 
teaching in schools having 3 or more teachers, 38.4. (See Table 30.) 

TABLE 30 

Number of Teachers and Average Size of Class in County White Elementary 
One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1935 





Schools Having 
One Teacher 


County- 


Number 


Average 
Number 




of 


Be- 




Teachers 


longing 






Per 






Teacher 


Co. Average.. 


365 


26.5 


Baltimore .... 


6 


33.4 


Calvert 


1 


32.4 


Garrett 


59 


29.4 


Wicomico 


19 


28.9 


Charles 


1 


28.3 


Caroline 


7 


28.1 


Dorchester.... 


20 


28.0 


Cecil 


27 


27.3 


Frederick 


o 


27.3 


Allegany 


22 


26.7 


Washington.. 


42 


26.6 


Howard 


15 


26.2 


Pr. George's 


15 


25.8 


Somerset 


14 


24.9 


Worcester 


6 


24.8 


Harford 


26 


24.6 


Montgomery 


22 


24.4 


Carroll 


16 


23.8 


St. Mary's ... 


11 


22.9 


A. Arundel.. 


2 


22.4 


QueenAnne's 


6 


21.8 


Talbot 


8 


21.3 


Kent. 


11 


21.2 



County 



Co. Average 

Garrett 

Baltimore.... 

Calvert 

Washington 

Allegany 

Cecil - 

Frederick 

Worcester... 

Kent 

QueenAnne's 
Pr. George's 
Montgomery 

Carroll 

Charles 

Howard 

Dorchester . 
A. Arundel 

Harford 

St. Mary's ... 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Wicomico .... 
Talbot 



Schools Having 
Two Teachers 



Number 
of 

Teachers 



336 

14 
30 
6 
32 
24 
12 
24 



Average 
Number 

Be- 
longing 

Per 
Teacher 



31.9 

40.2 
39.7 
35.9 
34.3 
34.1 
33.8 
33.0 
32.1 
31.9 
31.1 
30.9 
30.8 
29.8 
29.3 
29.3 
28.8 
28.6 
27.8 
27.7 
27.1 
27.1 
25.5 
20.5 





Schools 


Having 




Three or More 




Teachers 


County 


Number 


Average 
Number 




of 


Be- 




Teachers 


longing 
Per 






Teacher 


Co, Average 


2,241 


38.4 


St. Mary's .. 


4 


47.4 


Garrett 


38 


43.8 


Baltimore ... 


350 


42.2 


Caroline 


39 


40.3 


Cecil 


50 


39.9 


Worcester.... 


44 


39.4 


Wicomico .... 


64 


39.1 


Howard 


33 


39.0 


QueenAnne's 


29 


39.0 


Calvert 


13 


38.5 


Dorchester . 


54 


38.5 


Pr. George's 


175 


38.5 


Washington 


229 


38.4 


Somerset 


41 


37.8 


A. Arundel 


149 


37.7 


Frederick 


166 


37.5 


Charles . 


33 


37.5 


Harford 


75 


36.9 


Allegany 


291 


36.9 


Carroll 


107 


36.8 


Kent 


25 


36.2 


Talbot 


41 


35.4 


Montgomery 


191 


34.5 



The average size of one-teacher schools ranged from less than 22 
in Kent, Talbot, and Queen Anne's to over 32 in Calvert and Balti- 
more Counties. It will be noted that Calvert and Charles Counties 
each had but one one-teacher school and Anne Arundel had only 2 
schools with a one-teacher organization. Garrett had 59 and Wash- 
ington 42 one-teacher schools. (See first two columns in Table 30.) 

The average size of class in two-teacher schools ranged from 
20.5 in Talbot where there was only one school to over 39 in Balti- 
more and Garrett Counties. (See third and fourth columns in Table 
30.) 



48 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In the larger schools the average number of pupils per teacher was 
lowest in Montgomery, which had 34.5, and highest in St. Mary's, 
Garrett, and Baltimore Counties, which had from 47.4 to 42.2 pupils 
per teacher. St. Mary's one graded school had overcrowded classes 
because of lack of rooms. Additional space is being made available 
through a W. P. A. project. The large classes in Garrett are explained 
in part by consolidation of small schools and lack of classroom 
space in the centers to which children have been transported. (See 
Table 30.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER 

The average salary per county white elementary principal and 
teacher in 1935 was $1,135, an increase of $13 over 1934, which year 
showed the first decrease in average salary reported. The cut in 
salaries made by the 1933 legislature was in effect in 1934 and in 1935 
in all counties, except two. In 1935, Montgomery County restored 
all of the 10 per cent cut and Charles restored one-half of the reduc- 
tion made in 1934. (See Tabte 31 and Chart 8.) 

TABLE 31 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher 
and Principal, 1917-1935 



Year 
Ending 
June 30 



Average 
Salary- 
White 
Elementary 
School 

Teachers 



1917 $491 

1918 542 

1919 521 

1920 631 

1921 881 

1922 937 

1923 990 

1924 1,030 

1925 1,057 

1926 1,103 



Year 
Ending 
June 30 



Average 
Salary- 
White 
Elementary 

School 
Teachers 



1927 $1,126 

1928 1,155 

1929 1,184 

1930 1,199 

1931 1,217 

1932 1,230 

1933 1,231 

1934 1,122 

1935 1,135 



The gradual increase in salaries appearing in the chart and table 
from 1923 to 1933, a period during which the same basic salary sched- 
ules were in effect, are attributable to the employment each year 
of a larger proportion of teachers holding certificates of the higher 
grades earned for meeting requirements for standard professional 
training, and to the retention in the service for a longer period of years 
of teachers who became entitled to salary increases provided in the 
basic salary schedules. (See Table 31 and Chart 8.) 



Average Salary per White Elementary Principal and Teacher 49 



CHART 8 



Average Salary per County White Elementary Principal and Teacher 

1921 to 1935 ftp. 



600 
200 
900 
600 
300 









































































1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 



The average salary per white elementary principal and teacher 
ranged between less than $1,000 in Carroll, St. Mary's, Howard 
Dorchester, Worcester, Caroline, and Somerset, and over $1 100 in 
Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Cecil, Allegany, Montgomery and 
Baltimore Counties. The extremes were $980 and $1,393. (See 
Chart 9.) 

Montgomery, which restored its cut of the preceding year showed 
a substantial increase from 1934 to 1935— $141, which brought its 
average close to that paid in 1932 and 1933. Cecil's increase of $38 
and Charles' of $22 m average salaries from 1934 to 1935 were the 
next largest increases. Harford, Prince George's, and Allegany had 
increases of $10, $9, and $8, respectively, and in Washington Fred- 
erick, St. Mary's, and Caroline, the average salary paid in 1935 was 
from $5 to $1 more than in 1934. (See Chart 9.) 



50 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For the counties showing decreases from 1934 to 1935, the maxi- 
mum of $20 was found in Anne Arundel. Not only were salaries in 
1934 and 1935 cut by 10 and 11 per cent from the schedule in 1932-33, 
but the increments due to experience required by the schedule prior 
to 1933 legislation were not paid after 1932-33. (See Chart 9.) 

CHART 9 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER 
IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1952 


1933 


1934 


Co. Average 


$1230 $1231 $1122 


Baltimore 


1541 


1453 


1399 


Montgomery 


1362 


1366 


1221 


Allegany 


1297 


1314 


1175 


Cecil 


1210 


1226 


1134 


Anne Arundel 


1200 


1270 


1170 


Pr. George's 


1221 


1231 


1103 


Harford 


"MAP, 


XJ.OJ. 


J.UO I 


Washington 


XXD ( 


1168 


1055 


Queen Anne ' s 


1191 


1183 


1058 


Kent 


1170 


1175 


1050 


Frederick 


1129 


1139 


1029 


Garrett 


1131 


1144 


1031 


Wicomico 


1127 


1143 


1028 


Charles 


1088 


1100 


1000 


Calvert 


1114 


1150 


1015 


Talbot 


1127 


1121 


1005 


Somerset 


1109 


1119 


1007 


Caroline 


1096 


1115 


990 


V<'orcester 


1102 


1118 


992 


Dorchester 


1090 


1104 


989 


HoY.'ard 


1101 


1104 


992 


St. Mary's 


1077 


1099 


982 


Carroll 


1097 


1095 


991 


Balto. City 


1788 


1701 


1696 


State 


1443 


1405 


1328 




t Excludes $1,881 for junior high and $1,876 for vocational schools. 



Average Salary, Cost per Pupil, White Elementary Schools 51 



COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL 

The 1935 cost per pupil belonging in county white elementary 
schools, $45, was an increase of one dollar over the per pupil cost the 
year preceding. The range in cost per pupil was from $37 in Wash- 
ington County to $57 in Montgomery. The cost per pupil increased 
from 1934 to 1935 in eleven counties, while in the remainder it de- 
creased or remained stationary. (See Chart 10.) 

CHART 10 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 


1933 


1934 


Co. Average 


$ 47 


f 4.4 


Montgomery- 


56 


54 


Calvert 


60 


58 


St. Mary's 


55 


52 


Charles 


51 


47 


Queen Anne ' s 


55 


52 


Kent 


57 


57 


Anne Arundel 


50 


47 


Tfll hot 


48 


48 


Carroll 


48 


43 


Cecil 


47 


44 


TNorcester 


47 


44 


Allegany 


48 


45 


Garrett 


50 


44 


Frederick 


43 


43 


Baltimore 


45 


44 


Harford 


45 


44 


Dorchester 


47 


45 


Somerset 


45 


41 


Caroline 


48 


44 


Prince George's 


46 


41 


Howard 


45 


45 


Wicomico 


43 


41 


Washington 


40 


37 


Baltimore City 


64 


60 


State 


53 


50 




* Excludes $80 for junior high and $131 for vocational schools. 

The change in cost per white elementary pupil from 1934 to 1935 
did not exceed three dollars, except in two counties, Kent and Charles. 



52 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

In Kent there was a drop of six dollars per pupil because of the de- 
crease in average salary per teacher and in transportation costs per 
pupil, and because bills outstanding for books and materials were 
unpaid. In Charles the restoration of one half of the salary cut and 
the reduction in pupil-teacher ratio brought about an increase of six 
dollars in the cost per pupil. (See Chart 10.) 

The cost per white elementary pupil in Baltimore City, $62, was 
higher by $5 than that found in any county. (See Chart 10.) 

TABLE 32 



Cost Per Pupil in White Elementary Schools, Grades 1-7, (8), for the Main Sub- 
divisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control, for the Year Ending, 

July 31, 1935 



County 


Supervision 


Salaries 


Text Books 
and Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average.- 


$1.08 


$31.39 


$1.63 


$3.60 


$1.34 


$6.12 


$45.16 


$6.48 


Allegany 


.97 


32.82 


2.43 


4.09 


.76 


4.20 


45.27 


.08 


Anne Arundel 


1.10 


31.16 


2.00 


3.89 


1.06 


9.67 


48.88 


2.40 


Baltimore. 


.76 


33.27 


1.12 


3.94 


.86 


4.06 


44.01 


6.03 


Calvert 


2.88 


27.06 


.67 


3.96 


.65 


21.07 


56.29 




Caroline. 


1.21 


27.22 


1.65 


3.04 


.93 


9.12 


43.17 


.78 


Carroll 


.94 


28.38 


2.43 


2.49 


1.42 


10.50 


46.16 


8.79 


Cecil 


.92 


33.22 


2.12 


2.95 


1.70 


4.93 


45.84 


.98 


Charles... 


1.72 


28.38 


2.89 


4.63 


2.29 


12.72 


52.63 


.67 




1.89 


28.46 


1.26 


2.74 


1.51 


7.63 


43.49 


.32 


Frederick 


.96 


28.33 


2.00 


3.03 


1.49 


8.44 


44.25 


.50 


Garrett 


1.24 


28.70 


1.41 


1.99 


1.38 


9.68 


44.40 


1.27 


Harford 


1.33 


32.72 


1.34 


3.03 


1.50 


3.70 


43.62 


4.15 




1.51 


29.03 


1.73 


3.04 


.50 


7.07 


42.88 


1.38 


Kent - 


2.02 


32.87 


.45 


4.74 


.84 


9.61 


50.53 




Montgomery 


1.03 


40.98 


1.53 


5.67 


2.44 


5.31 


56.96 


49.70 


Prince George's 


.95 


30.32 


1.79 


4.47 


2.25 


3.20 


42.98 


14.47 


Queen Anne's 


1.64 


29.97 


1.66 


2.98 


1.65 


13.49 


51.39 


1.04 


St. Mary's 


2.17 


34.58 


1.77 


1.73 


2.52 


12.56 


55.33 




Somerset 


1.04 


29.77 


1.58 


3.02 


1.14 


6.86 


43.41 


.02 


Talbot 


1.66 


30.83 


1.31 


4.39 


1.17 


9.09 


48.45 




Washington 


.85 


29.15 


.97 


2.67 


.61 


2.55 


36.80 


.20 


Wicomico 


1.20 


28.75 


1.62 


3.18 


2.86 


4.49 


42.10 


1.48 


Worcester.... 


1.32 


26.82 


.97 


3.78 


1.97 


10.45 


45.31 


.19 


Baltimore City 


1.15 


53.50 


2.14 


7.28 


2.29 


1.29 


67.65 


4.98 


Elementary 


1.15 


48.57 


1.69 


6.92 


2.28 


1.66 


62.27 


4.53 


Junior High 


1.17 


66.43 


3.06 


7.65 


1.92 


.17 


80.40 


6.21 


Vocational 


1.08 


93.95 


9.62 


18.10 


7.85 


.37 


130.97 


7.85 


state 


1.11 


40.76 


1.85 


5.16 


1.74 


4.07 


54.69 


5.84 



The average 1935 current expense per white county elementary 
pupil included the following items: for salaries of teachers and prin- 
cipals, $31.39, for supervision $1.08, for textbooks, materials, and 
''other" costs of instruction $1.63, for operation $3.60, for mainte- 
nance $1.34, for auxiliary agencies which include transportation, 
libraries and health, $6.12. Every item except maintenance which 
decreased by 20 cents, showed increases, the lowest addition for super- 
vision being 2 cents and the highest for salaries being 32 cents. 
The small decrease in elementary enrollment would have a tendency 
to cause a slight increase in average cost per pupil. (See Table 32.) 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil Analyzed 



53 



Salary Cost per Pupil in Individual Counties 

The cost per pupil for salaries of teachers and principals ranged 
between $26.82 in Worcester and $34.58 in St. Mary's and $40.98 in 
Montgomery. Per pupil salary costs are dependent largely on aver- 
age number of pupils per teacher and the salary schedule in effect. 
St. Mary's had the smallest number of pupils per white elementary 
teacher, which more than counteracted the fact that it ranked next 
to lowest in average salary per teacher. Montgomery had the next 
to highest average salary and ranked fifth from lowest in number of 
pupils per teacher, both of which factors would tend to increase salary 
cost per pupil. Worcester ranked fourth from highest in number of 
pupils per teacher and fifth from lowest in average salary per teacher, 
both of which factors would tend to lower its rank in salary pupil 
cost. 

In Baltimore City the salary cost per white elementary pupil, 
$48.57, was higher than in any county. Ten counties showed a de- 
crease in salary cost per pupil from 1934 to 1935. (See Table 32.) 

Supervision Cost per White Elementary Pupil 

The cost per county white elementary pupil for supervision ranged 
from under one dollar in Baltimore, Washington, Cecil, Carroll, 
Prince George's, Frederick, and x\llegany, in all of which counties 
the full number of supervisors for whom State aid could be granted 
was not employed, to over two dollars per pupil in Kent, St. Mary's, 
and Calvert. In each of these latter counties, which employ a sin- 
gle supervisor, the smallest number of white elementary teachers is 
employed. In eight counties the cost per pupil for supervision was 
lower in 1935 than in 1934. Since there are very few non-teaching 
elementary principals in Maryland, the only supervision available 
to the principals and teachers in most of the counties is that which 
comes from the county and state supervisory program. It is super- 
vision which through individual and group work checks up on the 
efficiency of instruction, helps teachers to make the most of their 
ability and knowledge by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses 
and by making available to them opportunities to see good teaching, 
develops with teachers the course of study and sees that it is put into 
effect, provides for the growth and development of teachers in teach- 
ers' meetings. 

In Baltimore City the cost per pupil for supervision was $1.15, 
three cents more than in 1934. 

Cost per White Elementary Pupil for Books and Materials 

Expenditures per county white elementary pupil for books, mate- 
rials, and ''other "costs of instruction ranged from less than one dollar 
per pupil in Kent, Calvert, Washington, and Worcester, to over two 
dollars per pupil in Charles, Allegany, Carroll, and Cecil. In five 
counties, 1935 costs per pupil were below those in 1934. In Kent 
County, which spent least per pupil, bills for these purposes remained 



54 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



outstanding at the close of the school year. Actually therefore Kent 
should show a higher cost. In Baltimore City the cost per pupil was 
$1.69. The State aid for books and materials per pupil belonging was 
89 cents. Kent and Calvert were the only two counties which spent 
less than this amount per pupil. Pupils should, of course, be supplied 
with the books and instructional materials which they can use to 
good advantage and in most cases it is necessary for the county and 
Baltimore City to supplement State funds. (See Table 32.) 



Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance 

For heating and cleaning buildings, the cost per white elementary 
pupil ranged from less than two dollars per pupil in St. Mary's and 
Garrett to over five dollars in Montgomery and between four and five 
dollars in Kent, Charles, Prince George's, Talbot, and Allegany. 
In Charles, the cost included at Indian Head is paid by the Federal 
government. The average number of pupils to a room, the cheapness 
of fuel, the necessity for trained janitorial service are all factors in 
determining cost per pupil. Six counties had lower costs per pupil in 
1935 than in 1934. The cost per pupil in Baltimore City, $6.92, was 
higher than that in any county. (See TabLe 32.) 

The cost per white elementary pupil of repairing buildings, 
grounds, and equipment ranged from less than 75 cents in Howard, 
Washington, and Calvert to over two dollars in Wicomico, St. Mary's, 
Montgomery, Charles, and Prince George's. A number of counties, 
in addition to expenditures by the School Board for repairs, received 
more or less aid from the works projects of the Federal Emergency 
Relief Administration. A summary of the projects affecting the 
schools carried out in individual counties is given in Table 151, page 
230. Nine of the counties spent more on repairs in 1935 than in 1934. 
Four counties spent more per white elementary pupil for repairs than 
the amount spent in Baltimore City, $2.28. (See Table 32.) 



Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

For auxiliary agencies, the cost per white elementary pupil ranged 
from $2.55 in Washington County, $3.20 in Prince George's, and 
$3.70 in Harford to over twelve dollars in four counties. In Calvert 
the cost was $21.07, in Queen Anne's $13.49, in Charles $12.72, in St. 
Mary's $12.56. In only four counties, Calvert, Queen Anne's, Kent, 
and Montgomery was the expenditure for auxiliary agencies lower in 
1935 than in 1934. No county spent as little per white elementary 
pupil for auxiliary agencies as Baltimore City in 1935 — $1.66. 

An analysis of transportation, libraries, and health, which are in- 
cluded under the general classification of auxiliary agencies, shows the 
importance of each of these factors. (See Table 33.) 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil Analyzed 



55 



Transporting Pupils Chief Factor in Auxiliary Agencies' Cost 

Transportation of 30,947 white elementary pupils to school in 
1934-35 cost $624,768, 96 per cent of the total cost of auxiliary agen- 
cies. The increase was 973 pupils and $22,676 over the year preced- 
ing. The per cent of pupils transported, 28.7, was an increase of .9 
over the per cent transported in 1933-34. The average cost per pupil 
transported, $20.19, was ten cents higher than for the year before. 
(See Table 33.) 

TABLE 33 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland County 
White Elementary Schools— Year Ending, July 31, 1935 



Transportation 



COUNTY 


Pupils ' 
portef 
Public E 


Trans- 
i at 
xpense 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost 
per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total 
Expen- 
ditures 
for 
Libraries 


Amou 


nt per 


Number 


Per 

Cent 


School 


Teachei 


Total and 
























Average .. 


30,947 


28 


7 


$624,768 


$20 


19 


$8,001 


$9 


39 


$2 


.73 


Calvert 


488 


64 


3 


15,732 


32 


24 


35 


5 


00 


1 


75 


Queen 
























Anne's 


790 


52 


8 


20,107 


25 


45 


85 


5 


02 


1 


99 


Charles 


897 


62 





17,933 


19 


99 


240 


23 


98 


6 


00 


St. Mary's 


419 


41 


3 


12,117 


28 


92 


194 


8 


81 


5 


54 


Carroll 


2,387 


49 


3 


50,114 


20 


99 


39 




94 




28 


Worcester.... 


1,125 


51 


6 


22,025 


19 


58 


145 


7 


63 


2 


52 


Garrett 


1,088 


27 


8 


36,930 


33 


42 


698 


9 


43 


6 


31 


Anne 
























Arundel ... 


2,835 


47 


3 


54,416 


19 


19 


80 


2 


86 




50 


Kent 


501 


35 


8 


12,988 


25 


92 


47 


2 


23 


1 


07 


Caroline 


1,040 


50 


4 


18,546 


17 


83 


10 




50 




18 


Talbot 


617 


36 


9 


14,711 


23 


84 


351 


21 


95 


6 


91 


Frederick ... 


2,731 


37 


2 


61,041 


22 


35 


230 


5 


00 


1 


15 


Dorchester 


1,051 


34 


8 


22,443 


21 


35 


109 


3 


13 


1 


28 


Howard 


690 


34 


2 


13,731 


19 


90 


60 


2 


22 


1 


03 


Somerset 


740 


33 


4 


14,802 


20 


00 


10 




40 




15 


Montgomery 


2,383 


31 


1 


35,123 


14 


74 


203 


4 


13 




89 


Cecil 


826 


26 





14.304 


17 


32 


1,166 


29 


16 


13 


08 


Wicomico... 


819 


23 


7 


14,102 


17 


22 


723 


20 


10 


7 


78 


Allegany 


2,388 


19 





46,030 


19 


41 


612 


9 


41 


1 


81 


Baltimore .. 


3,761 


22 


7 


62,190 


16 


54 


1,968 


32 


25 


5 


13 


Harford 


744 


18 


1 


14,485 


19 


47 


255 


, 5 


10 


2 


04 


Pr. George's 


1,300 


16 


3 


23,203 


17 


85 


447 


7 


99 


2 


09 


Washmgton 


1,327 


11 


9 


27,695 


20 


87 


294 


3 


38 




97 



Libraries 



Health and 

Ph ysical 
Education 



Total 
Expen- 
ditures 

for 
Health 



$12,429 
3 

161 
150 



96 



1,030 
325 
25 



180 
150 



4,645 



2,676 
1,331 

1,623 
34 



Amount 

per 
Pupil 



12 



.02 



.20 



The factor which more than any other determines the rank of a 
county in cost per pupil for auxiliary agencies is the per cent of pupils 
transported. Calvert, which ranks highest, transported over 64 per 
cent of its white elementary pupils. Washington, which ranks low- 
est, transported only 12 per cent of these pupils. Since the cost per 
pupil transported also has some influence, the counties do not rank 
entirely in accordance with per cent of pupils transported. . 



56 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Although six counties, Calvert, Charles, Anne Arundel, Cecil, 
Wicomico, and Baltimore, transported fewer white elementary pupils 
in 1934-35 than in 1933-34, only three, Calvert, Cecil, and Baltimore, 
transported a smaller percentage of pupils. Five counties, Calvert, 
Queen Anne's, Kent, Talbot, and Montgomery, spent less for trans- 
portation in 1934-35 than in 1933-34. The cost per pupil transported 
was lower in ten counties in 1934-35 than it was the preceding year. 
(See Table 33.) 

The cost per white elementary pupil transported was less than $20 
in twelve counties, the lowest cost, ($14.74) appearing in Montgomery 
County. In Montgomery a large proportion of the buses in use are 
owned by the county. Garrett and Calvert were the only counties 
in which the cost per pupil transported was over $30, while in St. 
Mary's, Kent, and Queen Anne's it was between $25 and $29. (See 
Table 33.) 

There are, of course, many elements which must be taken into 
consideration in comparing cost of transportation — length of route, 
capacity and crowding of the bus, type and equipment of bus used, 
type of roads traversed, period of contract, requirements regard- 
ing responsibility of drivers, amount of insurance carried, ownership 
of bus by county or private individuals, and others. 

Expenditures for Library Books 

The county expenditure of $8,000 for library books was an in- 
crease of $2,321 over the amount spent in 1933-34. Two counties, 
Caroline and Somerset, contributed only $10, whereas Baltimore 
County contributed $1,968 and Cecil County $1,166. Expenditure 
from county funds per school was over $32 in Baltimore County, $29 
in Cecil, $24 in Charles, $22 in Talbot, and $20 in Wicomico County. 
Expenditure per teacher was $13 in Cecil, nearly $8 in Wicomico, 
nearly $7 in Talbot, $6 or more in Garrett and Charles, and between 
$5 and $6 in St. Mary's and Baltimore County. (See Table 33.) 

SERVICE OF THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION 

In addition to the library facilities in the schools, many teachers 
took advantage of the privilege of securing books from the public 
libraries in the counties and from the Maryland Public Library Ad- 
visory Commission with offices in the Enoch Pratt Library Building, 
400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Md. 

The services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory commission 
to the white elementary schools in 1934-35 showed no material gain 
for two reasons. First, the book collection suffering from hard and 
constant use is greatly depleted, and, with a 90 per cent cut in the 
book appropriation still in effect, no new books could be purchased 
to replace those worn out and discarded. Second, since the appropria- 
tion for transportation was not restored, borrowers are still required 
to pay all carrying charges on books borrowed. (See Table 34.) 



Transportation, Libraries; Services of Library Commission 



57 



TABLE 34 

Services of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission to the County 
White Elementary Schools, School Year 1934-1935 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 






ySO to 35 books in each) 


n to 


12 books in 


each) 




Total 
















No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




Oounty 




































Traveling 






Package 






Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


f 1931 


12 022 


157 


196 


299 


89 


124 


393 


1 1932 


9,799 


165 


206 


275 


79 


84 


266 


Total { 1933 


16^606 


182 


275 


419 


87 


112 


334 


1934 


8,609 


96 


128 


225 


91 


107 


210 


i 1935 


8 675 


81 


144 


219 


77 


88 


247 


Allegany 


a453 


5 


5 


13 


5 


6 


11 


Anne Arundel 


cb292 


4 


4 


8 


2 


2 


7 


Baltimore 




19 


40 


59 


19 


22 


91 


Calvert 


46 


1 

6 


1 


1 




I 


2 


Caroline 


1,897 


24 


47 


6 


8 


27 


Carroll 




10 


14 


18 


2 


2 


4 


Cecil 


hll2 


2 


2 


3 


5 


7 


7 


Charles 


rb20 








2 


2 


2 


Dorchester.. 


cef361 


4 


5 


6 


13 


15 


32 


Frederick.. 


c375 


2 


6 


10 


1 


1 


9 


Garrett 


80 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Harford 


cb372 


5 


9 


11 


2 


2 


2 


Howard 


cl53 


3 


3 


A' 


5 


5 


8 


Kent 


10 








1 


1 


1 


Montgomery 


f788 


7 


16 


23 


2 


2 


4 


Prince George's 


kl05 


3 


3 


3 








Queen Anne's 


75 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


St. Marv's 
















Somerset 


179 


3 


3 




2 


2 


]7 


Talbot 


d4 








1 


1 


1 


Washington 


d93 


1 


3 


3 




1 


3 


Wicomico 


c30 


2 


2 


1 








Worcester 


el26 


1 


1 


2 


4 


5 


16 



a The Cumberland Public Library supplies the schools of Cumberland from its own collections. 
The public libraries in Westernport and Lonaconing supplement the classroom collections of books 
for recreational reading. In addition the Library Commission took care of the needs in these schools 
and supplied other schools of the county as shown above. 

b I^imited library service given schools by County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county' seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no out- 
side help. 

e Other teachers supplied with books loaned the County Supervisors, 
f Teachers are supplied through school librarian or principal. 

fe Silver Spring Public Library supplies the nearby schools from its own collections also. 

h Cecil County Board of Education is organizing a Central Elementary School Library giving 
county-wide service under the direction of the supervisor. 

k Hyattsville Public Library provides books for school use without charge. Teachers may keep 
these classroom libraries as long as they are needed and books from them may be loaned to pupils 
for home use. 

m The Towson P. T. A. elementary school library which continues to function during the summer 
vacation has a story-hour for children. 

Counties showing an increase in the number of volumes borrowed 
were Allegany, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Frederick, 
Montgomery, Queen Anne's, and Worcester. The elementary schools 
of St. Mary's County borrowed no books. Talbot County borrowed 
only four books, but it has a County Library which serves the schools 
and when necessary secures books from the Commission to supple- 
ment its collection. 



58 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period of 
four months, at the end of which time they may be returned and ex- 
changed for another collection, or renewed for four more months. 
Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; thirty-five 
in those sent by express. They are not fixed collections, but are 
selected to suit individual needs. The cost of transporting the books 
must be taken care of by the school benefiting and guarantee of re- 
imbursement for lost and damaged books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books, made up to 
meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual needs 
or professional reading of teachers, are loaned to any one living in 
Maryland who is without access to a public library. The package 
libraries are mailed at the expense of the borrower. 

Expenditures for Health and Physical Education 

The total expenditures by the counties for health and physical 
education activities with white elementary pupils in cooperation with 
the P. A. L. were $12,429 in 1934-35, a decrease of $1,255 under 
1933-34. The chief change was the reduction in the amount spent in 
Washington County for health service, which in 1933-34 had been 
$1,716, and in 1934-35 was only $340. Montgomery spent the largest 
amount, $4,645, for its health and nutrition program, which was 
equivalent to 61 cents per pupil. Allegany's health program for white 
elementary schools cost $2,676, or 22 cents per pupil. Kent's ex- 
penditure of $325 meant 23 cents per pupil, while Prince George's and 
Anne Arundel's financing of school nurses at a cost of $1,623 and 
$1,030, amounted to 20 and 17 cents per white elementary pupil, 
respectively. Baltimore County invested $1,331 in the P. A. L. pro- 
gram which equalled 8 cents per pupil. Queen Anne's, Charles, 
Howard, and Dorchester invested small amounts for health and phys- 
ical education. There were nine counties which spent not one dollar 
for these purposes. (See Table 33, page 55.) 

SCHOOL ACTIVITIES OF THE MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH* 

During 1934-35 every county had a full time health officer in charge 
of its public health service. The personnel of the county health service 
included 23 full time health officers, Baltimore and Anne Arundel 
Counties each having assistants, and St. Mary's and Charles, and 
Caroline and Talbot each sharing the services of one officer; 51 public 
health nurses; and 27 clerks. (See Table 35.) 

Including state and county funds and contributions from other 
sources, the health budgets of the 23 counties totalled $301,914. 
Half of the total or $151,343, came from county levies, $127,007 or 42 
per cent from State aid, and the remainder, $23,564, or 8 per cent 
from various agencies. State aid varied from 12 per cent in Allegany 
and 16 per cent in Baltimore County to over 84 per cent in Caroline 

* Report available through the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director State Department 
of Health, and Miss Gertrude Knipp. 



School Activities of State and County Health Officials 



59 



County. In Howard County 42 per cent of the health budget came 
from private sources, and in Harford, 24 per cent. In only three 
counties, Allegany, Carroll, and Kent was no aid given toward the 
health budget by private agencies. (See Table 35.) 



TABLE 35 

Full-Time County Health Officers in Service, September 30, 



1935 



COUNTY 



Total Counties 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Cecil 

Wicomico... 

Anne Arundel... 

Kent 

Washington 

Worcester 

Garrett „ 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne*s . 

Howard 

Charles _ 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 



Year 
Start- 
ed 



1922 
1923 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1927 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1929 
1930 
1930 
1930 
1931 
1931 
1931 
1931 
1932 
1932 
1932 
1933 
1934 



Number of 



Nurses 



Clerks 



Total 
Budget 
1934- 
1935 



$301,914 

36,912 
29,286 
30,518 
7,088 
8,299 
12,322 
11,614 
7,528 
10,943 
9,905 
10,097 
18,999 
11,783 
19,474 
9,246 
8,934 
10,261 
8,081 
11,212 
10,048 
8,400 
4,702 
6,262 



Source of Receipts 



Amount 



County 



$151,343 

32,428 
18,257 
21,746 
2,828 
2,757 
8,203 
5,145 
2,543 
4,995 
4,708 
4,559 
7,110 
5,008 
10,030 
2,866 
3,154 
2,263 
2,842 
1,786 
2,225 
3,553 
1,622 
715 



State 



$127,007 

4,484 
8,319 
4,752 
4,050 
5,542 
3,569 
6,014 
4,805 
3,313 
5,127 
4,908 
10,551 
6,775 
6,404 
6,200 
5,600 
6,488 
4,989 
4,740 
7,348 
4,757 
2,980 
5,292 



other 
Agen- 
cies 



$23,564 



2,710 
4,020 
210 



550 
455 
180 

2,635 
70 
630 

1,338 



3,040 
180 
180 

1,510 
250 

4,686 
475 
90 
100 
255 



Per Cent 



Coun- State 
ty 



50.1 

87.9 
62.3 
71.2 
39.9 
33.2 
66.6 
44.3 
33.8 
45.6 
47.5 
45.2 
37.4 
42.5 
51.5 
31.0 
35.3 
22.1 
35.1 
15.9 
22.2 
42.3 
34.5 
11.4 



42.1 

12.1 
28.4 
15.6 
57.1 
66.8 
29.0 
51.8 
63.8 
30.3 
51.8 
48.6 
55.6 
57.5 
32.9 
67.1 
62.7 
63.2 
61.7 
42.3 
73.1 
56.6 
63.4 
84.5 



Other 
Agen- 
cies 



7.8 



15.6 
1.9 
2.0 

14.7 
3.1 

41.8 
4.7 
1.1 
2.1 
4.1 



Medical Examinations and Inspections of School Children 

Medical examinations and inspections of school children on the 
invitation of the county school authorities, and the control of com- 
municable diseases in the schools, are among the activities of major 
importance in the full time county health service. Over 80,000 
children, the majority of whom were in the elementary grades, were 
given a complete physical examination by the county health officers. 
In addition, over half as many were inspected by the health officers 
or public health nurses in connection with the control of transmissible 
disease. Dental clinics were a part of the school health work in 15 
of the counties. The total number of pupils examined or inspected 
during the year ending December 31, 1935, was 122,333. Baltimore 
County led with 29,151; Carroll came next with 14,075; Anne Arundel 
was third with 13,316 and Allegany fourth with 9,079. (See Table 36.) 



60 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 36 

Examinations of School and Pre- chool Children by State and County Health 

Officers, 1935 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore.- 

Calvert.. 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett _ 

Harford 

Howard. 

Kent 

Montgomery.. 
Pr. George's .. 
Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



No. of 
Visits 

to 
Schools 

by 
Nurses 

in 
1935 



12,518 

1,288 
837 

1,639 
338 
293 
629 
166 
398 
100 
598 
428 
325 
387 
565 
477 
542 
307 
286 
260 
655 
838 
874 
288 



No. of 
Pupils 

Ex- 
amined 
or 
In- 
spected 



122,333 

9,079 
13,316 
29,151 
1,291 
3,203 
14,075 
1,824 
1,250 
419 
5,660 
2,579 
2,116 
5,376 
2,717 
6,348 
7,658 
4,512 
559 
471 
1,638 
3,867 
3,713 
1,511 



Pre-schooi. Childrem 
Examined During 1935 



Number 



White Colored 



4,529 

792 
265 
983 
34 
22 
12 
44 
142 
101 
417 
202 
206 
135 
69 
99 
176 
36 
45 
86 
26 
413 
224 



1,117 



110 
87 
73 



47 
145 



57 
100 
82 
53 
62 
73 
35 
50 
28 
20 
80 



Per Cent 



White Colored 



31.5 



.1 
.4 
,0 
8.9 
61.5 
28.9 
43.6 
35.9 
38.9 
44.1 
33.5 
9.9 
14.3 
16.1 
18.3 
31.2 
8.6 
32.6 
52.3 



33.5 

29.0 
31.3 
38.7 
51.0 
7.7 



100.0 
73.6 



50.9 
100.0 
86.3 
31.9 
14.8 
60.3 
19.6 
25.9 
16.1 
60.6 
51.0 



Pe^ Ca^T OP Pre-school 
Children Examined 



Requiring 
Vaccination 
vs. SmallDox 



White Colored 



44.8 

44.2 
35.8 
51.0 
17.6 

9.1 
100.0 
81.8 
16.2 
24.8 
67.9 

8.9 
45.1 

8.9 
20.3 
18.2 
93.8 
66.7 
11.1 
51.2 
38.5 
64.4 
12.9 



43.7 

100.0 
36.4 
57.5 
11.0 



80.9 
32.4 



86.0 
2.0 
35.4 



80.6 
89.0 
25.7 
60.0 
92.9 
100.0 
20.0 



Not Im- 
munized 
vs. Diptheria 



White Colored 



58.3 

95.6 
44.5 
46.0 
29.4 
50.0 
75.0 
52.3 
76.1 
26.7 
62.8 
29.2 
57.8 
3.7 
34.8 
16.2 
69.3 
72.2 
51.1 
51.2 
61.5 
81.4 
33.0 



49.8 

100.0 
21.8 
57.5 
4.1 



76.6 
80.7 



75.4 
2.0 

57.3 
1.9 

85. 

71. 

68. 

66. 
3. 

90. 



5 
2 
6 

6 


53.8 



In the larger schools, complete medical examinations were limited, 
as a rule, to selected grades. In the smaller schools all children were 
examined. Montgomery County concentrated on the children in the 
kindergarten, the first grade, and the first year of the high school. 
Children in other grades were examined at the request of the teachers, 
or were re-examined to check up on the correction of defects. During 
the latter part of the year, examinations in Montgomery County 
were made by physicians appointed by the County Medical Society. 
With this exception, all examinations were conducted by the county 
health officers, assisted by the public health nurses. The parents were 
notified of conditions in need of correction and were advised to take 
their children to their family physicians for the necessary treatment 
or care. 

The findings in the examination of 9,316 Baltimore County school 
children, 8,022 white, of whom 546 attended seven parochial schools, 
and 1,294 colored are of special interest because they admit of com- 
parisons with preceding years. 

The decrease in evidences of malnutrition and the increase in the 
percentage of defects corrected are the most significant features in 
the findings. Children who were 10 per cent or more underweight or 
who gave other indications of malnutrition comprised 13.6 per cent 



School Activities of State and County Health Officials 61 



of the total number examined in 1934-35 as compared to 16.9 during 
1933-34; 14.6 in 1932-33; and 16.2 per cent in 1931-32. The increase 
from year to year in the correction of defects is indicative of the 
growing interest and cooperation of parents, stimulated in many in- 
stances by the activities of the parent-teacher organizations. The 
percentage of corrections completed in Baltimore County during the 
school year of 1934-35 was 40.3 as compared to 32.9 in 1933-34, 22 
per cent in 1932-33, and 12 per cent in 1931-32. 

In all of the examinations, particular attention is paid to the con- 
dition of the teeth, tonsils, skin and scalp, to the heart, lungs, vision 
and hearing, as well as to general health and nutrition. The find- 
ings in the examinations in Baltimore County, characteristic of con- 
ditions in the children in other counties, showed that 77 per cent were 
in need of dental attention; that tonsils of 23.1 per cent indicated 
unfavorable conditions of the nose or throat; that 13.6 per cent were 
underweight or gave other indications of malnutrition; and 4.4 per 
cent had impaired vision. 

Examination of Pre-School Children 

In preparation for their admission to school in the fall, over 5,600 
children approaching school age were examined at child health con- 
ferences held under the joint direction of the Bureau of Child Hygiene 
of the State Department of Health and the County Departments of 
Health. Through the cooperation of the County Superintendents, 
many of the conferences were held in the school buildings before the 
close of the spring term. Others were held during the summer. In all 
of the examinations, emphasis was laid upon the importance of 
prompt attention to conditions in need of correction, so that the 
children could enter school free from avoidable physical handicaps. 
Much of the interest shown by the parents in these examinations is 
due to the active cooperation of the public health nurses and the 
parent-teacher associations. 

An opportunity to have the children of some of the more scattered 
communities examined was afforded by the visit during the summer 
of the Healthmobile of the Bureau of Child Hygiene to Southern 
Maryland and to some of the counties on the Eastern Shore. The 
staff of the motorized health conferences included a physician, a den- 
tist, and the county public health nurse. The itinerary in each county 
was arranged by the County Health Officer. 

The total number of children examined in preparation for admis- 
sion to school was 5,646, of whom 4,529 were white and 1,117 were 
colored. Of the white children, 874, 19 per cent, were 10 per cent or 
more underweight, or gave other evidence of malnutrition; 2,633, 58 
per cent, needed dental attention. Unfavorable conditions of the 
throat were observed in 1,718, 38 per cent, and adenoids in 473, 
10 per cent. Fifty-six had defects of vision, and imperfect hearing was 
observed in 43. Nearly half of the children, 2,031 or 45 per cent 
had not been vaccinated against smallpox, and 2,641, 58 per cent, 
had not been protected again diphtheria before the schools opened. 



62 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Attention of parents was directed to the State law which will not 
permit any child who has not been vaccinated against smallpox to be 
enrolled in any public school in the State. (See Table 36.) 

Immunization Against Diphtheria and Typhoid 

Over 15,000 children were immunized against diphtheria during 
the year. Allegany County led with 2,599, Anne Arundel came next 
with 2,055, Baltimore, Montgomery, Carroll, and Wicomico followed 
with 1,297, 1,261, 1,227, and 1,112, respectively. Many children 
of school age were among the 9,000 persons in the State who were 
protected against typhoid fever during the year. 

Dental Clinics 

Dental Clinics constituted part of the school health service in 
fifteen counties. They were held under the joint direction of the 
Division of Oral Hygiene of the State Department of Health and 
the State Department of Education. In addition, five counties on the 
Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland had the benefit of the service 
offered in connection with the visit of the Healthmobile. Treatments 
were given to over 8,000 of the nearly 15,600 children examined at the 
clinics held during the school year which closed July 31, 1935. The 
number examined ranged from 53 in Garrett County to 2,607 in Anne 



TABLE 37 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of Maryland 
State Department of Health, August 1, 1934, to July 31, 1935 









Number of 














ician 




Children 




Number of 




County 


_c 

O 


Time Given 
to Servicet 


Exam- 




















ined 




Fillings 


Teeth 






Total 








by 


Treated 


In- 


Ex- 


Clean- 


Treat- 


Opera- 




d 




Den- 




serted 


tracted 


ings 


ments 


tions 








tists 












Total..... 


*25 




15,596 


8,107 


18,663 


11,271 


3,823 


1,749 


35,506 


Allegany 


1 


Full 


1,291 


682 


2,733 


1,663 


478 


434 


5,308 


Anne Arundel 


4 


Part 


2,607 


1,241 


2,852 


1,478 


485 


572 


5,387 


Baltimore 


5 


Part 


546 


546 


973 


761 


256 


89 


2,079 


CalvertJ 


1 


Part 


308 


261 


461 


168 


24 


5 


658 


Chariest 


2 


Part 


1,124 


325 


512 


508 


117 


20 


1,157 


Frederick 


1 


Half 


2,215 


1,741 


3,342 


1,665 


1,104 


57 


6,168 


Garrett 


4 


Part 


53 


53 


155 


127 


25 


4 


311 


Harford 


2 


Part 


477 


326 


764 


517 


354 


72 


1,707 


Howard 


1 


Half 


538 


317 


1,104 


481 


35 


71 


1,691 


Kentt 


1 


Half 


414 


128 


1,131 


204 


110 


82 


1,527 


Prince George's 


1 


Part 


516 


432 


572 


327 


124 


117 


1,140 


Queen Anne'sJ 


1 


Half 


564 


114 


984 


148 


111 


48 


1,291 


SomersetJ 




+ 


X 


% 


X 


X 


X 


X 


+ 


Washington.. 


4 


Part 


487 


487 


243 


1,174 


63 


116 


1,596 


Wicomico 


1 


Half 


1,069 


406 


1,003 


1,066 


218 


30 


2,317 


Worcester 


1 


Half . 


2,039 


213 


1,125 


343 


205 


26 


1,699 


Healthmobile 


3 


Full, 2 mos 


1,348 


835 


709 


641 


114 


6 


1,470 



* Excluding duplicates. 

t The scope of service varies from full and half-time service to one-day clinics conducted 
once per month. Part-time means one or more one-day clinics monthly. 

X See also healthmobile at bottom which operated full time for nearly two months in Cal- 
vert, Charles, Kent, Queen Anne's and Somerset. 



Immunization; Clinics; School Sanitation 



63 



Arundel County and the number treated from the 53 in Garrett to 
1,741 in Frederick County. The service ranged from full and part- 
time activities to clinics conducted one day in each month. (See 
Table Zl.) 

Oral Hygiene Le:tures at State Teach srs College, Towson 

Following a custom begun several years ago, a brief course of 
lectures on oral hygiene was given during the spring of 1935 to the 
students of the State Teachers College at Towson, by Dr. Richard C. 
Leonard, Chief of the Division of Oral Hygiene of the State Depart- 
ment of Health. 

The course is given for the double purpose of providing instruction 
in the individual care of the mouth and of furnishing a background for 
the oral hygiene work that is done in the schools. The subjects 
discussed include the physiology of the teeth, the processes of denti- 
tion, formative and functional, diet as a factor in mouth health, care 
of the teeth, and the most effective ways of maintaining the tissues of 
the mouth in a healthy condition. Mouth diseases are considered with 
special reference to means of prevention, the more common defects, 
and the importance of early correction. 

Mental Hygiene Clinics 

Clinics for the examination of problem children were organized 
under the joint direction of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the State 
Department of Health, the State Commissioner of Mental Hygiene, 
the State Mental Hygiene Society, the County Departments of 
Health, and the County Superintendents of Schools. By the close 
of the year, a regularly scheduled service was functioning in eighteen 
counties. The examinations were made by representatives of various 
State institutions and by experienced psychiatrists from the Phipps 
Clinic, the Sheppard Pratt Hospital, and the State Mental Hygiene 
Society. Over 480 persons were examined, of whom 411 were children 
under 16. The examiners attempted to advise teachers and parents 
regarding methods to be followed in dealing with each child. 

School Sanitation 

The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Department of 
Health made 153 sanitary inspections of public schools during the 
year. 

Water supply improvements were made at the following schools: 
Cumberland, Keedysville, Fairplay, Damascus, Sandy Spring, 
Sugarland, Slidel, Marlboro High School, and Marlboro Colored 
School. 

Sewerage installations and improvements were made at Cumber- 
land High School, Funkstown, Boonsboro, Keedysville, Damascus, 
Garrett Park, Brookeville, Marlboro Colored School, Oxon Hill, 
Highland Park, Woodsboro, Myersville, and Relay. 

The regular school inspections are now carried on by the Deputy 
State Health Officers and the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering is 
called on for advice on matters of an ergir.eerirg nature only. 



64 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Construction and installation of privies with the aid of Federal 
funds under the supervision of the State Department of Health are 
shown in Table 152, page 231.) 

Cost Per Pupil Highest in One-Teacher Schools 

As in preceding years, the per pupil current expense cost, excluding 
general control, supervision, and fixed charges, in county one-teacher 
schools was highest, and in graded schools, including the cost of trans- 
portation, was lowest, $48.30 in the former and $43.49 in the latter 
type of school. The corresponding situation was found in eleven of 
the counties. (See Table 38.) 

TABLE 38 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher, and Graded 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1935, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges 



One- 
Teacher 



County Schools 

County Average ..$48.30 

Anne Arundel 97.37 

Montgomery 72.32 

Queen Anne's 57.44 

Kent 55.88 

Talbot 54.95 

Prince George's .... 52.51 

St. Mary's 50.25 

Cecil 49.19 

Allegany 47.89 

Harford 47.80 

Garrett 46.98 

Baltimore 45.61 

Somerset 45.57 

Caroline 45.37 

Carroll 45.23 

Dorchester 45.12 

Howard 43.60 

Wicomico 43.27 

Worcester 43.04 

Frederick 42.83 

Washington 42.28 

Charles 41.99 

Calvert 33.84 



Two- 
Teacher 



County Schools 

County Average ..$45.05 

Montgomery 57.60 

Worcester 56.80 

Talbot 56.66 

Wicomico 55.97 

Anne Arundel 55.78 

St. Mary's 51.41 

Caroline 51.41 

Prince George's .... 50.84 

Queen Anne's 49.64 

Howard 47.91 

Kent 47.53 

Harford 44.82 

Baltimore 44.75 

Cecil 44.66 

Calvert 42.84 

Dorchester 42.04 

Somerset 42.01 

Carroll 40.98 

Allegany 40.96 

Frederick 40.35 

Charles 39.76 

Garrett 37.60 

Washington 35.80 



Graded 



County Schools 

County Average $43.49 

St. Mary's 62.15 

Calvert 59.23 

Montgomery 54.49 

Charles 52.71 

Queen Anne's 48.89 

Anne Arundel 46.98 

Kent 46.89 

Carroll 45.73 

Talbot 45.54 

Allegany 44.36 

Frederick 43.68 

Cecil 43.40 

Baltimore 43.09 

Worcester 42.16 

Somerset 41.72 

Garrett 41.10 

Dorchester 40.59 

Harford 40.41 

Prince George's .... 40.38 

Caroline 39.90 

Howard 39.18 

Wicomico 38.85 

Washington 35.16 



In two counties, St. Mary's and Calvert, the reverse was true, 
graded schools were most expensive and one-teacher schools least 
expensive. The fact that such a large proportion of the children at- 
tending the graded schools in these counties were transported prob- 
ably explains the high cost in the graded schools. The cost was high- 
est in graded schools and lowest in two-teacher schools in Carroll, 
Frederick, and Charles Counties. 



Cost per Pupil by Types of School; Capital Outlay 



i-it>OO00;C00C-t<NOTC^OOX-XO'*O0CO^ 



lO o 

^ t- o 



: o 00 ;d 

; -rt IC 

: t- '-I 



I N ec 1-1 ; ^ CO CO '-H 



c; ^ -H 



; «D LO M iM ~: o o 



I o t- 00 Tj< ; M oi 



;oo iiNinco 



iX> M — C~ — I 

00 i> 

— ^ eg 



CO CO 
CO CO 
in 



m ^ -H 



CO t- o 
c^ in (73 



i05CT;cO'-iOcoinooiN(MX— ICO 



* 1 



as » T!' T5 

QJ * U fc> I- 

-r-? o oj C ■ 



— in 00 in (M 



cooOTfcoco^t-Tt^ 



0) o c «i 

§C< bo 

^ -pi c^ oS <^ 
c oj >- 'j; 3 _j i; 



sccseac«rts,jscg;rtc«C4)j;-c;3!i:cs 



5 o ^' 

C 'c 03 

« g t 



O Ci 

o m 

N 00 



66 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In Allegany and Garrett, the cost per pupil in two-teacher schools 
was lower than in graded schools, whereas in Talbot, Caroline, 
Howard, Wicomico, and Worcester the cost per pupil in two-teacher 
schools was higher than in one-teacher schools. 

In one-teacher schools the cost per pupil ranged from $34 in Cal- 
vert, which has one school, to $72 in Montgomery and $97 in Anne 
Arundel, which has only two schools. In two-teacher schools, the 
variation in average pupil cost was from $36 in Washington to $58 
in Montgomery. In graded schools the county having the minimum 
cost per pupil was Washington with $35, while the maximum was 
found in St. Mary's with $62 and Calvert with $59 per pupil. (See 
Table 38.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Over 71 per cent of the 1935 capital outlay for county white ele- 
mentary schools, $688,742, was made in Montgomery and Prince 
George's Counties, which were the first to receive grants from the 
Federal Public Works Administration. Montgomery spent over 
$375,000 and Prince George's nearly $115,000. There was no capital 
outlay for white elementary schools in Calvert, Kent, St. Mary's, and 
Talbot. Baltimore County expended over $97,000, Carroll over 
$42,000, Harford nearly $17,000, and Anne Arundel over $14,000. 
(See next to last column in Table 39.) 

The 1935 capital outlay for Baltimore City white elementary 
schools, $389,000, was the smallest in the period from 1922 to 1935 
excepting for the years 1929 and 1928. The Baltimore City expendi- 
ture was only slightly in excess of that in Montgomerv County. (See 
Table 39.) 

The 1935 capital outlay per county white elementary pupil aver- 
aged $6.48. The amount in Montgomery, $49.70, was highest, 
Prince George's was second with $14.47, Carroll third with $8.79, 
and Baltimore County fourth with $6.03. (See last column in Tabic 
32, page 50.) 

The capital outlay for white elementary schools from 1920 to 1935, 
inclusive, totalled approximately $11,750,000. Of this total, Balti- 
more County expended over $3,171,000, Montgomery over 
$2,130,000, Allegany $1,211,000, Washington $1,071,000, Prince 
George's $1,055,000. Eight counties spent less than $100,000 for 
capital outlay during the sixteen -year period. (See last column in 
Table 39.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 852 white elementary schools in operation in 1934-35, 
a decrease of 27 from the number in 1933-34. There were 11 fewer 
one-teacher and 16 fewer two-teacher schools than were open the 
preceding year. Of the schools, 368 had one teacher, 168 two teachers, 
55 three teachers, and 116 more than seven teachers. (See Table 40.) 

Washington with 87 had the largest number of white elementary- 
schools; Garrett with 74 came second; Allegany with 65 third; Balti- 



Capital Outlay; Size of White Elementary Schools 



67 



more County with 61 fourth; and Prince George's with 56 fifth. At 
the opposite extreme, Calvert had only 7 schools, Charles 10, Talbot 
16, Queen Anne's 17, and Worcester 19. (See Table 40.) 

TABLE 40 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of Teachers, 

School Year 1934-1935 



COUNTY 



Total 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel .... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles.. 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. .. 

St. Mary's._ 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



852 

ab65 
28 

c61 
d7 
20 
41 
40 
10 
35 

e46 
74 
50 

f27 
21 

jk56 
17 
22 
25 
16 
mn87 
36 
19 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



T 


in 






00 

1 


1 







IN 


CO 


- 


10 










(M 




(M 


CO 








t~ 


00 











CO 






fa 


t - 


or. 


(T. 


1 0v» 


52 


42 


22 


29 


28 


12 


19 


9 


11 


7 


5 


3 


5 


4 


2 


1 


4 


6 


1 

3 


a3 
4 


4 
1 


4 
1 


3 
1 


1 
1 


4 
2 


3 


2 
1 


2 


1 


1 


1 




1 




"1 


b2 


c7 
1 


1 


2 
1 


5 


4 


2 


3 


1 


3 


1 


1 






1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 




























2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


3 


2 




























3 








1 




1 




















"4 


1 


1 






























3 




2 




2 
























6 


e7 




2 


2 


2 










2 


1 














2 


3 










1 
























4 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 
















1 








1 




3 


1 


























1 






1 




























2 




1 


"4 


1 


1 


1 


r2 


hi 


1 




2 










k5 


4 




2 


1 




4 


2 




1 










2 








1 
























1 




































1 


1 




1 
















1 












2 


1 


1 




















1 










7 


4 


2 


2 








2 


ml 


1 




nl 








1 


2 


8 


2 


1 


1 


1 








1 














5 


1 


2 


1 





























































a Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Bruce Junior-Senior High School, 
b Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Greene St. Junior High School, 
c Includes the seventh grade of Kenwood Junior High School. 

d Includes a two-teacher school in which each teacher has only one or two grades, 
f Includes two one-teacher schools with a two-teacher organization. 

f Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Takoma Silver Spring Junior-Senior High School. 

h Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Bethesda Junior-Senior High School. 

j Includes the seventh grade of Maryland Park Junior-Senior High School. 

k Includes the seventh grade of Bladensburg Junior High School. 

m Includes the seventh and eighth grades of South Potomac Jun'or High School. 

n Includes the seventh and eighth grades of Woodland Way Junior High School. 

* One closed during year. 

Garrett made the greatest reduction from 1934 to 1935, having, 
eliminated 5 schools, Carroll came second with 3 fewer, while Dor- 
chester, Frederick, Howard, Washington, and Worcester each had 
two fewer schools in operation. In 9 additional counties there was one 
less white elementary school. (See Table 40.) 

Fewer One-Teacher Schools in the Counties 

The number of schools with a one-teacher organization dropped 
from 1,171 in 1920 to 345 in the fall of 1935. Less than 12 per cent of 
the white elementary school teaching staff had a one-teacher organiza- 
tion in the fall of 1935, whereas this was the case for 39 per cent of 
the teachers back in 1920. (See Table 41.) 



68 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 41 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1935 



County White Elementary Teachers 



School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 











Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 


3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 


^,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


1930 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


1932 


3,022 


489 


16.2 


1933 


2,954 


407 


13.8 


1934 


2,947 


377 


12.8 


1935 


2,941 


365 


12.4 


Fall, 1935 


2,923 


345 


11.8 



The number of one-teacher organizations in 1934-35 ranged from 
1 in Charles and Calvert, which were among counties in which 5 per 
cent or less of the white elementary staff gave instruction in this type 
of organization, to Garrett which had 59 teachers in one-teacher 
organizations who represented 53 per cent of the teaching staff. Wash- 

TABLE 42 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1935 





Teachers in 


Pupils in 




Teachers in 


Pupils in 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




One-Teacher 


One-'Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 






Num- Per 


Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




Num- 


Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber Cent 


Total and Average 


. 365 


12.4 


9,644 


9.1 


Washington 


42 


13.9 


1,117 10.2 








Queen Anne's. 


6 


14.0 


131 8.7 


Anne Arundel 


2 


1.2 


45 


.8 


Talbot 


8 


15.7 


171 10.3 


Baltimore 


6 


1.6 


204 


1.3 


Wicomico 


19 


20.4 


549 16.6 


Charles 


1 


2.5 


29 


2.0 


Harford 


26 


20.8 


639 15.6 


Frederick 


9 


4.5 


246 


3.4 


Somerset 


14 


21.5 


349 16.1 


Calvert 


1 


5.0 


32 


4.3 


Dorchester 


20 


23.3 


560 18.8 


Allegany 


22 


6.5 


588 


4.8 


Kent 


11 


25.0 


233 16.7 


Prince George's 


15 


6.9 


386 


4.9 


Howard 


15 


25.9 


393 20.0 


Montgomery 


22 


9.7 


536 


7.1 


Cecil 


27 


30.3 


737 23.4 


Worcester 


6 


10.4 


148 


7.0 


St. Mary's 


11 


31.4 


252 25.3 


Carroll 


16 


11.5 


381 


8.0 




59 


52.9 


1,721 43.6 


Caroline 


7 


12.5 


197 


9.7 









County White One-Teacher Schools 



69 



ington had 42 schools having only one teacher, which schools included 
14 per cent of the white elementary teachers. Cecil and Harford had 
27 and 26 one-teacher organizations, respectively. (See Table 42.) 

Anne Arundel and Baltimore Counties had less than 2 per cent of 
their pupils receiving instruction in one-teacher schools, while this 
was the case for over 20 per cent of the pupils in Howard, Cecil, St. 
Mary's and Garrett Counties. (See Table 42.) 

TABLE 43 

Number of Schools and Pupils in White One- and Two-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Oct. 1935, Compared with No. of Schools, 1920 



One-Teacher Schools 



County 






Pupils 






Pupils 




Number 


Oct. 1935 


Number 


Oct. 1935 






Oct. 




Per 




Oct. 




Per 




1920 


1935 


No. 


Cent 


1920 


1935 


No. 


Cent 




1,171 


345 


8,935 


8.3 


255 


164 


10,120 


9.4 


Baltimore .. . 


40 








43 


14 


1,063 


6.5 


Anne 








Arundel .... 


41 


1 


21 


.4 


11 


5 


278 


4.7 


Calvert 


32 


1 


21 


2.9 


2 


3 


215 


29.0 


Charles 


44 


1 


27 


1.9 


7 


3 


159 


11.0 


Worcester .... 


33 


4 


104 


5.0 


8 


4 


256 


12.3 


QueenAnne's 


33 


6 


130 


8.7 


8 


4 


243 


16.3 


Frederick 


111 


7 


177 


2.5 


16 


12 


826 


11.6 


Caroline. 


38 


8 


202 


10.0 


4 


2 


100 


4.9 


Talbot 


25 


9 


200 


12.1 


10 


1 


76 


4.6 


Kent 


24 


11 


214 


16.0 


5 


4 


260 


19.5 


Pr. George's 


42 


11 


318 


3.9 


15 


13 


817 


9.9 


St. Mary's. .. 


48 


12 


295 


29.0 


5 


9 


545 


53.S 


Somerset 


28 


13 


334 


15.3 


11 


10 


286 


13.1 


Carroll 


97 


15 


355 


7.5 


12 


7 


425 


8.9 


Montgomery 


39 


15 


351 


4.4 


12 


7 


433 


5.4 


Howard 


30 


17 


441 


21.9 


7 


4 


247 


12.3 


Wicomico 


43 


19 


510 


14.7 


8 


5 


238 


6.9 


Dorchester... 


57 


20 


548 


19.1 


9 


4 


213 


7.4 


Allegany 


- 51 


23 


617 


5.0 


18 


11 


792 


6.5 


Harford 


51 


25 


623 


15.4 


12 


12 


634 


15.7 


Cecil 


57 


27 


709 


22.8 


5 


6 


421 


13.5 


Washington.. 


81 


41 


1,086 


9.9 


16 


17 


1,058 


9.6 


Garrett 


126 


59 


1,652 


42.2 


11 


7 


535 


13.7 



Two-Teacher Schools 



A comparison of the number of one-teacher schools in the fall of 
1935 with the number in 1920 shows that Baltimore County is the 
first to have eliminated the one-teacher schools completely. There 
were 40 in that county at the earlier date. Frederick County which 
had 111 schools in 1920 compared with 7 in the fall of 1935 has re- 
duced the number by 104 and has therefore made the greatest reduc- 



70 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



tion in schools having this type of organization. Carroll which has 
only 15 one-teacher schools at present compared with 97 in 1920 has 
82 fewer, while Garrett, which has cut the number from 126 to 59, 
ranks third in the number of one-teacher schools which have been 
eliminated. In the fall of 1935, Anne Arundel, Calvert, and Charles 
each had only one one-teacher school left. (See Table 43.) 

The number of pupils who were being taught in one-teacher organ- 
izations in the fall of 1935 was 8,935, or 8.3 per cent, of the white 
elementary enrollment. The number in individual counties varied 
from none to 1,652 or 42 per cent of the enrollment in Garrett County. 

The two-teacher schools have dropped from 255 in 1920 to 164 
in the fall of 1935. In Baltimore County the number has been reduced 
from 43 in 1920 to 14 in the fall of 1935. A few counties, Calvert, St. 
Mary's, Cecil, and Washington, now have more two-teacher schools 
than they had in 1920. (See Table 43.) 

SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
Early in 1934-35 there were 45 supervising teachers in service in 
the 23 Maryland counties, but the resignation of Mrs. Sibley from 
Wicomico County in December 1934 reduced the number to 44. Her 
replacement by Mrs. Hearne in the fall of 1935 brought the number 
back to 45. The only other change in the supervisory staff came about 
from the employment of Mr. Charles Reck in Carroll County in the 
fall of 1935, after Mrs. Mary Norris Lynch accepted a teaching 
position on the staff of the elementary school of the State Teachers 
College at Towson. Recognizing the need of improving the 
work in music in the elementary schools, Montgomery County ap- 
pointed Miss Mary Gertrude Cross to act as supervisor of elementary 
school music. Cecil, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Harford, Frederick, 
Allegany, and Baltimore Counties each employed one fewer super- 
visor than the number for which they are entitled to receive State 
aid. (See Table 44 and Chart 11.) 

TABLE 44 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties for Varying 
Numbers of White Elementary Teachers, October, 1935 



Number of 

No. of White Supervisors Number of 

Elementary Allowed Counties Names of Counties 

Teachers By Law 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, Kent, Queen 

Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Worcester 

80 to 119 2 4 Cecil (1), Dorchester, aGarrett, Wicomico 

120 to 185 3 3 Anne Arundel (2), Carroll (2), Harford (2), 

186 to 235... 4 3 Frederick (3), Montgomery, Prince George's (3c) 

236 to 285 5 1 Allegany ^4), Washington (4d) 

286 to 335 6 1 

336 to 385..... 7 1 Baltimore (.6) 



( ) The number of supervising or helping teachers actually employed in October, 1935, is shown 
in parentheses for counties which employed fewer than the minimum number required by law. 
a One supervisor resigned in D?cember and has not been reolaced. 

c One supervisor resigned in January. The supervision of graded schools has been reorganized 
with the appointment of two supervisors who will give special attention to music and art. 
d A supervisor of art is employed in addition to the number indicated. 

The Assistant State Superintendent and the State Supervisor of 
Elementary Schools continued their program of visiting teachers 



72 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



with the county supervisors, discussing the work of teacher and 
supervisor, participating in and evaluating teachers' meetings held 
by the county supervisors, arranging for supervisors to see and evalu- 
ate the work of supervisors and teachers in other counties, conducting 
sectional conferences of supervisors, and preparing bulletins for the 
use of supervisors and teachers. 

The Assistant State Superintendent, Miss Simpson, arranged to 
have the work in the upper grades in three counties studied by groups 
of supervisors from other counties in the State. The underlying idea 
was that the teaching of history, geography, science, arithmetic, and 
literature would be observed from the point of view of opportunities 
they gave for the development of oral and written language skills. 
After a morning spent in visiting many classrooms, an hour was 
devoted to discussion of what had been seen. This was followed by 
consideration of the following questions: 

1. Is an "integrated English program" the most effective way of develop- 
ing language skills? 

2. Are we teaching composition as a series of processes in organizing 
and communicating ideas or are we too much preoccupied with mechanical 
correctness? 

3. Is there a tendency in public schools to over-emphasize creative writing 
and language activities of a distinctly literary nature and to under-emphasize 
the development of language resources which will enable boys and girls to 
meet successfully the ordinary demands of life? 

U. Shall we postpone the teaching of formal grammar until the seventh 
grade? 

5. Do you have a clear understanding of the significance of these ex- 
pressions found in the newer English curriculums: 

a. An integrated English program 

b. A cumulative maintenance program in English 

c. Functional grammar 

d. Functional centers 

e. Essential phases of usage 

Miss Simpson presented the following statements as indication of 
significant changes taking place in the content of language teaching 
in the elementary school. 

1. We are using real situations for language work at the elementary 
level, and are thinking of oral and written composition as training in 
communication to meet the everyday language needs of children. 

2. We are insisting that the finding of ideas worthy of expression and 
the clear organization of these ideas are of more importance than me- 
chanical correctness. 

3. We are eliminating from the curriculum items or phases of usage 
that are of little functional value and are concentrating year after year 
on the essential phases of usage through what may be called a cumulative 
maintenance program. This means the shift of formal grammar from the 
elementary field. 

4. We are trying to secure widespread acceptance of the slogans 
" Every oral exercise is a language lesson " and "Every teacher is a teacher 
of English." Merely to appraise a pupil's work is of little help to him. 
It is in the productive phases of their work^ — in organizing and in ex- 
pressing their ideas — that children need the help of their teachers. 

The State Supervisor of Elementary Schools, Miss Wiedefeld, held 
a meeting of primary supervisors from the larger counties to study the 
opportunities for using activities in the fields of literature, art, and 
music in the work of the primary grades. Classes were visited and 
the work seen was discussed with the group. 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENROLLMENT IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS INCREASES 

The enrollment in the Maryland county white public high schools 
increased by 750 from 31,036 in 1934 to 31,786 in 1935. In Baltimore 
City a similar increase was found in the enrollment in grades 9 to 12, 
18,557 enrolled in 1935 compared with 17,807 in 1934. (See Chart 
12, and Tah/e 

CHART 12 



GROTOH IN UHITE HIGH SCHOOL IHROLLMENT 



Counties 



Balto. City Ea 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 
1925-1924 
1924-1925 




%i',x'////////////////A 
^^^^^^ 



1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1951 

1931- 1952 

1932- 1953 

1933- 1934 
1954-1935 



l,..JJJJ .UA 



116053 y/////////////////////////y 



m 



xff^^yV///////////////////////////////X 



1 1 ft 5 5 7 V////////////////////////////////A 



The average number belonging included 29,723 pupils in the coun- 
ty white high schools, a gain of 706 pupils over corresponding figures 
for the preceding year, while the average daily attendance increased 
by 671 to 27,963 in 1935. The increases in average number belonging 
and average attendance in Baltimore City for 1935 over 1934 were 
slightly higher than those in the counties. (See Table 45.) 

73 



74 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 45 

White Enrollment and Attendance in Last Four Years of Public High Schools in 
23 Maryland Counties and Baltimore City lor School Years Ending 
June 1920 to 1935 





23 


COUNTIES 


BALTIMORE CITY 


Year 














Ending 














July 31 




A VOT*Q fro 






A TrOT*0 fTO 






Enroll- 


i> urnijcr 




rLiiiroii- 








ment 


JjciOIlglllg 




ment 


JDclUIlging 


x\ t tt: IIU. all Lti 


1920 


9,392 


* 


7,798 


6,208 


5,980 


5,408 


1921 


10,900 


* 


9,294 


! 6,899 


6,676 


6,151 


1922 


12,815 




11,188 


8,320 


8,008 


7,329 


1923 


14,888 


13,844 


12,716 


9,742 


9,467 


8,656 


1924 


16,026 


14,842 


13,696 


9,783 


9,513 


8,722 


1925 


17,453 


16,168 


14,982 


10,658 


10,165 


9,340 


1926 


19,003 


17,516 


16,218 


10,933 


10,769 


9,951 


1927 


20,358 


18,770 


17,504 


11,391 


11,067 


10,233 


1928 


21,811 


20,382 


19,080 


11,792 


11,698 


10,816 


1929 


23,371 


21,802 


20,275 


12,899 


12,782 


11,802 


1930 


24,760 


23,186 


21,890 


13,434 


13,175 


12,261 


1931 


26,998 


25,402 


23,988 


14,549 


14,299 


13,278 


1932 


28,547 


26,835 


25,249 


16,053 


15,761 


14,696 


1933 


30,778 


28,877 


27,302 


17,707 


17,030 


15,831 


1934 


31,036 


29,017 


27,292 


17,807 


17,018 


15,823 


1935 


31,786 


29,723 


27,963 

j 


18,557 

i 


17,793 


16,567 



* Average number belonging not reported before 1923. 



TABLE 46 



White High School Enrollment in Individual Counties, 1935, j4rranged ^*ccording 
to Increase Over or Decrease Under 1934, and Showing Also 
Change from 1933 to 1934 





1935 










1935 








White 




Change 






White 


Decrease 


Change 




High 


Increase 


1933 to 






High 


Under 


1933 


County 


School 


Over 


1934 




County 


School 


1934 


to 1934 


Enrollment 


1934 






Enrollment 






Allegany 


3,543 


190 


—157 




Caroline 


779 


49 


—1 


Anne Arundel 


2,074 


189 


+ 127 




Baltimore 


4,580 


27 


+ 200 


Montgomery .. 


1,855 


142 


+95 




Queen Anne's 


533 


25 


+ 19 


Pr. George's. .. 


2,347 


140 


+ 127 




Wicomico .... 


1,255 


18 


—5 


Howard 


582 


54 


+23 




Kent 


534 


17 


+ 3 


Frederick 


2,018 


34 


—48 




Garrett 


989 


13 


—12 


Dorchester 


896 


31 


+ 24 




St. Mary's .... 


344 


9 


+ 18 


Calvert 


250 


24 


—38 




Washington .. 


2,394 


3 


—76 


Carroll 


1,586 


21 


—40 










Harford 


1,411 


18 


+ 23 












Somerset 


706 


18 


—35 












Cecil 


1,186 


17 


—2 












Talbot 


767 


7 


+ 32 












Charles 


531 


4 


+ 1 












Worcester 


790 





—44 













The 1935 county white pubHc high school enrollment of 31,786 
was considerably larger than that for the last four years in the City, 
18,557. The white enrollment in Catholic private and parochial 



Pupil Population, Length of Session, White High Schools 75 



secondary schools in Baltimore City, 4,023, was larger than that in 
the counties, 1,572, but white private school enrollment in the City, 
759, was smaller than the total for the counties, 1,445. (See Tables 
III-V, pages 287 to 289.) 

The white public high school enrollment in 14 counties increased 
from 4 to 190 pupils in 1935 over corresponding figures for 1934. Six 
of these 14 counties had shown a decrease from 1933 to 1934. Of 
eight counties which showed a loss of from 3 to 49 pupils from 1934 to 
1935, four had shown a gain from 1933 to 1934. Worcester was the 
only county which showed no change in enrollment froml934 to 1935, 
although it had shown a loss from 1933 to 1934. (See Table 46.) 

LENGTH OF SESSION LN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
TABLE 47 

Length of Session in White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



County 



School Year 1934-35 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel.. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll. 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 



9/10 

9/10 

9/10 

9/5 

9/4 

9/4 

9/5 

9/10 

9/10 

9/5 

9/5 

9/5 

9/5 

9/5 

9/12 

9/11 

9/5 

9/6 

9/3 

9/6 

9/4 

9/4 

9/3 

9/6 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



6/14 
6/19 
6/21 
6/14 
6/12 
6/7 
6/14 
6/21 
6/14 
6/12 
6/14 
6/20 
6/14 
6/14 
6/14 
*6/20 
6/7 
6/11 
5/31 
6/12 
6/11 
5/31 
5/31 

6/21 



County 



County Average 



Baltimore 

Harford 

Garrett 

Howard 

Caroline 

Washington 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Kent 

Talbot 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Prince George's. 

Calvert ^ 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel . . 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Worcester 



Baltimore City 
State 



* Three high schools closjed on June 18, three on June 19 and five on June 20. 



76 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The dates for the opening of county white high schools ranged from 
September 3 in Somerset and Worcester to September 12, 1934, in 
Montgomery. Closing dates varied from May 31 in Somerset, 
Wicomico, and Worcester, to June 21, 1935, in Baltimore County and 
Charles. (See Ta^/e 47.) 

The county white high schools were open on an average 185.8 
days in 1935. This was 1.2 days fewer than for 1933-34. The length 
of session ran from slightly over 180 days in Worcester to 191 days 
in Baltimore County. The senior high schools in Baltimore City were 
open 190 days. (See Table 47.) 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1935 the per cent of attendance inthe county white high schools 
was 94.1, the same as in 1934. Baltimore City reported 93.1 per cent 
of attendance, higher by .1 than in 1934, while the State as a whole 
showed 93.7 per cent of attendance. (See Table 48.) 

In the individual counties the range in per cent of attendance ran 
from 89.6 in Kent to over 95 per cent in 6 counties — Somerset, Fred- 
erick, Dorchester, Washington, Allegany, and Wicomico. Eleven 
counties had a higher percentage of attendance in 1935 than in the 
preceding year. (See Table 48.) 

TABLE 48 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June, 1923, 1933, 1934 and 1935 



County 


1923 


1*33 


1934 


1935 


County Avierage 


91 


9 


94 


5 


94 


1 


f'4 


1 


Wicomico 


92 


3 


96 


4 


95 


7 


£5 


9 


jAllegany 


94 


8 


95 


7 




2 


95 


5 




93 


1 


£5 


8 


95 


5 


95 


4 


Dorchester 


92 


4 


94 


2 


9'! 


7 


95 


2 


Frederick 


91 


5 


S6 


3 


95 


S 


95 


T 


Somerset... 


.91 


4 


94 


7 


94 


5 


95 


1 


Howard 


89 


9 


91 


5 


93 


8 


94 


5 


Worc3ster 


91 


.7 


93 


7 


93 


9 


94 


.4 


Prince George's 


-91 


8 


J 4 


5 


94 


4 


£4 


3 


Oueen Anne's 


91 


c 


94 


2 


94 


3 


94 


.1 


Charles 


88 


'.7 


94 


1 


£3 


.7 


£4 


.0 


Baltimore 


91 


.3 


94 


3 


93 


8 


93 


.9 



County 


1S23 


IP 


53 


1934 


1935 


.\nne Arundel 


92 


1 


94 


.7 


94 





93 


7 


MontKomery..._ 


88 


9 


93 


5 


£2 


7 


93 


5 


Talbot 


.... 93 


2 


92 


9 


93 


5 


93 


4 


Harford 


91 


2 


93 


5 


92 


9 


93 


4 


Carroll 


88 


7 


93 


9 


93 


5 


93 


3 


St. Mary's 


„ 86 


8 


93 





93 


1 


92 


8 


Garrett 


90 


2 


93 


7 


92 


7 


92 


5 


Calvert 


t3 


5 


93 


7 


91 


7 


92 


.4 


Caroline.... 


91 


2 


92 


9 


93 


2 


91 


.9 


Cecil. 


92 


.0 


92 


.9 


91 


.5 


91 


.4 


Kent 


SO 


.2 


93 


.2 


91 


.0 


89 


.6 


Baltimore Citv 


£1 


.5 


93 


.0 


S3 


.0 


93 




State Average.. 


91 


.6 


94 


.0 


93 


.7 


93 


7 



For attendance in 1935 by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 292. 

The average number belonging to county white high schools was 
highest in October, followed by a decrease in each succeeding month. 
Per cent of attendance was highest in September, 96.8, and decreased 
each month to its lowest point in January, 89.2. Thereafter, there was 
an increase each month to June, except for slight setbacks in April 
and May. (See Table 49.) 



Per Cent of Attendance; Per Cent of Pupils in White High Schools 77 

TABLE 49 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White High 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1935 





Average 


Per Cent 




No. 


of 


Month 


Attend- 


Belong- 


■ Attend- 




ing 


ing 


ance 


September 


29,283 


30,251 


96.8 


October 


29,533 


30,869 


95.7 


November 


29,150 


30,608 


95.2 


December 


28,291 


30,337 


93.3 


January 


26,697 


29,927 


89.2 


February- 


27,786 


29,630 


93.8 



Average Per Cent 
No. of 
Month Attend- Belong- Attend- 
ing ing ance 



March 


27,654 


29,307 


94.4 


April 


26,932 


28,899 


93.2 


May 


26,732 


28,446 


94.0 


June 


*24,853 


*25,752 


96.5 


Average 




for Year . 


. 27,963 


29,773 


93.9 



=• In three counties the schools close on May 31 and no pupils are enrolled in June. 



IMPORTANCE OF HIGH SCHOOLS 

The ratio between the average attendance in the white high schools 
and the average attendance in the high and elementary schools com- 
bined, which has shown a steady increase since 1917, reached 22.4 
for the counties in 1935 and 19.6 for Baltimore City. (See Chart 13.) 

In the individual counties the ratio of number belonging in white 
high schools to the combined average enrollment in the high a 
elementary schools ranged from 17.3 in Washington to 30.1 in Talbot. 
Six Eastern Shore counties rank highest in the proportion of their 
white pupils in high schools. All except three counties, Caroline, 
Queen Anne's, and Baltimore County, showed a higher proportion in 
high school in 1935 than in 1934. (See Table 50.) 

TABLE 50 

Rates of "Number Belonging" in Last Four Years of White High Schools to 
Number Belonging in White Elementary and White High Schools Combined 



County 1924 1933 1934 1935 
County Average .13.3 21.2 21.3 21.8 



Talbot 18.7 27.6 29.5 30.1 

Kent 15.2 26.7 26.5 26.6 

Caroline 18.8 26.3 27.1 26.0 

Worcester. 18.9 26.2 25.7 25.9 

Cecil ...14.3 25.4 25.2 25.8 

Wicomico 19.9 25.4 25.3 25.7 

Charles 5.5 25.6 25.3 25.6 

Queen Anne's 18.3 24.5 25.8 25.0 

Anne Arundel 10.2 21.0 22.4 24.6 

Harford 14.8 23.5 24.0 24.4 

St. Mary's 3.0 23.4 23.8 24.4 

Calvert 15.5 21.7 21.2 24.1 



County 


1924 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Carroll 


13 


.7 


23 


.8 


23 


.4 


23 


.9 


Somerset 


15 


.2 


22 


. 5 


21 


.9 


23 


.4 


Dorchester 


16 


.7 


20 


.4 


21 


.2 


22 


.2 


Howard 


12, 


.7 


19 


.4 


20 


.2 


21 


.6 


Prince George's 


11. 


.6 


19 


.9 


20 


.6 


21 


.1 


Baltimore 


11. 


,0 


19 


.9 


20, 


.8 


20. 


.7 


Allegany* 


13. 


.5 


21 


.2 


20 


.3 


20 


.5 


Frederick 


14. 


9 


20 


.4 


20. 


,1 


20, 


. 5 


Garrett 


8. 


4 


19. 


.2 


18, 


,7 


18. 


.8 


Montgomery 


13. 


9 


17 


.0 


17. 


.7 


18, 


,6 


Washington*. 


11. 


1 


17 


.7 


17. 





17. 


2 


Baltimore City* 


9. 


7 


18. 


.6 


18. 


7 


19. 


6 


State Average 


11 . 


8 


20. 


2 


20. 


3 


20. 


9 



* County has 6-3-3 or 8-4 plan of organization as against 7-4 plan in remaining counties. 

If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four years 
of high school attendance by every elementary school graduate, the 
maximum percentage that could possibly be enrolled in the four years 



78 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of high school would be 33.3 per cent in counties having the 8-4 or 
6-3-3 plan, and 36.4 per cent in counties organized on the 7-4 plan. 
These percentages assume that there is a uniform number entering 
school each year which, of course, is not the case. Baltimore City 
and Washington, Montgomery, and Allegany counties have the 6-3-3 
or 8-4 plan of organization which explains their position in Chart 13 
and toward the bottom of the lisi in TalAe 50. 

CHART 13 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITY 
1917 - 1954 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City ^:'7Z\ 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 
1931 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1950 

1931 
1932 




\2.\ V////////////////////////y 



m 



m 



m 



□IT 



m 



^///////////////////////////////////. 



f 




In 1935 there were 90 boys enrolled in the county white high schools 
for every 100 girls, a slightly higher average than was shown in4934. 



Per Cent of Pupils in White High Schools; High School Graduates 79 



The range among the counties in the ratio of boys to girls in high 
school ran from 66 boys for 100 girls in Calvert to 106 in Howard. 
Howard and Baltimore City were the only units having more boys 
than girls in high school. Ten of the counties showed decreases 
in ratio of girls to boys from 1934 to 1935. 



NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES DECREASES 

There were 4,839 graduates from the county white high schools in 
1935, a decrease from the 4,921 and 5,122 graduated in 1933 and 1934, 
respectively, which years represented the peak in the number of 
graduates. Of the 1935 graduates, 2,052 were boys and 2,787 were 
girls. Baltimore City also had a slight reduction in the number of 
high school graduates in 1935, 2,469 compared with 2,485 for the 
preceding year. (See TabLe 51.) 



TABLE 51 

Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland, 1919 to 1935 



Year 


23 COUNTIES 


Baltimore 
1 City 


Boys 


Girls 


1 Total 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 


653 


1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


698 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


806 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


948 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1,953 


1,167 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


1,348 


1925 


929 


1,610 


2,539 


1,141 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


2,619 


1,450 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


1,528 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2,993 


1,503 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


1,757 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


1,775 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


4,204 


1,970 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


4,397 


2,167 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


4,921 


2,371 


1934 


2,220 1 


2,902 


5,122 


2,485 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


4,839 


2,469 



The counties varied in the number graduated in 1935 from 29 in 
Calvert to 664 in Baltimore County. Fifteen counties had from 4 to'57 
fewer high school graduates in 1^^^5 than in 1934, one county showed 
no change, while 7 counties, Garrett, Dorchester, Oueen Anne's. 
Somerset, Howard, St. Mary's, and Calvert, reported a larger number 
of graduates than in 1934. In every unit the number of girls grad- 
uated exceeded the number of boys graduated. (See Chart 14.) 



80 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 14 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROM WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

1935 



Total 
1934 1935 



wm 



County 1934 1935 Boys E2Za Girls 

Baltimore 675 664 

Allegany 557 500 

Washington 450 408 

Pr. George's 325 515 ^gjg^^///////^ 
Montgomery 308 300 

237^^^^^^ 

Anne Arrindel 240 226 f^Pf|PH^P|r7^ 

Garrett 
Cecil 



Frederick 

Carroll 

Harford 



181 194^^^^ 

145 147 ^^^|r7j 

169 136 

129 [^ fP^///^ 



129 



Wicomico 
Dorchester 
Caroline 
Worcester 
Talbot 

Qneen Anne ' s 99 108 *62^//1 

109 105 

95 104 



147 115 



Kent 

Somerset 
Howard 
Charles 
St. Mary's 
Calvert 



68 
91 
55 
26 



29I3 



Balto. City 2,485 2,469 1226 



PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

By comparing the number of graduates in 1935 with the first 
year enrollment of 1932, a fairly good estimate of the persistence to 
high school graduation of those who enter high school can be obtained. 



Graduates and Persistence to Graduation White High Schools 81 

(HART 15 



PER CENT OF PE31SISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 
First Year 

County Enrollment Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 

1935 Hi Boys I I Girls 



Total and 
Co. Average 



1952 
9662 



50.1 




Although the first year enrollment includes repeaters from the pre- 
ceding year, these are partially offset by the pupils who have entered 
high schools after the first year. The first year enrollment in 1932 was 
lower than for 1931, showing the first decrease noted for the period 
from 1923 to 1932. The average persistence to high school graduation 



82 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in 1935 was 50.1 per cent, which included 42.1 for boys and 58.3 
for girls. This was a lower persistence than for the three years pre- 
ceding. (See Table 52.) 



TABLE 52 

Persistence to Graduation by County White High School Pupils 





First 


Per 


Cent of Persistence to 


Graduation 


Year 


Year 




Four Years Later 






Enrollment 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


1923 


5,756 


45.3 


38.4 


51.8 


1924 


6,311 


45.7 


36.0 


54.5 


1925 


6,772 


44.2 


35.6 


52.0 


1926 


7,548 


45.0 


38.2 


50.9 


1927 


7,895 


47.9 


40.3 


55.0 


1928 


8,486 


49.5 


42.2 


56.3 


1929 


8,587 


51.2 


42.9 


58.9 


1930 


9,038 


54.4 


47.1 


61.6 


1931 


9,777 


52.4 


44.8 


60.2 


1932 


9,662 


50.1 


42.1 


58.3 



Among the counties the per cent of persistence to graduation 
varied from 39 in Wicomico to 61.4 in Kent. For boys, the persistence 
to high school graduation ranged from 28.7 per cent in Somerset to 
54.3 in Kent, and for girls the percentages ran from 46 in Wicomico 
to over 72 in St. Mary's and Montgomery. (See Chart 15.) 

Eight counties, — Garrett, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Worcester, 
Dorchester, Howard, Calvert, and Somerset — showed a higher per- 
centage of persistence to graduation for all pupils in 1935 than for the 
preceding year. In every county the per cent of persistence to gradua- 
tion was higher for girls than for boys. (See Chart 15.) 

ENTRANTS TO STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES INCREASE 

Continuing the upward swing begun in 1934, the number of county 
girl high school graduates who entered Maryland State Teachers 
Colleges increased from 88 in 1934 to 93 in 1935. These represented 
3.3 per cent of the total number of girl graduates in 1935. (See Chart 
16.) 

Girl graduates entering State Teachers Colleges in 1935 varied 
from none at all in Anne Arundel, Calvert, and Prince George's to 
10 from Wicomico, 14 from Baltimore, and 15 from Allegany, the 
three counties in which the colleges are located. Seven counties, — 
Wicomico, Baltimore, Washington, Frederick, Garrett, Anne Arun- 
del, and Calvert — sent fewer girl graduates to the Maryland State 
Teachers Colleges in 1935 than in 1934. (See Chart 16.) 

Baltimore City sent 48 girls to the State Teachers College at 
Towson in 1935, just 2 fewer than had entered the preceding year. 
The total number of entrants to Teachers Colleges for the State as a 
whole included 141 girl graduates from the white high schools. (See 
Chart 16.) 



Persistence to Graduation; 1935 Entrants to Teachers Colleges 83 

CHART 16 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS ENTERING MARYLAND 
TEACHERS COLLEGES THE FALL FOLLOWING GRADOATIOH 



County- 



Co. Average 

Wicomico 5 

Caroline 3 

Worcester 2 

Talbot 1 

Dorchester 1 

Allegany 6 

Queen Anne ' s - 
St. Mary's 

Somerset 2 

Harford 1 

Charles 2 

Baltimore 12 

Kent 2 

Washington 10 

Cecil 2 

Howard 1 

Carroll 1 

Frederick 7 

Garrett 4 

Montgomery 5 

Anne Arundel 1 

Calvert 2 

Pr . George ' s 4 

Balto. City 19 



Number 
1933 1934 1935 
74 88 93 



20 

3 
2 
2 
15 
2 

1 

5 

19 




State 



93 



50 48 3.91 
138 141 3.3| 



There were 58 county boy graduates from 13 counties who entered 
Maryland Teachers Colleges in 1935. The largest number 20, which 
included 27 per cent of the total number of boys graduated, came 
from Wicomico County. There were 8 boys from Allegany and Balti- 
more Counties, 5 from Dorchester, 4 each from Somerset and Wor- 
cester, and 2 each from Garrett and Washington, who entered the 
Teachers Colleges in 1935. The two-year junior college established 
at the State Teachers Colleges at Salisbury and Frostburg apparently 



84 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



attracted boys graduating from the high schools in the counties where 
the schools are located and in counties adjacent. (See Table 53.) 



TABLE 53 

Boy Graduates from White Public High Schools Entering Maryland 
State Teachers' Colleges, 1935 



COUNTY 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers' 
Colleges 


COUNTY 


Total 
Number 
White 
Boy 
Grad- 
uates 


Boy Graduates 
Entering Mary- 
land Teachers' 
Colleges 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County 
















Average 


2,052 


58 


2.8 


Talbot... 


52 


1 


1.9 




Caroline 


61 


1 


1.6 


Wicomico 


74 


20 


27.0 


Washington 


184 


2 


1.1 




37 


4 


10.8 


Harford 


101 


1 


1.0 


Worcester 


47 


4 


8.5 


Frederick 


129 


1 


.8 


Dorchester 


66 


5 


7.6 






Allegany 


240 


8 


3.3 


Baltimore City 


1,226 


17 


1.4 


Charles 


33 


1 


3.0 




Baltimore 


268 


8 


3.0 


Entire State 


3,278 


75 


2.3 


Garrett 


87 


2 


2.3 





High school principals and teachers will benefit by studying Tables 
179 and 180, on pages 271 to 272 in the report on teachers colleges, 
which shows the opportunities in the elementary school field and the 
certainty of placement of those entrants to the teachers colleges with 
the necessary ability, interest and aptitude who graduate. 



OCCUPATIONS OF 1934 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

There were 522 boys or 23.5 per cent of the boys graduated from 
county white high schools in 1934 and 803 girls, 27.7 per cent of the 
girl graduates of 1934, who continued their education during 1934-35. 
On the other hand, 473 boys or 21.2 per cent and 1,348 girls or 46.4 
per cent of the 1934 county graduates were reported as staying or 
working at home or married the year following graduation. (See 
Tables 54 and 55.) 

A comparison of the number and per cent of county white high 
school graduates for the years 1926 to 1934, inclusive, who continued 
their education or who stayed or worked at home after graduation is 
given in Table 55. The per cent of boys who continued their education 
which had been decreasing since 1926, showed a slight gain in 1934. 
The per cent of county girls who continued to study fluctuated in the 
period from 1926 to 1929, but decreased steadily thereafter until 1934, 
when a small increase was shown. (See Table 55.) 

The number and per cent of county boys who graduated and spent 
the year following graduation either staying or working at home, in- 
creased in the period from 1926 to 1934 from 88 or 8.5 per cent in 
1926 to 495 or 27.9 per cent in 1932. In 1934, 473 or 21.2 per cent were 



Occupations of 1934 County White High School Graduates 85 

TABLE 54 

Occupations of 1934 Graduates as Reported by Principals of County White 

High Schools 



OCCUPATION 



Continuing Education 

Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities . 

State Teachers' Colleges and Normal 
Schools 

Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, 
Agriculture and Ministry 

Engineering 

Art and Music Schools 

Physical Education, Home Economics, 
and Kindergarten Training Schools 

Army and Navy Academies 

Commercial Schools 

Post-Graduate High School Courses 

College Preparatory Schools 

Hospitals for Training 

Staying at Home 

Working in Own or Others' Homes 

Married 

Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and 

Saleswomen, Business 

Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 

Building, Mining 

Farming, Fishing, Forestry, C. C. C 

Office Work 

Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 

Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 

and Telegraph Operators 

Army, Navy, Aviation 

Actor, Musician, Artist 

Barber Shop or Beauty Parlor 

Died 

Miscellaneous and Unknown 



Total. 



Number 



Boys 



Girls 



522 803 
287 268 



29 

19 
17 
7 



3 
83 
32 
45 



241 
232 



307 

228 
271 
69 
64 

21 
33 
12 
3 
4 

216 



2.223 



95 



252 
37 
15 
118 
738 
438 
172 

267 

99 
1 

173 



13 



4 
9 
1 

186 



2.904 



Per Cent 



Boys 



23.5 
12.9 

1.3 

.9 
.8 
.3 



.1 
3.8 
1.4 
2.0 



10.8 
10.4 



13.8 

10.3 
12.2 
3.1 
2.9 

1.0 
1.5 
.5 
.1 
.2 
9.7 



100.0 



Girls 

27.7 
9.2 

3.3 

.1 



8.7 

1.3 
.5 

4.0 
25.4 
15.1 

5.9 

9.2 
3.4 
6^0 



6.4 



100.0 



either staying or employed at home. For girls, the number and per cent 
increased from 323 or 20.5 per cent in 1926 to 1,453 or 51.8 per cent 
in 1933 with the next highest figure reported in this period, 1,348 or 
46.4 per cent, shown in 1934. (See Table 55.) 

Nothing could prove more conclusively the changing character of 
the high school population, the effect of the economic depression, and 
the need for adapting high school instruction not only to the needs of 
those who will continue their education, but also to the growing 
group, many of whom will remain in the home environment of their 
earlier years. 



86 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 55 

Comparison of Number and Per Cent of County White High School Graduates 
Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home Year Following Graduation 

1926 to 1934 









NUMBER 




PER 


cent 




Graduates 
of 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 - 


1,142 


1,851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 
1,534 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 - 


2,251 


542 


1,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21.5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 


1934 


2,223 


2,904 


522 


803 


473 


1,348 


23.5 


27.7 


21.2 


46.4 





















In addition to those graduates who were at school or at home, 
307 boys and 267 girls were employed as clerks or salespeople, 228 
boys and 99 girls were in shops or factories, 271 boys were working 
on farms, and 69 boys and 173 girls were employed in offices. Mis- 
cellaneous occupations were pursued by the remaining graduates of 
1934. (See Table 54.) 

Percentages regarding the occupations of 1934 graduates during 
1935 are given for the individual counties in Table 56. The per cent 
continuing their education varied from 11 per cent in Frederick and 
Garrett to 50 per cent in Calvert for boys and from 10 per cent in 
Garrett to over 40 per cent in Kent and Montgomery for girls. (See 
Table 56.) 

Less than 40 per cent of the girls in Montgomery, Allegany, Prince 
George's, and Baltimore Counties were at home after graduation in 
1934, while over 60 per cent of the girls in Frederick, Worcester, St. 
Mary's, and Garrett were either married, staying at home, or work- 
ing in their own or others' homes. St. Mary's was one of the counties 
which offered no work in home economics in the high schools. Only 
5 and 7 per cent of the boys in Allegany and Prince George's Counties 
were at home, while this was true of over 40 per cent in Carroll, 
Frederick, Garrett, and St. Mary's. St. Mary's offered no work in 
industrial arts or agriculture for boys. (See Table 56.) 

A study of the follow-up report on 2,559 graduates of 1934 of the 
Baltimore City white senior high schools shows 501 enrolled in col- 
leges or universities during 1934-35. In addition to these, 29 were in 
schools of nursing, 114 were attending business colleges, 41 were tak- 
ing full-time special courses, and 282 were taking part-time courses, 
some of whom were at home or employed. Over 40 per cent of the 
1934 graduates failed to reply to the inquiry as to their educational 
or vocational status in 1935. 



Occupations of 1934 White High School Graduates 



87 



snodUBiiaostj^ 



rH ^ ;D 
tH CO O 



CO 05 00 

lO lO 00 



O ic 00 : 1-1 O (M 



lO 05 ^ 
—I N 5£> 



I 1-1 t> O 

I M 00 00 



o i-H in 00 



ic ; 1-1 1 Tj< t- O P3 



o o 

M r-l O 

N 1- 



5£) t- 



CO ot, t~- lO 



aseot-OooaiOitcoocoinoin-^aiO' 

) N IC I 



ON t- lO 1-1 1-( CO 1-1 CO I 



uopBDi unuimoQ 



00 05 IN 
CO 00 00 



iH 1-H t- 

-t N CO 



I CO «0 05 <N ; «D ■ 



eg CO CO o IN I 



I irt i-H (N O ( 



lO o m ( 

INI 



t> IN 
1-1 N(N 



;o eg 00 1 
; t- C5 1-1 Ti< ( 



0*0 O 'Xj:^s3jo^ 



rH eg 00 
• • 

eg cgea 



o lo 

iftOOiOOCDt-COiOiO 



egosoooooc^^cococoooc-oii 
O CO lO 05 o c<> ' 



puB [BOtUBlJOaj^ 

'3uuh:)3BjnuBi^ 



00 CO "5 

eg • • 

eg o o 



1-1 

CO CO 



CO Oi CO 
00 kfii t- 00 



<0 t- m Oit 
1* eg 05 eg I 



in M 



ssauisng 
puB 3u'i[ias 



t- eg o5 
eg 05 «D 



1-1 05 in 1-1 ■ 

CO t> 05 1 



I o eg in - 
I in «o to 1 



I O 05 ^ 

1 05 eg eg 



CO o in eg c- o CO 
m eg eg eg t- to 05' 



■ oooooeg 
1 in CO 00 



' in o 1-1 
1 05 o in 



O 00 05 CO 



pauJBj^ 



05 in 
inco' 



' 00 CO 05 t~ 

1 00 ^ in in in 



t- CO eg CO ' 
in m 00 CO 1 



I o in 1-1 
' CO CO 05 



t- o t- < 
d co' o" I 



iH eg 
in in 



in o 05 
in eg CO 



o 00 1-1 eg 11 1 



' in o CO t> CO 



inro-^05 0oincoego5t-0505 



eg in —I eg —< 



CO -H 



;Oi-iooincoin-<}ioc-eo 



00 



000 05 
c- in 1-1 



CD o 05 eJ ^ in 00 



auiojj 3u{Xb;s 



oot- 
id d 



co'co fg 



cD05coocoinT)<i-(CDooino-«tooo! 
1-1 eg 05 o CO o d in CD CD t-' d 00' CD < 



o:coegooooint-ooo 
cDeg»-HC^oococo,-ico 



00 « o ( 
10 in • 



05 eg CO eg c- 



c~ in eg in CO 



9sjno3 
a^^BnpBjf) 
-:>soj puB Aio^ 



eg 00 T-i 
in • • 
»H eg 



00 CO • 
CO t- ( 



t- ini-i 
t- • • 

CO CO 



CO • 



•oego505CDincoegc- 



t- in CO 1-1 1-1 < 



3uisjnf^ 



siooqos 

IBlOJaUXUIOQ 



CO 1^ 1 

01 

i-iCt^cgi-icocD«c-eo^eg 

ic ei CO CO eg -a* CO 1-1 in" CO co' in 

oc d'oo 



o : in CO 
05 : ^ 



CO CO 00 



rH Tr in in t- 



O : 00 in o ■ 



m eg eg o 
1* 00 eg t 



joococooco-r-coi-it-t-i 



05 CO CO I 

■^-H05ooo5egt-t>coincoint-^incoi 



o eg t~ t> 

05 CO CO M 



t~ o 

CO t 



oj eg 
CO eg 



o 00 1> 1-1 

degegd 



oo-*->3<t-ooooco-<int-t- 
^cocgt-coKt->tooo5dt-" 



SuiuiBJX JaqoBaj, 
puB looqos 



1-1 00CJ5 

1-1 CO CO 



I eg ; CO 05 
i CD ; ^ 



CO eg 1-1 o> 1 
eg eg eg CO I 



X^isjaAiufi 
JO 93aiio3 



t- CD in 
in o> 00 



> eg t> eg 
I eg CO -<s« in 



: oi o t- 
05 CO 



) 00 CO ^ 00 c 
• CD CO eg 05 < 



) 05 i-i >— ■ I 

1 C- t> 05 I 



( TJ< CO o t> 
• CO 00 CO CD 



05 in 00 

05 •"t CO 
(M 1-1 



o 05 in 05 CO 



o CO cot- 00 



t> CO d in < 



^ -"S" TS< t~ 

eg 00 1-< CO 



sa:iBnpBJo f£G\ 
jaquin^^ 1b:)ox 



in CD 00 c 

^Tft- 1 

eoi-ieo 



1 05 CO -"l" U3 

1 00 Ti< CO 
eg ^ 



c > > 

3 << 

"Z >. >> 

3 II 

o 00 



. . . 




IHi 



88 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



0Q 































































































UrUH J^J 


1 6 


1 (N y-i 














































1 ^ 


1 CO IN 












































•S H -Jltl 4sejt^ 


1 

1 ^ 


IN <N 














































c" 










































pa 


















































6 


1 ^ l-H 




































JO A^isjeAjUf^ 


d 


<N ^ 












































m 


1 t- <X) 














































d 


1 O M 






CO T-i 




















CO 










d 


1 in rH i-H 








































1 in CO 




















CO 
























d 


1 —1 as 














CO 






























ania 


d 


1 






eo T-i 


































pa 


1 




i-tCO 




































suqof 


d 


1 CO 














































pa 


1 00 ^ .-1 




CO 






























s.uqof -^y 




CO CO 1-1 
CO 








1-1 ai CO 






eo 1-1 






CO 










pooH 


d 


1 ec —1 : 

CO 




O 1-1 
CO 


































"0 "J. 'S 


d 


o 

CO 












in 


eo 












CO 














w" 
















CO 


























■D \L -S 


d 


CO 
CO 


























rH CO 














PQ 


in 














































d 


CO ^ : 

CO 
















O in ; 






















in 

N 


eo 






CO 1-1 






00 «D CO —1 1-1 1-1 
















"0 "X 'S 

UOSMOJ, 


d 


CO ^ 

CO 




CO eo in 11 CO . 




CO 


CO : 




















(£> in ; 












































pUBlXJBp^ 


d 


in m CO CO ;o 


CO -"t ^ 1-1 1-1 .-• : 


CO 1-1 : 










CO 




pa 


t- in 
ec 




O 'I' : 




1-1 CO 1-1 1-1 0^ CO ; 
















pUBli^JBJ^ 

JO A^isjeAiu]^ 


d 


rH ;ocoo ; 
-tl< 1-1 ; 




t> Kjic^ecco ; 












CO ; 








w 


CO <D CO CO ; 
o rH CO ; 


eo 00 00 «5 in 


1-1 eo CO 


1-1 CO T-l rH 1-1 rH ; 


CO 



o a* 

By:- 



B 



_ ^ to m ^ 



1934 Graduates at Maryland Colleges; High School Courses Taken 89 



1934 Graduates Attending Maryland Colleges 

Principals of county high schools reported 254 boys and 268 girls 
graduated in 1934 attended Maryland colleges and schools of higher 
education in 1934-35. The largest number, 103 boys and 41 girls, at- 
tended the University of Maryland, 37 boys and 45 girls enrolled at 
Western IMaryland, 6 boys and 43 girls went to the State Teachers 
College at Towson, 25 boys and 22 girls to Washington College, 15 
boys and 23 girls to the State Teachers College at Salisbury, 7 boys 
and 20 girls to the State Teachers College at Frostburg, 23 girls 
to Hood, and 22 boys to St. John's. Thirteen other Maryland uni- 
versities and colleges attracted smaller numbers of the 1934 grad- 
uates. In the majority of cases, the college was attended in largest 
numbers by graduates who lived in the same county or in counties 
adjoining that in which the college was located. (See Table 57.) 

COURSES TAKEN IN HIGH SCHOOL 

The distribution of the white high school pupils by course shows 
interesting differences between the sexes for the year 1934-35: 



Number Per Cent 

Course Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls 

Total 32,178 15,243 16,935 100.0 100.0 100.0 

Academic 14,470 6,136 8,334 45.0 40.4 49.2 

General 9,944 5,603 4,341 30.9 36.8 25.7 

Commercial 6,494 2,529 3,965 20.2 16.6 23.4 

Vocational 1,244 949 295 3.9 6.2 1.7 

Technical 26 26 



While 40 per cent of the boys took the academic course, this was 
the case for 49 per cent of the girls. The requirement of a foreign 
language seems to appeal to girls much more than to boys. A larger 
number and proportion of girls likewise took the commercial course 
— 23 per cent for girls as against 17 per cent for boys. Since the com- 
mercial course has been largely stenography, typewriting, and book- 
keeping and there are few openings, especially in stenography and 
t>T)ewriting for boys, it is natural that a smaller number of boys 
than of girls is enrolled. The boys outnumbered the girls taking the 
general and vocational courses, the general course enrolling 37 per 
cent of the boys and 26 per cent of the girls. The vocational course 
was taken by 6 per cent of the boys and fewer than 2 per cent of the 
girls. 

The academic course was available in most of the schools in every 
county, but in seven schools of five counties this course was not given. 
The general course was available in all high schools, except 26 in 15 
counties. There were 86 schools in the 23 counties which did not 
offer the commercial course, including all schools in Calvert. Queen 
Anne's, and St. Mary's Counties. There were only 30 schools in 12 



90 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

counties which made it possible for boys to take the vocational or 
technical course and 12 schools in 6 counties which gave a vocational 
course for girls. 

The number of different courses offered in a single high school 
bears a close relation to the size of the school. In general the larger 
the school, the greater the number of courses which can be offered 
without making the expense prohibitive. There were 48 high schools 
in 17 counties which offered academic, general, and commercial 
courses; 38 schools in 19 counties which gave academic and general 
courses; 24 schools in 13 counties which had only the academic course; 
13 schools in 7 counties which had academic and general courses and 
the vocational course for boys; 6 schools in 4 counties which gave 
academic and general courses and vocational courses for boys and 
girls; 6 schools in 4 counties which had only the general course; 5 
schools in 3 counties which offered the academic, general, and 
commercial courses and vocational courses for boys and girls; 5 
schools in 4 counties which gave the academic, general, and com- 
mercial courses and vocational course for boys; one school which gave 
each of the following combinations: academic, general, commercial, 
vocational for boys; academic, general, vocational for girls; academic, 
vocational for boys; academic, commercial; general and commercial. 

A review of the right hand portion of the six pages of Table 
XXXIII, pages 318 to 323, in which high schools in each county are 
listed in order of size of enrollment, will indicate in general that the 
larger schools listed f rst for each county offer more courses than the 
smaller schools listed last. 

SUBJECTS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were a few slight changes in the distribution of county white 
high school enrollment by subject in 1935 compared with 1934. There 
were slight decreases in the number and per cent taking mathematics, 
social studies, Latin, French, music, and art, while the sciences, in- 
dustrial arts, home economics, agriculture, commercial subjects, and 
physical education showed slight increases. (See Table 58.) 

Approximately 84 per cent of the county white high school pupils 
were enrolled in the social studies, 70 per cent in science, and about 
70 per cent were taking courses in mathematics, a larger proportion 
of boys than of girls having enrolled for these subjects. (See Table 
58.) 

About 18 per cent of the county high school pupils were enrolled 
for Latin and 15 per cent for French, more girls than boys having en- 
rolled for these foreign languages. The 91 schools in which Latin 
was offered enrolled 81.7 per cent of all high school pupils, while the 
117 schools in which French was taught, enrolled 20.6 per cent of all 
the high school pupils. (See Table 58.) 

General and vocational courses in industrial arts were available 
in 80 county white high schools enrolling 77 per cent of the county 



Courses and Subjects in County White High Schools 



91 



boys and courses in home economics were offered in 116 schools, 
which enrolled 89 per cent of the county high school girls. Agriculture 
was taught in 42 schools, which enrolled 23 per cent of the county 
high school boys. (See Table 58.) 



TABLE 58 

Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools by Subjects 
Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1935 















Ppr Cent of 




Number 






Number 


Total Enroll- 




Enrolled 


Per 


Cent 


of High 


JlXC'llU J— ill! V/iiC'Vi. 


Subject 










Schools 


Ill t^V/lIV/V ^lo 












Offering 


wliipVi Offpr 












Subject 






Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




Total 


14,786 


16,441 






149 




English 


14,654 


16,285 


99.1 


99.1 


149 


100.0 


Mathematics 


10,856 


10,827 


73.4 


65.9 


149 


100.0 


Social Studies 


12,506 


13,652 


84.6 


83.0 


149 


100.0 


Science 


10,845 


11,019 


73.3 


67.0 


149 


100.0 


Latin 


2,272 


3,409 


15.4 


20.7 


91 


81.7 


French 


1,601 


2,966 


10.8 


18.0 


117 


90.6 


Spanish 


36 


52 


.2 


.3 


1 


2.9 


Industrial Arts 










80 


77.4 


General 


6,873 




46.5 




79 


74.1 


Vocational 


403 




2.7 




11 


18.3 


Home Economics 








116 


88.5 


General 




8,065 




49.1 


92 


79.5 


Vocational 




1,040 




6.3 


32 


17.7 


Agriculture 


1,389 




9.4 


42 


23.2 


Commercial 


3,592 


4,799 


24.3 


29^2 


87 


80.9 


Physical Education.. 


4,813 


4,699 


32.6 


28.6 


34 


47.5 


Music 


7,461 


8,840 


50.5 


53.8 


110 


87.0 


Art 


537 


538 


3.6 


3.3 


9 


10.6 



Commercial courses were given in 87 schools, which enrolled 81 per 
cent of the county pupils and were taken by 24 per cent of all county 
boys and 20 per cent of the girls. For the most part, commercial 
work is offered in the third and fourth years, and therefore a much 
larger percentage would appear if only juniors and seniors were 
considered. (See Table 58.) p p ' 

Music was taught in 110 schools which enrolled 87 per cent of the 
county white high school pupils and was taken by 52 per cent of the 
pupils. In most schools, music is a required subject in the first and 
second years and elective if offered in the last two years. (See Table 
58.) ^ ^ 

Physical education courses taken for credit were available in only 
34 high schools enrolling 48 per cent of all county high school pupils. 
Approximately 30 per cent of all county white high school pupils 
enrolled for this work. (See Table 58.) 



92 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



5S Iti 

03 



.S 

,2.5 

WW 



.Bf> © 
c 2 



00 irt C~ OS X ^ 00 



-rj* CD 05 00 ■ 



£ 5X2 
o 3 



:?D00 l^iOOOCOifiXOO 



OJ CO O 00 



«C IM 00 00 



Oi CO ^ o 
SO ^ ci CO 



■<S'iOTf00 05COCO(N«Dt-i-i«0 



lOO-^cDOcoioc-rfOcot- 



: OS Tf ^ 



<M Ci 00 ^ <N t> 



«8 



« c 



CO N ^ ;o t- o 



t- (M t- 
00iO(M 



OJ«£>00 



Oi irt o 
00 00 00 



OS CO OS IM 05 (N (N O :OXCOO> 



:eo '-H 



to o o> in ^ ?£) in 



o t~ < 



U © 



CO ^ 

.S ® 



05 CTi lO ic ;o «3 ■ 
mm C5 (M CO I 



CD (N Ol X in C5 I 
—I X IN C- O O t>( 



eoc<it-cD-^CDcO'*(NO(Nin^inoxx- 
(No>int-^cD-<s'OX( 



05 X ci r-H in ( 



05 05 ' 
C- X 1 



ixcD^ocDint-xeoomt 



t>Tj<ino5co-HCO'<S'05'i<'S'Oxt-ino5^05CDco05inco 



inTi<inxX'^ino5coincDOinX'-ioo>05iMTi<c<ixin 



lOiinoTft-t-oswNX'-iojxcDTitTj.xxinin. 



CO CD oj in o> o t- in o CO X CO CO t> o> in c~ CO 05 05 in N in 

o 

in ••s" in X 05 X CO CD 05 in in c- (M t> — (M t~ (M in X 05 05 o in 

-f X X X OS t- 05 05 X X X 05 X X X X CO X t- X X 05 c- 



cDa>-H05(Nt~ino-^ox'^iNino5inc-oxco-^eoeo 



inint--^cocomoi-ii-imt-t:-«Dt-Ti<^cooco 



^ in CD X o oi 05 c- in o5 in 05 CO o in CO CO o t- CD t~ t- CO 



1— I 05 O X 05 ■ 



— 1 O O CD . 



I O t- O CO 



ooc-oscoco-^om-^cocDint-^-^t-t-cD-^xoio 

«£)^t~-^COCOOXt>OCOC<Jt-t-COOJ050iCD'-^C00505 

t,^co--^T)<xcDcoT)<oinc-c<icoo5^co^cO'*cocoeo 



cocDococoxooxmo^coocooc-cO'-iinxco-* 
^05X05co^in-^oxcO'^05'*t-cDi-i-^eococo05X 
X ^ CO in CO ■'t 05 CD CO CO X o CO »-i CO CO -r-t in eo 



3^ e 

0- cif:. 



3 2 = '5l'|g.2^^'|il^gi 



<; ^ m u o u o o Q o ffi W W S Ph cyoi 00 H 



C c °° 



Subject Enrollment in County White High Schools; Social Studies 93 



Art was offered in 9 schools which enrolled 11 per cent of the coun- 
ty high school pupils. Slightly over 3 per cent of all county high 
school pupils received instruction in art. (See Table 58. ) 

Enrollment in Individual Counties in Various Branches of the Social Studies 

The range in the per cent of boys enrolled in the social studies ran 
from 63 per cent in Queen Anne's to 99 per cent in Calvert, while 
corresponding percentages for girls included from 63 per cent in 
Howard to 100 per cent in Calvert. (See Table 59.) 

The enrollment in civics, ancient history, early European history, 
medieval and modern history, and problems of democracy was lower 
in 1935 than in 1934, while there were gains for economics, world 
history, ancient and medieval history, modern history, U. S. history, 
and economic geography. (See Table 60.) 



TABLE 60 

Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County White 
High Schools for Year 1934- 193r 



COUNTY 


Civics 


5 

& 

o 
c 

o 


>. 


Ancient History 


European History- 


United States 
History 


Problems of 
Democracy 


-1 
E2 

c bc 

C 

O OJ 

^'^ 


c — 

cl 


>. 
K 


-a 
c 

T3 C 


c 

u 

O 

-a 

i 


Total 


4,022 

479 
327 
165 


490 
3 IS 


4,607 

213 
130 
782 


1,922 

67 
254 
127 


1,001 
108 


497 


364 


3,559 

490 
22 
1,116 
91 
62 

235 
68 
43 


7,002 

974 
554 
780 
51 
1S7 
362 
263 
152 
189 
416 
258 
316 
111 
123 
325 
469 
88 
75 
126 
175 
555 
288 
165 


3,454 

382 
141 
148 
22 
147 
194 
182 
58 
107 
213 
143 
221 
67 
84 
182 
229 
98 
56 
97 
92 
336 
177 
78 


574 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel . 




266 




Baltimore 




415 
74 






Calvert 










46 


Caroline 


110 

45 
421 

81 
201 

24 
181 
239 




76 
164 
186 

86 
142 
1,068 
199 
146 

20 

82 
299 
305 
106 

44 






38 
15 


Carroll 


59 


203 


84 






Cecil 






Charles 




39 




62 




47 
66 


Dorchester 


11 
21 
13 


103 








Frederick. 










Garrett 


50 
59 
89 






21 

24 






Harford 


13 
66 


63 


101 
89 
40 
79 

292 


122 
7 
21 


Howard 






Kent 


67 
277 
425 

75 

47 
212 

94 

376 
176 








Montgomery 


13 
13 


358 
202 








Prince George's 


32 


80 




132 




St. Mary's 






50 






30 
111 

68 
475 

55 

92 


20 
29 


Somerset 


9 








Talbot 


149 
87 

224 
99 


18 

353 


77 
32 






Washington 

Wicomico 




292 




36 
48 


33 






Worcester.. 

























♦Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institution. 



United States history, a required subject, and problems of de- 
mocracy, were offered in every county in 1935. In the 3 counties 
which did not include civics or economics or both these subjects in 
the curriculum, courses in economic geography were given. World 
history or combinations of ancient, medieval, and modern European 
history were also offered in every county. (See Table 60.) 



94 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Courses in Science 

The white county enrollment taking general science, biology, and 
physics in 1935 was higher than that reported in 1934. Chemistry 
alone showed a decrease in enrollment. Courses in general science, 
biology, and chemistry were given in every county. Calvert, Caro- 
line, Queen Anne's, and St. IVJary's were the only counties which of- 
fered no work in physics in 1934-35. (See Table 61.) 

The percentage of boys taking courses in science varied from 46 per 
cent in Calvert to over 80 per cent in Anne Arundel, Cecil, Charles, 
and Queen Anne's. For girls, the range was between 55 per cent in 
Caroline and 86 per cent in Calvert. Calvert was the only county 
in which a much larger proportion of girls than ot boys was reported as 
taking science. This was due to the fact that no science was reported 
for boys taking vocational agriculture. (See Table 59.) 

The Mathematics Program 

Fewer than 60 per cent of the boys in Carroll, Dorchester, and Tal- 
bot were enrolled in mathematics classes compared with 87 per cent 
in Wicomico and 88.5 per cent in Calvert. Of the girls only 49 per 
cent were taking mathematics in Talbot as against 88 per cent in Cal- 
vert. In some of the smaller high schools, pupils take mathematics 
practically every year, not because of desire or interest, but because 
nothing else is available. (See Table 59.) 

Every county gave courses in Algebra I, II, and Plane Geometry 
during 1934-35. General mathematics and mathematics or arithmetic 
review were included in the program in 18 counties. Courses in 
trigonometry were given in 17 counties and work in solid geometry 
in 16 counties. Vocational mathematics was offered in 5 counties. 
(See Table 61.) 

The Foreign Languages 
Fewer than 10 per cent of the boys in Cecil, Carroll, Howard, 
Garrett, Wicomico, and Queen Anne's took Latin as against over 
25 per cent in Talbot and 30 per cent in Kent. The distribution for 
girls enrolled in Latin courses included from less than 10 per cent in 
Carroll, Cecil, and Howard, to 30 per cent or more in Calvert, Caro- 
line, Frederick, Kent, and Washington. French courses enrolled 
less than 6 per cent of the boys in Allegany, Charles, and St. Mary's, 
while nearly a third of the Queen Anne's boys took French. For 
girls, the percentages taking French varied from approximately 11 in 
Charles and Prince George's to 44 per cent in Queen Anne's. The 
proportion of pupils preparing for entrance to liberal arts colleges 
probably affected the proportion taking foreign languages. (See 
Table 59.) 

Industrial Arts, Home Economics, and Agriculture 

Garrett, Howard, and St. Mary's, were the only counties which 
offered no courses in industrial arts in 1935, while 50 per cent or more 
of the boys in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, 
Harford, Kent, and Wicomico had training in this work. In 7 coun- 
ties work on a vocational basis was offered in part-time and all day 



Science, Mathematics, Languages, Special Subjects 



95 



C3 



bo 0) 



1^5 CO t- 
»0 CO '-t 



OJ CO tH f— I rH 1— I 1— I 



T-( lO iO tr- (M !0 :05<X> 
(M lO 1—1 CO : (M 1-t 



: Oi 









OO T}< lO 1-1 
CO «£> i-H 



OOOOOOOi-iOiOt-?OOOt-Oi-i(MO(M«OCO 
■rJ<CO<M(M(MOOur505tr-Or-(Oit:-a500T-Hr-iuO 
CO C<1 lO ^ ,— I ,-H CO 1-t (M 1— I lO i-H 



00 05 
1-1 (M 



oo?0'«^<cO'-t«Dt'0(MTi<ooo':Dcr>(Mcocoooaioo-^c<j 

t-CDC<It«-«^0000(NI00i-'-<:l<';DC0i-i'^i-i<NI»OC<|CX)t--i-lC<l 
CO 1-1 1-1 1-1 CO 1—1 1-1 (M (M 1-1 1-t (M CO t-t 



-^^DUDt-COaiOO'XJb-t-tr-t-OOrHasOOCTJi-llOCO'^t:- 
OOl— lOU0(MC000t:-l0asOOi-(<Mt-l0lO(MC0a5O 00 00 
05 (M (M to CO rH 1-1 U3 (M CO (M T-l CO to T-i 1-1 1-1 1-1 OO 



i-< Oi to CO 
i-ICD t- 
CO CO 1-t 



to CO 
CO 1-t 



rfO^OOOi-t-rJ^CDOSOOOO 
COCOOOCOO«Dt1<COOOO 

OJ T-tCOCJi-l 1-lr-HCO 



coooscocD-^oast-t-cocooococoasocoo-^-^oioo 

^DOC~-t:-OOC^OOCOCDCO'r(<COTj<C^Oi-ii-iCOtOi-(OOtO«D 
COCOO 1-1 1-t COCOi-i CO rH 1-1 i-iCOi-( 



00 CO rH 
CO 05 00 

CO 



i-HC-COt-OOC-OOrJ^fnOt- 
?DCO«OCOtOCOOOTj<COOiCO 
1-1 1-1 1-1 ^ CO 



1-H t- ?D as 
CO 1-1 CD CO as 

CO 1-H 



COOOOtOt-OJi-lCOCOOOtOOCOOOTtOOCOtO«£>tOOOCO«D 

a5'rj<to-^asoo^rti-tcototr-coo'Oi-ioot-t-i-iooo5 

OO to 1-H 1-1 CO CO i-t CO CO 1-1 CO 1-t 1-1 CO 1—1 ^ 1-1 CO Tt CO 1-1 



ast-■<#cDTfcoa>toc£)Tt^Ol-lCOtooOl-ta5to^>■r}<a5^- oo 
cot^ootot-coi-ttoco-^^i— icr>'<i<oocoi-icotootoiOi-i 

OS to 1-1 1-t to Tj< ,-1 Tj< CO CO 1-t 1-1 CO <X> 1-1 1-1 CO CO 



a> 

<1<5PQ 



t-, 

o 



<D •r' 



d) a» o oj 



oj <u c 
o S< 

bO m _ C3 «l 



2 o S3 
-go, 



96 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

industrial courses in addition to the general course in industrial arts. 
Agriculture was taught in place of industrial arts in Garrett and 
Howard. (See Table 59.) 

St. Mary's was the only county which offered no home economics 
training to girls, while at the other extreme, over 80 per cent of the 
girls in Carroll and Cecil had opportunities for instruction in this 
subject. Vocational couses in home economics were given in 13 
counties. (See Table 59.) 

Vocational agriculture was taught in 42 schools in 16 counties. Car- 
oline, Carroll, Cecil, Kent, St. Mary's, Talbot, and Wicomico did 
not offer it in 1934-35. The percentage of boys enrolled ranged from 
less than 6 per cent in Allegany, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and 
Prince George's to over 30 per cent in Calvert, Garrett, and Queen 
Anne's. Since the work is designed especially for farm boys from 
homes engaged in full-time or part-time farming it is natural that the 
counties with large cities or near them have a smaller percentage of 
their enrollment taking agriculture. (See Table 59.) 

For boys from full-time farming homes the drift of placement is 
toward partnership with parents or neighbors with full ownership 
or operation the eventual objective. For boys from part-time 
farming homes the drift of placement is toward the efficient use of 
gardens, poultry and special crops in supplementing wages from other 
employment. Every boy while he is studying vocational agriculture 
at high school carries on some teacher-supervised farming operation. 

Offerings in Commercial Work 

As in the past the major offerings in the commercial subjects in the 
third and fourth years were for boys in typing, bookkeeping and 
stenography, and for girls in typing, stenography and bookkeeping. 

While no commercial subjects were offered in Calvert and Queen 
Anne's, on the other hand over 40 per cent of the boys and girls in 
Carroll, Somerset, and Allegany rece ved training in this field. 

Except for boys taking bookkeeping and office practice, the num- 
ber of pupils enrolled in each branch of the commercial subjects in- 
creased from 1934 to 1935. St. Mary's offered no courses in steno- 
graphy, typing, or bookkeeping, but provided training in commercial 
arithmetic, commercial geography, and junior business training. 
Seventeen counties have commercial arithmetic and junior business 
training. Commercial grography was offered in 8 counties, typing II 
was taught in Carroll and Prince George's, office practice in Alle- 
gany, Carroll, and Prince George's and salesmanship in Allegany 
and Frederick. (See Table 62.) 

The number of men and women from the Maryland counties en- 
gaged in selected trade and commercial occupations in age groups 
10-17, 18-19, and 20-24 years, according to the 1930 federal census, 
would indicate that careful follow-up should be made of previous 
graduates of the commercial courses to determine whether the in- 
struction received in high school has been of functional value. 



Home Economics, Industrial Arts, Commercial Courses 



97 



diqsuRius^i's 



X 



II SuriXj, 



XqrlBjSoar) 
IBiojauiiu.)^ 



ouisng joiunf 



AI-III 
Suidaajinoja 



AI-III 



AI-III 
XiidBj3oua:ig 



CC CO 
CO (M 



aso 

(M CO 



00 1-H 



<3it-r-((MCO(MT-(W'rl«(M'^i< 



oco«r>cD(M?ooio:>coi-ioo 

i-HW CO(M i-HC^OOJ 



IC ^ 



T-i CO o 

OO ( 



U3 

00 (M 



U5 

00 t- (M 



O 

as to 

(M '-H i-H 



»-i Tj< as CO 
'-I as o t- 



OS CO 

as CO 

(M (M -rf 



f- 00 
(MOOS 
<M (M CO 



0) c 



OS 1-1 O 00 C<I 
i-H rH C^J Ca (M 



CO 1-1 as o r-i ; U5 
1-1 1-1 w rH CO ; c<i 



COt:^Ut>-<^(M«D00UDi-llLOCO«O 
(MOTH'rtlOi-<COt>COCJOO'«^< 



0'«tCOC^3tDi-iU500COO?DI> 

t-T^c^i^oascjTfNuo-^t^oas 

1—1 T-( 1-1 1— I N 



COlOOC^UOOOCOCOt-OSUtXM 
"^COC^JCOt^^C^JCDCdM-^-^ 



tf5t--«*i-<i-it-«Oi-iOCOOOO 
iCCO(M>OOOt:-COi-ilOCOCOO 
1— ( 1-H tH CO 



(M00OC^Ut>l0(MOC0t-C<l«0 
1— ii— (C<lC^■^■^'^3l^«^'— I'^^ioo 



(M lO CO 1-1 00 



o 

5 > 2 c-G ^ 



■! c O 03 



o 



OS CO o as 
ic lo 00 as = 

I S 

o CO «o as 1-1 ! o 

t- O C<J ""I* 



N (M 1-1 1-t 

t- OS 1-1 1> ;o 

(M 



<X> 00 to CO 
to C<1 ^ 



(N «0 U2 1— ' CO 
tr- O t> U5 



00 Tj* O U3 ^ ^ _ 

j« c 5 



0) 



.ti >> ? >> 



<i1 <i5 pq O O O O O Q O ffi ffi S pLH O* c/2 H ^ ^ ^ 



98 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

For example, there were 172 county boys or men up to the age of 
24 years who in 1930 gave their occupation as stenographer and typ- 
ist. In the Maryland county white high schools in 1934-35, there were 
931 third and fourth year high school boys taking stenography and 
1,551 taking typing. Probably many of those pursuing these sub- 
jects did so with no idea of becoming stenographers or typists, but 
because they wished to be able to type their own letters or to take 
lecture notes in shorthand. Is there definite realization of this situa- 
tion on the part of boys and teachers? Also, are those who take this 
work preparatory to a vocation selected with the idea that they have 
the necessary qualifications to meet the requirements? 

Likewise there were 462 boys and men of ages up to 24 years, 
inclusive, who, according to the 1930 federal census, were cashiers 
and bookkeepers. The Maryland county white high schools gave in- 
struction in bookkeeping to 1,211 third and fourth year high school 
boys in 1934-35. Do high school boys and teachers realize how few 
openings there are in these fields for graduates of the high schools? 

On the other hand, much larger numbers of boys of these ages were 
employed as salesmen, 1,881, as clerks in offices, 1,682, and as clerks 
in stores, 689. Is the high school giving the type of preparation which 
will be most helpful in these fields? (See Table 62A.) 

TABLE 62A 



Occupations of Maryland County Men and Women in Selected Commercial 
Occupations by Age Groups According to 1930 Federal Census 





MEN 


WOMEN 


Age 
Group 


Sales- 
men 


Clerks 

in 
Stores 


Book- 
keepers 

and 
Cashiers 


Clerks 
not in 
Stores 


Sten- 
ograph- 
ers and 
Typists 


Sales- 
women 


Clerks 

in 
Stores 


Book- 
keepers 

and 
Cashiers 


Clerks 
not in 
Stores 


Sten- 
ograoh- 
ers and 
Typists 


10-17 
18-19 
20-24 


272 
408 
1,201 


172 
184 
333 


14 
107 
341 


161 
366 
1,155 


10 
41 
121 


185 
264 
581 


58 
110 
181 


44 
168 
538 


109 
281 
765 


106 
453 
1,211 


10-24 


1,881 


689 


462 


1,682 


172 


1,030 


349 


750 


1,155 


1,770 



For the women and girls the conditions are somewhat different. 
In 1930 stenography and typing were the occupation of 1,770 county 
girls and women up to the age of 24 years. The Maryland counties 
in 1934-35 gave instruction in typing to 2,744 and in stenography to 
2,402 white third and fourth year high school girls. Undoubtedly 
a large number of girls taking the training will become typists and 
stenographers, but has the number receiving training any relation to 
the number of positions available and the requirements for those 
positions? 

There were 750 girls and women up to the age of 24 years in 1930 
employed as bookkeepers and cashiers. The county high school en- 
rollment in bookkeeping for white third and fourth year girls was 



Special Subjects; English Enrollment by Years 



99 



1,791 in 1984-35. A comparison of these figures should raise questions 
for pupils and teachers. 

The employment of 1,155 county girls and women up to age 24 
years as clerks in offices, of 1,030 as saleswomen, and of 349 as clerks 
in stores, would indicate that the character of commercial work 
offered by the high schools might be changed so that graduates would 
be better prepared for the positions they probably will find available 
to them. 

The commercial teachers, the high school supervisors, and Mr. 
E. W. Barnhart, Chief of the Commercial Education Service in the 
U. S. Office of Education, are making studies along these lines. 

Physical Education and Music 
Baltimore County oflfered the most extensive program in physical 
education carried on by trained leaders from the Playground Athletic 
League. Twelve counties offered credit for work in physical educa- 
tion, but it was available to less than 25 per cent of the pupils in 
Washington, Garrett, Calvert, and Carroll. It was not offered at all 
for credit in Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Harford, Kent, Prince George's, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot and Worcester. 
— Courses in music were given in every county except Cecil, Queen 
^ Anne's, and Somerset. Music was not taken by the boys in Calvert, 
but 19 per cent of the girls enrolled for it. Over 90 per cent of the 
Carroll and Howard high school pupils took work in music. (See 
% Table 59.) 

^ Instrumental music making possible participation in a school 
^ orchestra was an elective in the music course in 36 county high 
^ schools. There were 111 county pupils from 24 different county high 
i;^ schools who played in the All High School Orchestra at the meeting 
of the State Teachers' Association in Baltimore in October, 1934. 

ENGLISH ENROLLMENT DISTRIBUTED BY YEARS 

^- Of the 31,341 county white high school pupils in 1934-35 who were 
^ enrolled in English, 34 per cent were in the first year, 27 per cent were 

in the second year, 22 per cent in the third year, and 17 per cent 
^ in the fourth year. The enrollment in the first and third years was 

higher for both boys and girls in 1935 than in 1934. The girls had 
2r a larger proportion of their total enrollment than the boys in the 
^ third and fourth years. (See Table 63.) 

" TABLE 63 

County White High School Enrollment in English Distributed by Year of 

English Taken 



Year Number Per Cent 

Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls 

1 10,807 5.459 5,348 34.5 36.5 32.7 

II 8,329 3,989 4,340 26.6 26.6 26.5 

III 6,975 3,267 3,708 22.2 21.8 22.6 

IV 5,230 2,255 2,975 16.7 15.1 18.2 



Total 31,341 14,970 16,371 100.0 100.0 100.0 



100 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Calvert and Howard had over 39 per cent of the white high school 
enrollment taking first year English as compared with 29 per cent in 
Caroline. The enrollment in fourth year English ranged from 11.9 
per cent in Calvert to over 21 per cent in Garrett, Kent, and Queen 
Anne's. Only six counties — Garrett, Howard, Queen Anne's, St. 
Mary's, Somerset, and Worcester — had a larger percentage of pupils 
enrolled in the fourth year in 1935 than in the preceding year. (See 
Table 64.) 

TABLE 64 

Per Cent of County Enroi'ment Taking English in Each Year of High School, 

1934-P5 



COUNTY 



Number 
Enrolled 



Per Cent Enrolled in English in Years 



m 

English 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


31,341 


34.5 


26.6 


22.2 


16.7 


3,537 


34.8 


26.2 


23.1 


15.9 


2,058 


33.1 


27.7 


26.5 


12.7 


4,458 


34.4 


28.1 


21.6 


15.9 


243 


39.9 


26.8 


21.4 


11.9 


748 


29.0 


28.2 


23.0 


19.8 


1,556 


34.2 


25.8 


22.8 


17.2 


1,155 


36.2 


23.7 


22.9 


17.2 


507 


33.1 


25.6 


23.5 


17.8 


872 


34.2 


31.4 


17.9 


16.5 


2,000 


36.6 


25.0 


22.7 


15.7 


969 


32.0 


24.5 


22.3 


21.2 


1,375 


32.6 


28.3 


20.9 


18.2 


573 


39.4 


25.0 


20.2 


15.4 


520 


30.8 


25.2 


22.9 


21.1 


1,771 


36.1 


27.5 


18.4 


18.0 


2,281 


35.5 


29.5 


20.0 


15.0 


512 


30.1 


26.9 


21.5 


21.5 


347 


36.9 


21.9 


22.5 


18.7 


701 


36.2 


25.1 


22.4 


16.3 


762 


32.8 


25.9 


24.8 


16.5 


2,364 


34.3 


24.1 


24.1 


17.5 


1,255 


37.1 


25.1 


20.8 


17.0 


777 


31.3 


24.2 


24.7 


19.8 



Total and Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



HIGH SCHOOL NON-PROMOTIONS AND WITHDRAWALS DECREASE 

With the exception of non-promotions in Latin for boys and with- 
drawals of girls from commercial subjects, the number and per cent 
of non-promotions and withdrawals in the academic and commercial 
subjects and vocational agriculture in county white high schools 
were lower in 1935 than in 1934. (See Table 65.) 

The combined percentages for white high school boys withdrawn 
and not promoted included nearly 26 per cent in commercial sub- 
jects, 24 per cent in mathematics, 23 per cent in English, 22 per cent in 



English Enrollment by Years; Non Promotions and Withdrawals 101 



the social studies, 21 per cent in science and Latin, 19 per cent in 
French and 15 per cent in agriculture. For girls, just as for boys, 
commercial subjects included the largest number and per cent of 
withdrawals and non-promotions, nearly 17 per cent. Withdrawals and 
failures for girls comprised approximately 16 per cent in mathematics, 
13 per cent in social studies and science, 11 per cent in Latin and 8 
per cent in French. In every case the per cent of non-promotions and 
withdrawals was higher for boys than for girls. (See Table 65.) 

TABLE 65 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failurev*! in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Subject 


Number 






Per 


Cent 






Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Withdrawn 


Promoted 


Withdrawn 


Not 

Promoted 


Withdrawn 


Not 

Promoted 


Withdrawn 


1 Promoted 


Withdrawn 


Not 

Promotod 


Withdrawn 


Net 

Promoted 


English 


2,971 


2,411 


1,705 


1,765 


1,266 


646 


9.5 


7.7 


11.4 


11.8 


7.7 


3.9 


Mathematics 


2,019 


2,354 


1,236 


1,449 


783 


905 


9.1 


10.7 


11.1 


13.0 


7.2 


8.3 


Social Studies 


2,566 


2,203 


1,483 


1,379 


1,083 


824 


9.3 


8.0 


11.2 


10.5 


7.6 


5.8 


Science 


2,139 


1,643 


1,271 


1,060 


868 


583 


9.7 


7.4 


11.5 


9.6 


7.8 


5.2 


Latin 


261 


604 


117 


365 


144 


239 


4.6 


10.6 


5.1 


16.0 


4.2 


7.0 


French 


227 


319 


103 


200 


124 


119 


4.9 


6.9 


6.3 


12.2 


4.1 


4.0 


Commercial 


1,766 


1,504 


801 


797 


965 


707 


11.0 


9.3 


12.9 


12.8 


9.7 


7.1 


Agriculture 


167 


45 


167 


45 






12.0 


3.2 


12.0 


3.2 





















Withdrawals and Non-Promotions in Individual Counties 

In English the range of withdrawals and non-promotions for boys 
varied from less than 12 per cent in Kent, Queen Anne's, and Mont- 
gomery to over 30 per cent in Wicomico, Somerset, Frederick, and 
Cecil. For girls the percentage of withdrawals and non-promotions 
ranged from 6 per cent in Charles and St. Mary's to 17 per cent or 
more in Frederick and Allegany. (See Table 66.) 

For mathematics withdrawals and non-promotions for boys varied 
from less than 14 per cent in Washington to over 31 per cent in 
Somerset, Cecil, and St. Mary's. For girls, the corresponding varia- 
tions for withdrawals and non-promotions were from less than 10 
per cent in Kent and Carroll to over 24 per cent in Somerset and 
Frederick. (See Table 66.) 

In the social studies the per cent of withdrawals and non- 
promotions for boys ran from less than 11 per cent in Queen Anne's 
and Montgomery to over 30 per cent in Charles, Talbot, and Fred- 
erick. For the girls, withdrawals and non-promotions for the social 
studies varied from less than 8 per cent in St. Mary's, Dorchester, 
and Montgomery to nearly 23 per cent in Frederick. (See 7\ible 66.) 



102 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



.S 

s 

a 



o 

H 2 



(» 
*& 

o 

V 

CO 

EE 



o C 3 
<3 



c ^ 



MOO 



com 



<X> 05 «0 ^ «D 00 



o o 

O (M 

t- to 



CO «D t 



CO U5 I 
CD 05 < 



00 <o 



00 001 
00 I 



O (C 
00 t- 



as M < 

05 N 1 



05 O O 00 



OS t- 1 



I c~ c- eo «o 05 N 05 ;0!0eooo»oio 



irs ic CO CO 



i-H MO • 

• Tt< IC t~ 1 



1 ^ t- o o CO 

I t-' CO M M 



I o ^ 
) O Oi 



00 00 CO ■ 
OS CO lO I 



I CO O CO ■ 

I M in ( 



( CO o in t- to 



l-H t- O t- i-H 

eo t> .-H CO o eo 



1-1 in CO in 
iCodeot> 



' in CO o o 
' CO 05 1-H in 



los CO 

>MCO 



IrH O 

CD eo 



I o eo eo 
• co"co 



0> (N ■ 
MCOCOI 



o in 

O Tf 

M <N 



M O 
(NCO 



I t- 05 

I CD © 



in eo t- 
oi © c- 



(M in ■ 
Oi in t- < 



CO M 

cooi 



05 in r 
a> CO I 



' M 00 I 
) CO 05 • 



© (N 



1 1> in c 

l©1-H, 



I M © 

it-'© 



Ti< in 



00 M 
i-H 05 



; CO CO t 
; CO Oi in , 



in in 
CO in 
eo eo 



O 
CO 



y-i © 

in CO 



■ 00 in © c 
I eo M 00 ( 



^©eo 
in CO M 



I CD ; 00 Tt" 



in in t> 
eo in -q" 



in o; in rf 
in in CD t- T}< 



.-Hn<Tt"co 
^ M eo ^ 



rj< 05 M in 
t- CO CO 05 



i © in 00 CO 

05 CO © 



1 CO o> CO © eo 
I M M 00 CO eo 



in eo oi CD 
eo 1-1 



< 00 CO t> M 



:oo t- 



OOMOS 

-rj. 



CO 00 in ^ 

05 CD CD CO 



M05 

in in 



in 00" 
^ to I 



I Tj" CO 

I in 1-1 



in in in 
t- eo 



^ eo 1-1 < 

MOOi-H 



1 CD 00 05 

I M -"T eo 



05 O 1-1 t> 05 



OOM 
CO 00 
00 00 



CO t- I 
eo CD I 



) 05 © © 

<inMeo 



© CD © • 
CD 05 t- I 



1 00 in OS in c- 

> to 00 CO CO 00 



© in rf OS 

CD CD t- in 



© in 

CO tf 

© © 



I 1-c CD ( 

I rH ^ in M eo 



(M©cDM-^cocoineo©--H 
I OS in t- 05 eo m 



M 1-1 OS eo 
t- in eo M 



t> CO 
N 00 



»n 00 

T-(M 



!CDini-iineooOTi«Tfooi-ieoos©os^'^i-ico 
*t>eo©ooinosoot-oot-tDT}<ooeoeooO'*^ 



O5oocoi-iinooto©i-itot-to©os— i©©T-ii-(05ineo^ 
inoot-T)<ineoT)<TfMi-iMooo5-^c<ieoooMcot-in-<s<in 



CO ->s< to in 

00 . . 

© © t- t- 



tDooincoincoMeo©i-icc«iJoo(MC-osini-iooooi-i'^i-i 
,-Hcoc-"inooif,-l-^fin.-iooin-«j"t-in«co'^t-cocot-to 



OS in « 
eo eo © © 



eo©inos©cOTtMeo05coooooMcoosi-(OOeoinMOO' 
05i-ieo-^coMtooscoMT)<oseooo-^tot-t-ost-inM' 



CO eo M 00 

00 M 

Tjiin 1-11-1 



00©OOi-ieOOOM©'-iCOT}<Tj«cOC-MOS^-<tOOCOOOCDr}< 

eo©©coMCDMMoot-— (00©tocoeoMcoeoeooo-<*'© 



in CO CO 
© to • • 

05 © 00 OS 



Ocoeoosi-iosi-iOsinoooo©'^MMoooocoooeoinM© 
osc3ojt-'t-Ttmin,-(eoi-icoooeoeoinoocoo50sinooi-H 



eo © 

00 CO 
t> 00 



MCO 



inTj>ooeoooosost-©oseoeoMeoMOsosoOi-iosnj>i-it- 
oiincDtocD'^©Tj<c-os©inT}'int-t-T}"co©inincDin 



OS CO © 00 

■"t in CO CO 



Ost-cot>ino5oo-^eOTf05eotococOTj<in©-^(NincDco 



eocoinino^eoc<iooineot-©M©05eo©ininTHTjiTj<<D 

M00©O>00OSC000OsCOr)<00i-iOs0i'^int-i-ii-(00eO© 



to t- OS eo 
-»i< OS • • 
coco cot 



iOTr(N'^i-i"^ini-i^cvjeoot>CMOoeoTj<©Trcoeoineo 
eoinininco-^eo'i-Ii-Ios'i-HcO'tJ'Mi-iMeOi-icoineoeoeo 



CO OS t- in 
coo 



TfMOs©oo'^t>-^i-Hin^ost-t-M©'*'i-iooooosos'^ 
coco'cocoinini-lT}«i>©oo-<j"«*"^coo5T»<int-cDinooco 



00 CO 

1-1 M 



t"^eoost-©oO'^M05t)"ooi-ic-oo©-"S"©i«i-ii-;©t> 
oininrtoseoooinoo->s<eoMi-iec»«05t>Mooeoint-m 



t- t- 1-t 1-1 



ooi>inincO'*ooc--^ooeooo'^cO"5}"t-i-ii-iM'*i-H'-<os 
■«s<Os©oo©ooi-H©t-inMoo»HCOCo-^'^coeoeoosini-( 



3 

-jSjeo 
rt osos 
(J 1-1 1-t 

Eh 



jvin 
ccoeo 

§0S05 



a> o C 09 



■2 o s 



Withdrawals and Non Promotions; Standard Tests 



103 



The range in boys withdrawn and failed for science was from less 
than 12 per cent in Kent and Dorchester to 29 per cent or more in 
Calvert, Cecil, Frederick, and Somerset. The per cent of withdrawals 
and non-promotions for girls included from less than 7 per cent in 
Caroline, Charles, St. Mary's, and Kent to over 16 per cent in Alle- 
gany, Frederick, Somerset, and Cecil. (See Table 66.) 

In Latin withdrawals and non-promotions for boys included at 
one extreme none in Cecil and less than 11 per cent in Montgomery 
and Garrett and at the other over 29 per cent in Dorchester, Somer- 
set, and Talbot. Withdrawals and non-promotions affected none in 
Howard and less than 4 per cent of the girls taking Latin in Kent, 
Worcester, Charles, and Carroll, whereas 31 and 24 per cent of the 
girls lost out in Cecil and Dorchester. (See Table 66.) 

Withdrawals and non-promotions for French for boys were highest 
in St. Mary's, Somerset, and Caroline, 31 per cent or more, while 
none at all withdrew or failed in Kent and less than 7 per cent in 
Washington and Queen Anne's. No girls withdrew or failed French 
in Kent and St. Mary's, and less than 4 per cent did so in Talbot, 
Howard, Charles, Washington, and Prince George's, while Allegany 
at the other extreme had 16.3 per cent leave or fail in French. (See 
Table 66.) 

Withdrawals and non-promotions for the commercial subjects 
included from under 11 per cent of the boys in Garrett, St. Mary's 
and Kent to 36 per cent and over in Charles, Frederick, Anne Arun- 
del, and Caroline. Corresponding figures for girls included from less 
than 5 per cent in Garrett, St. Mary's, and Kent to 30 per cent or 
over in Frederick and Caroline. (See Table 66.) 

The boys who dropped from or failed vocational agriculture ranged 
from less than 9 per cent in Harford, Garrett, and Charles to 26 per 
cent or more in Somerset and Calvert. (See Table 66.) 

In general it may be said that if the two extremes are noted, high 
school pupils in Kent, Montgomery, Garrett, Queen Anne's, and 
Washington are more likely to stay on in school and be promoted to 
higher grades of subject matter than are high school pupils in Fred- 
erick, Somerset, and Cecil. 

STANDARD TESTS IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS, SPRING, 1935 

Because there is a common need on the part of all members of the 
high school teaching staff for more definite information on the reading 
ability and civic and social attitudes of individual pupils, the State 
Department of Education planned and financed a testing program 
in the county high schools in the spring of 1935. 

The Iowa Silent Reading Test — Advanced — was given to 9,295 
first year and 7,110 second year pupils. In every subject, the dif- 
ficulty of the texts selected, the placement of pupils, the methods of 
teaching, and assignments should bear a close relation to reading 
ability, which is fundamental to progress in learning any subject in 
the curriculum. 



104 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The Wesley Test in Social Terms was given to 5,966 third year 
and 4,680 fourth year pupils. The present high school pupils as future 
citizens will have the responsibility as leaders or followers for shap- 
ing the social legislation which will determine the welfare of the 
county, state, and nation. It is important that there be a common 
understanding of the terms used in connection with measures and 
legislation upon which the intelligent voter and legislator must make 
decisions. 

The principals and teachers made a careful analysis of test results 
and had a program of remedial work which has had interesting de- 
velopments in several counties during 1935-36. 

THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 

In 1934-35 the county white high schools employed a teaching staff 
equivalent to the full-time service of 1,203 teachers, 34 more than for 
the preceding year. Except for Latin, French, and art, every subject 
had a larger teaching staff on a full-time basis than in 1934. (See 
Table 67.) 

TABLE 67 

Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in Countv White High 
Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



SUBJECTS 


Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 


Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 


Ncimber of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct in 
M ore Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


Teachers 


Schools 


English 


206.8 
179.5 
155.1 
155.1 
50.7 
47.1 

103.9 
79.6 
59.1 
42.1 
25.4 
25.1 
13.3 
2.4 

57.7 
1,202.9 


149 
149 
149 
149 
117 
91 

87 
116 
80 
110 
42 
34 
18 
9 








Social Studies 








Mathematics 








Science 








French and Spanish .. 
Latin 














Commercial 








Home Economics 

Industrial Arts 


19 
16 
21 
6 
2 


40 

33 
54 
13 
4 


109 
90 
80 
36 
33 


Music 


Agriculture 


Physical Education .... 
Library 


Art 








Administration and 
Supervision 








Total 





















English with 207 teachers on a full-time basis, had more teachers 
than any other subject. The number of teachers of social studies on a 
full-time basis was 180, while mathematics and science, each required 



Testing; The High School Teaching Staff by Subjects 



105 



the services of 155 teachers. French and Spanish had nearly 51 
teachers, 2 fewer than the year before, and Latin 47 teachers, 3 fewer 
than in 1934. (See Table 67.) 

The increase in teachers from 1934 to 1935 was largest in the social 
studies with 9 more. There were 5 additional in English and science 
and 2 more in mathematics. 

The full-time equivalent of 104 teachers was required for instruc- 
tion in the commercial subjects. Home economics with 80 teachers 
on a full-time basis actually required the services of 109 different 
teachers who taught in 116 schools. Industrial arts and vocational 
work in industry with a full-time staff of 59 teachers, included 90 
different individuals who gave instruction in 80 schools. (See Tahle 
67.) 

The increase from 1934 to 1935 in commercial teachers was 6, of 
home economics teachers 5.5, and of industrial arts teachers 3. 

Music with 42 teachers on a full-time basis was taught in 110 
schools by 80 different teachers. Several teachers spent a half day a 
week in each of ten schools. There were 25 teachers of agriculture on 
a full-time basis requiring the services of 36 individuals teaching in 42 
schools. Physical education taught by 33 different teachers in 34 
schools actually included 25 teachers on a full-time basis. The art 
courses given in 9 schools required the equivalent of 2.4 full-time 
teachers. (See Table ^1,) 

Eighteen schools reported having librarians or teacher-librarians, 
which on a full-time basis required the services of 13 persons. Ad- 
ministration and supervision required the full-time service of 58 
principals and vice-principals. The principals in 9 large county 
high schools devoted all their time to administration and supervision. 
(See Table 67.) 

Five counties — Allegany, Baltimore, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, 
and Frederick — employed clerks in 17 high schools at an annual salary 
cost of $9,826. The average salary paid, $588, is much lower than 
that paid to a teacher, and the work done makes it possible for the 
principal to devote more time to constructive supervisory work. 
(See Table 68.) 

TABLE 68 

Number of Clerks in County White High Schools. 1934-35 



Average 

No. of Total Annual 
County Clerks Salaries Salary- 
Total 17 $9,826 $588 

Mlegany 7 3,525 526 

Baltimore 4 2,542 636 

Montgomery 3 2,250 750 

Anne Arundel 2 1,009 505 

Frederick 1 500 500 



106 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CERTIFICATION OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

In October, 1935, of 824 teachers and principals employed in reg- 
ular four-year white high schools in every county except Baltimore 
and Montgomery, 97.6 per cent held regular principals' and high 
school assistants' certificates. There were 20 high school in- 
structors, 2.4 per cent, who were either provisionally certificated or 
were employed as substitutes. Of 478 principals and teachers in sen- 
ior-junior and senior high schools in 6 counties, 92.8 per cent were 
holding regular principals' and high school teachers' certificates, 6.6 
per cent held regular advanced first, first or B. S. certificates in Ele- 
mentary Education, and .6 of one per cent were substitutes or had 
provisional certificates. The 147 principals and teachers employed 
in the junior high schools in 6 counties included 87.8 per cent cer- 
tificated as high school principals or teachers, 10.9 holding elementary 
certificates, and 1.3 per cent substituting or provisionally certificated. 
(See Tabic XII, page 297.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
There were 371 county white high school teachers in service in 
October, 1935, who attended summer school in 1935, an increase 
of 15 teachers over the number reported in 1934. These included 25.6 
per cent of the high school teaching staff, the same percentage as for 
the preceding year. These 1934 and 1935 percentages, lower than 
those reported in any year since 1924, reflect the effect on summer 
school attendance of salary reductions and the postponement of the 
date for required attendance. (See Table 69, and regulations of the 
State Board of Education on page 262.) 

TABLE 69 



White High School Teachers Who Were 
Summer School Attendants 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


232 


31.0 


1925 


280 


32.3 


1926 


281 


80.7 


1927 


319 


32.7 


1928 


296 


28.4 


1929 


367 


33.5 


1930 


410 


34.3 


1931 


448 


36.1 


1932 


*472 


35.1 


1933 


*357 


26.3 


1934 


*356 


25.6 


1935 


*371 


25.6 



* Includes teachers in junior and junior-senior high schools. 

In the individual counties, the per cent of high school teachers who 
were summer school attendants in 1935 varied from 4 per cent in 
Wicomico to 36 per cent or more in Howard, Cecil, and St. Mary's. 



Certification and Summer School Attendance of White High 
School Teachers 



In seven counties, Wicomico, Harford, Baltimore, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, Calvert, and Washington, fewer than 19 per cent of the white 
high school teachers attended summer school. Twelve counties had 
the same or a higher percentage of white high school teachers who 
attended summer school in 1935 as against 1934. (See Table 70.) 



TABLE 70 

County White High School Teachers in Service in October, 193f», Reported 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in J 935 





Teachers Emoloyed 
Oct., 1935, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1935 


1 

<J QUI 

oummer bchools Attended 


1 

i Number 
of 
White 
High 
School 
Teachers 




Number 


Per Cent 




Total and Average 


**371 


25.6 


Total 


tt373 

143 H 
t43 
37 




4 


36.3 


University of Maryland 


Cecil 


17 


36.2 


Columbia University 




9 


36.0 


Johns Hopkins University 


Montgomery 


*53 


34.2 


Western Maryland College 


Allegany 


62 


33.0 


Pennsylvania State 


32 
13 
10 
7 


Frederick 


27 


32.5 


Duke University 




11 
11 

30 


30.6 
30.6 
29.7 


George Washington University 


Prince George's 


University of Virginia 
Bowling Green 


6 




7 


29.2 


Catholic University 


6 


Carroll 


*24 


28.9 


University of Michigan 


5 
5 


Garrett 


11 


28.2 


University of Wisconsin 


Dorchester 


11 


26.8 


University of Vermont 


5 


Anne Arundel 


19 


25.7 


University of Chicago 


4 


Talbot 


8 
7 
22 
2 
4 


24.2 
23.3 
18.5 
18.2 
17.4 


University of Pennsylvania 


4 
3 


Somerset 

Washington. 

Calvert 


New York University 
University of West Virginia 
Stout Institute . 


3 
3 


Queen Anne's 


University of Delaware 


3 


Kent 


4 


16.7 


Middlebury College, Vermont 


2 


Baltimore 


20 
6 


12.6 


University of Southern California 


2 


Harford 


10.3 


Drexel Institute 


2 
2 


Wicomico 


2 


4.1 


Washington College of Music 


2 








Other 


t30H 











* Excludes supervisor of music. t Includes supervisor of music. 



Over 38 per cent of the summer school attendants from the Mary- 
land counties, 143, attended the University of Maryland, 43 were 
enrolled at Columbia University, 37 took courses at Johns Hopkins 
University, and 32 were doing summer school work at Western 
Maryland College. The remaining teachers attended various colleges 
throughout the country. (See Table 70.) 

GROWTH OF TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY JUNIOR. JUNIOR-SENIOR 
AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number of teachers in junior, junior-senior, and senior high 
schools has grown from 154 employed in Allegany in October, 1926, 
to 576 in six counties in October, 1934. Allegany still has the largest 
number, 177, and Baltimore is second with 155. Montgomery, which 
was the second county to change to this type of organization, has 123 



108 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



teachers in junior-senior high schools. CaroHne and Dorchester each 
of which had one junior-senior high school the preceding year reverted 
to the 7-4 type of organization for all their high schools in October, 
1934. {^eeTablell.) 

TABLE 71 

Teachers in County White Junior, Junior-Senior, and SeniorHigh Schools 







Alle- 


Mont- 


Prince 


Wash- 


Fred- 


Caro- 


Balti- 


Dor- 


October 


Total 


gany 


gomery 


George's 


ington 


erick 


line 


more 


chester 


1926 


154 


154 
















1927 


182 


161 


21 














1928 


202 


165 


37 














1929 


207 


165 


42 














1930 


245 


166 


51 


28 












1931 


398 


174 


96 


33 


80 


15 








1932 


424 


178 


101 


33 


79 


15 


13 


5 




1933 


575 


180 


109 


23 


79 


15 


13 


148 


8 


1934 


576 


177 


123 


25 


79 


17 




155 























RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 
TABLE 72 

Causes of Resignation Reported for Teachers Who Withdrew from the Maryland 
County Regular White High Schools and from Junior, Junior-Senior and Senior 
High Schools Between October of One Year and October of the Following Year 



'■2. S: 



ory 
tions 




C 


1 


B 


» e 


e 
00 


C 




3 

e 


£«- 

a e 


dical 


nkn 





a> 






P 




s 

B 


Strativ 
irmai ! 
! State 




• and 




!r to A 




w 

.1 




2 


ut 

B 


Is = 
< 


'w 







•B 



WHITE REGULAR HIGH SCHOOLS 



1927-1928 


41 


35 


19 


17 


2 


2 




2 




1928-1929 


44 


5b 


18 


19 


2 


5 


















1929-1930 


41 


50 


17 


16 


2 


5 




2 




1930-1931 


36 


38 


16 


26 


1 


4 




3 




1931-1932 


21 


3 


7 


25 


1 


3 


9 


3 




1932-1933 


18 


4 




5 


4 


4 


\? 


2 




1933-1934 


31 


11 


11 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 





2 


5 




12 


143 




36 


7 


6. 


7 


9 




f 1 


162 




50 


17 


7 


6 


2 




lf| 


160 




37 


9 


22 


11 


1 




c 


144 




27 


4 


63 


11 


2 


2 


14 


104 




15 


6 


26 


3 


2 


2 


9 


75 




7 


2 


114 


1 






4 


71 




13 


3 


2 













WHITE JUNIOR, junior-senior AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



12 

















1 


22 


2 


1 


4 








1 




2 




4 


31 


2 


1 


4 


1 




1 










1 


22 




2 


4 




2 


1 


1 




1 


33 


1 




9 


2 








7 






4 


29 


1 


1 


6 








1 


3 




4 


1 


23 


1 


4 


14 


5 




2 


6 


2 


6 




3 


55 




1 


29 



There were 71 resignations from regular high schools and 55 from 
junior, junior-senior, and senior high schools between October, 1933, 
and October, 1934. This total of 126 was 28 more resignations from 
county white secondary schools than were reported for the preceding 



Resignations and Turnover, County White High Schools 109 

year. The number of resignations (193) was at its maximum between 
October, 1928, and October, 1929, and declined steadily each year 
thereafter until there were but 98 between October in 1932 and 
October, 1933. The increase in resignations to 126 from October, 1933, 
to October, 1934, is therefore an indication of improvement in general 
economic conditions. (See Table 72.) 

The number of resignations because of marriage and because of 
acceptance of teaching positions outside of the county school systems 
or of positions other than teaching decreased steadily from 1928-29 
until 1932-33, after which an increase occurred in 1933-34. In times 
of economic stress there are fewer marriages and fewer resignations 
of married teachers from their positions because of the economic 
insecurity of husbands. Also, there are fewer positions open else- 
where because of retrenchment in all localities and therefore few 
changes in position. With improved conditions this situation is re- 
versed. 

Marriage continued as the chief cause of resignations between 
October, 1933, and October, 1934, 31 having left the regular high 
schools and 12 the junior, junior-senior and senior high schools for this 
reason. Eleven from the regular and 9 from the reorganized high 
schools left the service to do work other than teaching and 11 from 
the regular high schools and 6 from the other types of high school 
took positions outside the Maryland counties or in private schools. 
The number who were dropped for inefficiency or low grade cer- 
tificates or who resigned for various causes is shown in Table 72. 

There were 29 teachers who were transferred from junior-senior 
high schools. Most of these had been employed in the junior-senior 
high schools at Denton in Caroline and Hurlock in Dorchester, the 
two schools which abolished this type of organization prior to the 
school year, 1934-35. (See Table 72.) 

TURNOVER IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS INCREASES 

The number and per cent of teachers new to the county white 
high schools increased from 108 or 7.9 per cent in 1934 to 172 or 12.2 
per cent in service in 1935. There were 36 additional positions in 
1935 as against 14 for the preceding year, which together with the in- 
crease in number of resignations accounted for the increase in turn- 
over. (See Table 73.) 

Of the 172 teachers new to the county white high schools of aP 
types during 1934-35, there were 122, over 70 per cent, who were 
inexperienced, 28 who were experienced from other states, 17 who 
were formerly teachers in the Maryland counties, but out of service 
in 1933-34, 3 from elementary schools and 2 substitutes. In addition 
there were 16 teachers who transferred from one county to another. 
(See Table 73.) 

The teachers new to the individual counties ranged from none in 
Queen Anne's and approximately 4 per cent in Wicomico and Cecil 
to over 25 per cent in Anne Arundel and 27 per cent in St. IMary's. 



110 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 73 

Number and Per Cent of White Regular, Senior High, Junior High, and Junior- 
Senior High School Teachers* New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1934-35 





New to 


Change in 
Number of 


Number New to County Who Were 


























T'oQ /»Vi 1 Ti or 

Positions 






Experienced 






County 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


October 
of One Year 
to 

October 
of Following 
I ear 


Inex- 
peri- 
enced 


but 
New 

to 
State 


in Counties 
but not 

in 
Service 
Preceding 
Year 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 
in Same 
County 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 
and 
Oth- 
ers 


Total & Average 
1930-31 - 


°348 


25.0 


_ 

+ 10 / 


205 


71 


32 


39 


10 


30 


1931-32 


°?47 


18.3 




172 


50 


19 


27 


2 


4 


19o<s— OO 


°134 


10.2 


15 


81 


23 


21 


16 


1 


8 


1933-34 


°108 


7.9 


-f- 14 


70 


14 


17 


9 


1 


6 


1934-35 


°172 


12.2 


+ 36 


122 


28 


17 


16 


3 


2 




















2 


4.1 




1 






1 






Cecil 


2 


4.2 




2 












Washington* < 


3 
3 
2 


7.3 


1 q 


3 












3.8 


3 












Talbot 


6.1 




2 












Kent 


2 


8.3 




2 












Allegany a 


In 

3 


8 9 


—3 


10 


4 










Somerset 


lo'.'o 




2 




1 








Harford 


6 


10.5 


+ 3 


3 


1 






1 






4 


11.1 


3 




1 








Baltimoret 


19 


12!2 


+ 1 


12 


2 


2 


3 






Charles 


3 


12.5 


1 


1 


1 








Dorchester 


6 


14.6 


+ 1 


4 


1 




1 






Howard 


4 


14.8 




3 




1 






Carroll 


13 


15.5 


+2 


8 


2 




1 


1 




Garrett 


6 


15.8 




6 












Frederick* | 


11 

4 


15.9 


+2 


6 


2 




2 






23.5 


2 


1 


1 








Prince f 
George's* \ 
Calvert 


15 
4 


20.8 


+4 


8 

3 


5 










16.0 












2 


20.0 


+ 1 


2 












Montgomeryt. -- 


28 
9 
18 


22.0 


+ 14 


15 


5 


4 


4 






Caroline 


23.7 
25.4 


—2 


8 










1 


Anne Arundel 


+ 9 


11 


4 




1 


1 


St. Mary's 


3 


27.3 

3.3 
2.8 


+ 1 

+ 14.5 
+ 7.5 


2 




1 








Baltimore / 
City* \ 


14 
18 


8 


1 


2 


2 




1 


12 


2 


2 


2 














Entire State* 


°204 


8.2 


+ 52 


142 


31 


21 


20 


3 


3 



° Excludes teachers who transferred from one county to another. 

* Top row of figures in Frederick, Prince George's, Washington, includes teachers in regular 
high schools; bottom row represents teachers in junior, junior-senior and senior high schools. 
In Baltimore City the top row includes senior and the bottom row junior high school teachers. 

t All secondary schools in Baltimore County and Montgomery are organized as junior- 



senior nign scnouis. J . , • u 1- 1 ^ • 

a Includes junior, junior-senior and senior high schools. There was no turnover in the one 
regular high school. 



Montgomery and Anne Arundel increased the number of teachers on 
their high school staffs by 14 and 9, respectively. The number of high 
school teachers new to the county was highest in Montgomery, 
Prince George's, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Allegany, Frederick, and 



Teacher Turnover in White High Schools 



111 



Carroll. In Baltimore City there were 22 new positions established in 
senior and junior high schools in 1934-35. The turnover represented 
3.3 per cent of the white teaching staff in the senior high schools and 
2.8 per cent of the white teachers in the junior high schools. (See 
Tabie 73.) 

Of the 122 inexperienced teachers who were appointed in 1934-35 
in the Maryland counties, 84 graduated from colleges in Maryland, 
9 from schools in Pennsylvania, 6 from colleges in Washington, D. 
C, and 3 had attended schools in Virginia. Of those graduating from 

TABLE 74 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended by Inexperienced 
White High School Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, Regular and Senior High 
Schools; Also State of College Attended for Teachers with Teaching Experience 
in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryl^and Counties, for School 

Year, 1934-35 









■3 

T5 














u 














% 



to 
*<u 
c 








c 






state of 




>. 


C 
3 














d; 












£ 




c 


m 






s 


c 


u 

(U 


COLLEGE 




c 


u 

< 




c 




c 








K 

a; 






-0 


u 





hf 


C3 


< 




E 




u 
c 


'c 


00 


attended 


Total 


Allega 


Anne 


Baltir 


Calve 


Caroli 


Carro 


Cecil 


Charl. 


Dorch 


Frede 


Garre 


Harfo 


Howa 


Kent 


Monti 


Princ* 


Queer 


St. M 


£ 


Talbo 


Washi 


Wicor 


Worc( 



Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1934-1935 > 



Total 


122 


10 


11 


12 


2 


8 


8 


2 


1 


4 


8 


6 


3 


3 


2 


15 


11 




2 


2 


2 


6 


1 


a 




































Maryland 


84 


5 


6 


10 


2 


7 


8 


1 




3 


6 


5 


3 


3 




5 


8 




2 


1 


2 


2 




2 


Western Maryland 


35 


1 


4 


2 




2 


7 








2 


4 


1 


1 




1 


4 




2 




2 


1 


1 




University of Maryland 


25 


2 


1 




2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 




4 


4 










1 




i 


Washington 


10 


1 


1 






4 








1 










1 










1 






1 


Goucher 


5 


1 




4 








































Hood 


4 


















2 




























Johns Hopkins University.. 
Notre Dame 








1 
























































































St. Johns 








1 










































St. Joseph's 


















































Towson S.T.C 








1 










































Pennsylvania 


9 


2 


i 






1 








1 


1 










1 












2 






Washington, D. C 


6 
3 






















5 


1 
















Virginia 
































2 






1 










Indiana 


2 




1 






































1 






Kentucky 


2 




2 










































Wisconsin 


2 




1 


1 










































11 other States 


11 


2 








1 








1 






1 


4 












1 




1 


Unknown 


3 


1 




1 












1 



































































Teachers with Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 1934-1935 



Total 


28 

8 
3 
3 
2 
2 
6 
4 


4 


4 


2 






2 




1 


1 


3 




1 






5 


5 
































Maryland 


1 


1 








1 








2 










1 


3 
1 
















New York 




































Virginia 


1 
















1 




1 




















Kentucky 


1 






1 






























Tennessee.... 


















2 


















6 Other States 


2 
1 


2 


1 










1 


1 












1 
















Unknown 




















1 



























































112 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Maryland colleges, 35 were from Western Maryland, 25 from the 
University of Maryland, and 10 had attended Washington College. 
(See Table 74.) 

Of 28 teachers appointed in the counties after having had experi- 
ence in other states, 8 had been trained in Maryland colleges, 3 each 
in New York and Virginia schools, and 2 each were graduates of 
colleges in Kentucky and Tennessee. (See Table 74.) 

MD. 1934 GRADUATES OF MD. COLLEGES WHO MET CERTIFICATION 
REQUIREMENTS AND NO. WHO RECEIVED COUNTY POSITIONS 

The Maryland colleges reported on their 1934 graduates from the 
counties and Baltimore City who were eligible to receive Maryland 
high school certificates and who actually received county high school 
positions. Of 160 Maryland county 1934 graduates eligible, the col- 
leges reported county high school positions in 1934-35 for 87 or over 
54 per cent. (See Table 75.) 

TABLE 75 

Maryland Students Who Completed in June, 1934, at Colleges Indicated the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification 
Compared with the Number of Graduates Who Received Their First 
Appointment in the Co nty High Schools in the Fall of 1934 

Number of Graduates 
Who Met Requirements Who Received 
for Certification from Md. County 
Maryland Baltimore High School 



College Counties City Positions 

Goucher 4 11 3 

Hood 12 6 

Johns Hopkins University 4 2 4 

Notre Dame 4 9 2 

St. Joseph's 2 8 1 

University of Maryland 65 17 26 

Washington 20 7 

Western Maryland 49 3 38 



The excess in placement of graduates of Goucher and Washington 
Colleges, appearing in Table 74 over Table 75, is undoubtedly due 
to the inclusion in Table 74 of graduates of preceding years. On the 
other hand. Hood, Hopkins, Notre Dame, Un. of Md., and Western 
Md. show more placements in Table 75 than appear in the upper part 
of Table 74, due to the inclusion of experienced teachers in Table 75 
who are included in the lower part of Table 74. 

MEN TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 455 men employed in the county white high schools or 
37.8 per cent of the total teaching staff. There were 15 more men than 
were employed the preceding year. Among the counties the propor- 
tion of men employed in the high schools ranged from 30 per cent in 
Prince George's, Baltimore, and Talbot to over 60 per cent in Gar- 
rett. (See Table IX, page 294.) 



Placement of Md. Graduates; Men Teachers; Approved High Schools 113 




114 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



NUMBER OF APPROVED WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 150 approved white high schools in the Maryland 
counties in 1934-35, one fewer than the year preceding. Of these 
schools, 136 were classified as first group and 14 as second group. 
The 14 schools classified as second group include junior high schools 
as well as schools which oflPer fewer than four years of high school 
work. The change in the number of high schools occurred in Balti- 
more County which dropped the one year of high school work offered 
at the Sixth District Consolidated School. (See Table 76 and Chart 
17.) 

TABLE 76 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Year and 


Total 


Group 


County 


Total 


Group 


County 




°1 


°2 


°1 


°2 


Total Counties: 








Charles 


5 


5 




1920 


82 


*69 


tl3 


Dorchester 


6 


6 






Frederick. 


7 


7 




1925 


148 


*130 


tl8 


Garrett 


6 


6 




1926 


150 


*136 


tl4 


Harford 


8 


8 




1927 


152 


*137 


tl5 


Howard 


5 


4 




1 


1928 


153 


141 


12 


Kent 


4 


4 






1929 


151 


141 


10 


Montgomery 


7 


7 




1930 


152 


142 


10 


Prince George's 


11 


10 


n 


1931 


153 


144 


9 


Queen Anne's 


5 


5 


1932.. 


152 


140 


12 


St. Mary's...- 


2 


2 




1933 


149 


136 


13 


Somerset 


4 


4 




1934 


151 


136 


X15 


Talbot 


6 


6 




1935 


150 


136 


X14 


Washington...- 

Wicomico 


8 


6 






7 


7 


Allegany 


12 


9 




Worcester 


5 


5 




Anne Arundel 


6 


4 


2 












Baltimore 


11 


6 


t5 


Baltimore City 


6 


6 






Calvert 


2 


2 












Caroline 


5 


5 




State 


156 


142 




°14 


Carroll 


10 
8 


10 
8 








Cecil 















° First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment 
of 15, an attendance of 12. They give a two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County giving a one- 
year course are classified as second group schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

X Each X represents one junior high school. X Includes 7 junior high schools. 



The total number of white high schools in the individual counties 
ranged from 2 in Calvert and St. Mary's to 10 in Carroll, 11 in Balti- 
more and Prince George's, respectively, and 12 in Allegany. The 
number of first group schools ranged from 2 in Calvert and St. 
Mary's to 10 in Carroll and Prince George's. (See Tabie 76 and Chart 
17.) 

SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
In 1934-35 the median county white high school employed 6 
teachers including the principal. The schools varied in size from 5 
having one teacher, which included 2 junior high schools in Allegany, 
two one-year high schools in Baltimore, and a second group school 



Approved White High Schools; Size of County White High Schools 115 

in Howard to three schools having 35 teachers in Cumberland, 
Catonsville, and Hagerstown and 1 with 37 teachers in Frederick. 
(See Table 11.) 

TABLE 77 



Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County White High Schools, Year Ending 

July 31, 1935 



Number of Tpachers* 


Total No. Schools 


c 


.\nne Arundel || 


Maltimore 


1 Calvert || 


1 Caroline || 


1 Carroll 1| 


1 Cecil II 


1 Charles || 


1 Dorchester || 


1 Frederick || 


1 Garrett || 


1 Harford || 


u 

O 


1 Kent II 


Montgomery 


'a; 

t£ 

C 

.5 


Queen Anne's || 


St. Mary's || 


1 Somerset || 


1 Talbot II 


1 Washington | 


Wicomico || 


1 Worcester II 




149 


11 


6 


11 


2 


5 


10 


•8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


7 


11 


5 


2 


4 


6 


8 


7 


5 


1 


5 


2 




2 




















1 






















2 


13 


1 


1 


1 






1 




1 




1 






1 




2 






1 


1 




2 




3... 


\^ 


2 


1 










1 


i 


1 






1 










2 






2 




2 




4 


25 




1 


2 




1 




1 


2 


2 


? 




2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 




1 




1 


o 


5 


17 


2 


1 






1 


1 


1 






1 


4 


1 


i 


1 




1 






i 






1 




6 - 


11 
















1 








1 


1 




2 


1 
1 










3 






7 


13 






1 






5 


1 


1 




1 














1 




1 


1 








7 








1 


1 




1 










1 










1 








1 






9 


10 










1 


2 






1 


1 










1 


i 










1 




2 


10 - 


5 
























1 








1 










1 




1 


11 


3 


1 








1 






































12 


3 














1 
























1 


1 








13...... — 


1 




























1 




















14 A 


1 






























1 
















15 


4 






1 














1 


1 








1 
















16 


2 


1 




1 








































17 


1 






















1 
























18 


3 






1 






1 
















1 


















19 - 


1 














1 




























20 - 


1 


1 












































24 


1 




1 












































25 


2 




























1 


1 
















26 


1 






1 






















































































28 


1 












































1 




30 


1 

3 




1 












































35 .- 


1 


1 




































1 






37 


1 




















1 











































































* Mid point of interval. 



SIZE OF ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
The median county white high school had an enrollment of from 
101 to 125 pupils. The schools varied in average enrollment from 2 
in Baltimore County having fewer than 25 pupils to one, also in 
Baltimore County, with over 1,200 pupils. The three largest schools 
with an average enrollment of over 1,000 pupils were at Catonsville, 
Cumberland, and Hagerstown. (See Table 78.) 

RATIO OF PUPILS TO HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

There were on the average 24.7 pupils belonging per white county 
high school teacher in 1935 as against 24.8 pupils for the preceding 
year. The range in ratio of pupils to teachers in the various counties 



116 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 78 

Size of Enrollment in Maryland County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Average NurnHer 
Belonging 


Total No. Schools 


1 Allegany 


1 Anne Arundel 11 


1 Baltimore 1 1 


i Calvert j 


1 Caroline 11 


i Carroll 11 


1 Cecil II 


1 Charles || 


IT 
0- 

t> 
c 
Q 


1 Frederick || 


1 Garrett 


1 Harford || 


1 Howard 1 1 


1 Kent II 


1 Montgomery 1 1 


Prince George's || 


Queen Anne's || 


1 St. Mary's || 


Somerset 1 1 


Talbot 


Washington || 


Wicomico || 


t- 

B 

o 
u 

5 


Total 


149 

2 
7 
9 
25 
15 
22 
8 
9 
13 
2 
6 
4 
1 
4 
1 
1 

2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 

1 

1 

1 


11 
2 


6 


11 
2 


2 


5 


10 


8 


5 


6 


7 


6 


8 


5 


4 


7 


11 


5 


2 


1 


6 


8 


7 


Less 
than 25 


OQ- 40 












1 
1 
2 








1 


1 




1 
2 












1 




41- 50 


1 

' 1 
1 


1 
1 




\ 
1 


1 
1 
3 
2 
I 

1 


I 
2 


2 


3 


1 

1 
2 
1 




I 
3 


1 


1 






51- 75 


1 
1 
2 


3 
1 


1 

i 
1 


1 


1 
1 






2 


76- 100 


101- 125 


2 


1 






2 
1 
1 


2 


1 
1 

1 


126- 150 


151- 175 


2 


1 


1 


J 
1 






1 
1 

1 




i 




1 


176- 200 






1 


1 
1 




1 


1 




1 


9^^^- ?>25 






1 
1 

1 




226 250 


1 




1 
























2 










251 275 


















1 






1 






2 




276 300 
























^01- 325 


1 












1 














1 












1 


326- 350 










1 






1 


















351- 375 






































1 






















1 


















4'' 6- 450 


i 


















1 


1 






















451- 475 
























A7(i- ^f\(\ 














































501- 525 

526- 550 






























1 




















1 








































551- 575 
























1 


1 
















601- 625 .. 


1 




1 
























626- 650 


651 - 700 








































1 




701- 725 




































851- 875 




1 


1 






































901- 925 
















1 
























1001-1025 


1 






































1 






1126 1150 


1226-1250 




1 

































































ran from under 20 in Carroll and Caroline to 33 in Baltimore. (Se2 
C/iarl 18.) 

In 6 counties — Allegany, Garrett, Calvert, Howard, Somerset, and 
Worcester — there was an increase in the ratio of pupils to teachers 
over corresponding figures for 1934, due either to increased enroll- 
ments with little or no change in the number of teachers employed 
or to a decrease in staff. Seven counties,— Caroline, Anne Arundel, 
Prince George's, Harford, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, and Montgom- 
erv had from 1.6 to .7 fewer pupils belonging per teacher in 1935 than 
in" 1934. 



Size of County White High Schools; Ratio of Pupils to Teachers 117 



In Baltimore City there were 28.6 pupils belonging per member of 
the white senior high school staff of principals and teachers, an in- 
crease of .1 over 1934. Three counties, Baltimore, St. Mary's, and 
Allegany had a larger pupil-teacher ratio in 1935 than Baltimore 
City. (See ClmrL 18.) 

CHART 18 



County 
Co. Average 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL 
IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



1933 1954 1935 
24.4 24 




Baltimore City 28.4 28.5 ^ 



State 



25.5 25.8 




118 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPAL 

AND TEACHER 

The average salary per county white high school principal and 
teacher which, with the exception of a slight reduction in 1930, had 
increased steadily from 1917 to 1932, after a small decrease in 1933 
showed a marked drop between 1933 and 1934, with 1935 remaining 
almost the same as 1934. The average salary of $1,398 paid in 1935 
fell below that paid in the school year 1923. The temporary reduction 
of 10 to 12 per cent in the minimum State salary schedule resulting 
from 1933 legislation which went into effect in most of the counties 
in the fall of 1933, accounts for the low average salary in 1934 and 
1935. (See Table 79 and Chart 19.) 

CHART 19 

Average Annual Salary per White High School Teacher and Principal 1921 to 1935 



$2,000 



|1,600 



$1,200 



% 800 



% 400 




1921 1923 1926 1927 1929 1951 1953 1936 



In the individual counties the average salary ranged from less than 
$1,200 in St. Mary's and Carroll to $1,571 in Montgomery and $1 698 
m Baltimore County. Salaries between $1,400 and $1,500 were paid 



Average Salary per White High School Principal and Teacher 119 



TABLE 79 

Average Salary Per County White High School Principal and Teacher, 1917-1935 



Year Ending June 30 



1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 



Average 
Salary 
White 
High School 
Teachers 



; 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 
1,436 
1,477 
1,485 
1.517 



Year Ending June 30 



1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 



Average 
Salary 
White 
High School 
Teachers 



$1,534 
1,544 
1,557 
1,550 
1,559 
1,571 
1,532 
1,394 
1,398 



in 4 counties. Eight counties had an average salary betv^een $1,300 
and $1,399, while in seven the average salary v^as between $1,200 and 
$1,299. Nine counties paid a higher average salary in 1935 than in 

1934, the increases varying from $3 in Howard and Worcester to 
$124 in Montgomery. The large increase in Montgomery is due to 
the restoration of the 10 per cent salary reduction in 1934-35, which 
had been in effect the year preceding. The increase of $63 in Charles 
is accounted for by the restoration in 1934-35, of one half the salary 
cuts in effect during 1933-34. Decreases of from $2 in Frederick to $61 
in Anne Arundel were found in the remaining 14 counties. (See 
Chart 2^.) 

In Baltimore City the average annual salary paid to a white senior 
high school teacher was $2,361, a decrease of $18 from 1934, prob- 
ably caused by an increase in the number of substitutes employed. 
In January, 1935, a further restoration was made in the salaries in 
Baltimore City which had been reduced to their minimum in 1933. 
All salaries under $1,500 were exempted from reductions, salaries 
from $1,500 to $2,099 were reduced 3 per cent, and salaries of $2,100 
and above were reduced by 6 per cent. (See Chart 20.) 

The State minimum salary schedule, decreased by 10 to 12 percent 
by the 1933 legislation, and providing for no increments for experi- 
ence, continued in most of the counties in 1934-35. However, in 
August, 1935, in accordance with the authorization in Paragraph 6 of 
Chapter 477 of the laws of 1935, the State Board of Public Works 
provided from the reserve fund available in the 1936 State Budget 
an amount of $87,500 which permitted a restoration in September, 

1935, of one-fourth of the cuts which had been in effect since 1932-33. 



120 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 20 



AVERAGE SALARY PER PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER IN MITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



Coiinty 1952 1933 1934 1935 



Co. 

Av. $1571 $1532 $1394 




State 1780 1715 1659 



CHANGE IN 



HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TEACHING STAFF, 
SALARY BUDGET 



AND 



Although the total county white high school enrollment in 1934-35 
increased by 3,239 or 11.3 per cent over the enrollment reported in 
1931-32, the number of county white high school teachers employed 
during the same period decreased by one, and the salary budget de- 
creased from itslpeak in 1932 of $1,891,000 to $1,677,000 in 1935, 
a reduction of 11.3 per cent. (See Table 80.) 



Average Salary; Growth in High Schools; Cost per Pupil 121 

TABLE 80 

Change from 1932 to 1935 in County White High School Enrollment, Teaching Staff 
and Salaries Last Four Years of County White High School 



No. of Salaries of 

Year Enrollment Teachers Teachers 

1932 28,547 1,204 $1,891,000 

1933 30,778 1,183 1,807,000 

1934 31,036 1,169 1,635,000 

1935 31,786 1,203 1,677,000 

1932-35 Change: 

Amount 43,239 —1 —$214,000 

Percent +11.3 —.1% —11.3% 



Although 8 counties showed decreases in high school enrollment 
from 1934 to 1935, only 4 Eastern Shore counties — Caroline, Kent, 
Somerset, and Worcester — had a smaller number of pupils enrolled 
in 1935 than they had in 1932. (See Table 46, page 74 and Tahie 81. ) 

A comparison of the teaching staff of 1934 with that of 1935 shows 
that one county, Allegany, had fewer teachers in 1935, 11 counties 
kept the staff stationary, and 11 counties employed additional 
teachers. However, between 1932 and 1935, the staffs were decreased 
in 11 counties, remained unchanged in 4 counties, while increases 
were found in 8 counties. Between 1932 and 1935, Anne Arundel 
had 772 additional pupils and added 14 new teachers, Harford had 
150 more pupils and added 4 additional teachers, while Prince 
George's took care of 360 more pupils with 3 additional teachers, and 
Calvert, Cecil, Dorchester, and St. Mary's each added two teachers, 
while Wicomico added 1. 

Expenditures for teachers' salaries increased from 1934 to 1935 in 
11 counties, but from 1932 to 1935 there were increases in amounts 
expended for salaries in only 4 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, 
Harford, and Montgomery. (See Table 81.) 

COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 

The current expense cost per high school pupil was $77.58 in 1935, 
an increase of $1.37 over the average cost for the preceding year. 
Costs ranged from under $70 in Baltimore, Washington, and Allegany 
Counties to $100 or more in Montgomery, Calvert, and Charles. 
Eight counties had a lower cost per high school pupil in 1935 than in 
1934, with the largest loss, $12, appearing in Howard. The largest 
gain, that of $15, was shown in Montgomery, due chiefly to the restor- 
ation of salaries. (See Chart 21 and Table 82.) 

In Baltimore City the cost per white high school pupil was $100.4^, 
just $1.50 higher than in 1934. Calvert and Charles were the only 
counties which exceeded the Baltimore City cost per senior high 
school pupil in 1935. (See Chart 21 and Table 82.) 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



i 




" 1 




for Sal: 
s of Dol 

1932 


-1- 4- 


II - 




h ij 




1 








IC 

CO 




1 ! 








1 : 








1 








i 






1 ||iii||Si|||i§|pSii||i 


H 








1 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 


1 


9,333 

1,093 
326 
954 

341 




County 


Total 

Allegany . - 
Anne Arundel 

Baltimore... 

Calvert 

Caroline 


i-^arroii 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Montgomery... 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Growth in White High Schools; Cost per Pupil 
CHART 21 



123 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 1932 1933 1934 1935 
Co. Av. $ 95 $ 83 $ 76 

Charles 111 
C a J. vert 118 
Montgomery 112 
Queen Anne's 106 



St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Kent 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Howard 



109 
121 
108 

99 
116 
106 

97 

95 
105 

87 
104 



Pr. George's 94 



Harford 
Frederick 



79 
79 



A. Arundel 103 



Wicomico 
Allegany 
Washington 
Baltimore 



80 
91 
81 

88 



Balto. City 115 95 99 
State 101 86 83 




Analysis of Current Expense Cost per White High School Pupil 

The items which made up the current expense cost per pupil in- 
cluded $56.43 for salaries, $4.46 for textbooks, materials and ''other" 
costs of instruction, $5.95 for operation of the school plant, $2.46 for 
maintenance and $8.28 for auxiliary agencies, including transporta- 
tion, libraries, and health. The average cost of each of these factors, 
with the exception of maintenance and auxiliary agencies, which de- 
creased very slightly, were higher for 1935 than for the previous year. 



124 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In Baltimore City the cost per pupil belonging in the white senior 
high schools increased for every item of the current expense budget, 
with the exception of teachers' salaries. (See Table 82.) 

TABLE 82 

Cost, Excluding General Control, Per Pupil Belonging in Last Four Years of White 
High Schools, for Year Ending July 31, 1935 



County 


Salaries 


Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Mainten- 
ance 


Au.xiliary 
A gencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Carital 
Outlay 


County Average 


$56.43 




46 


$5.95 




46 


$8.28 


$77.58 


$27 . 20 


Allegany 


51 


83 


5 


53 


4.64 


1 


36 


4.53 


67 


89 


52.12 


Anne Arundel- 


49.35 


5 


38 


5. 98 




20 


9. 62 


71 


53 


5.24 


Baltimore 


49 


12 


3 


70 


4.46 




93 


6.38 


64 


59 


20.46 


Calvert 


57 


89 


3 


70 


5.40 


2 


15 


37.30 


106 


44 


24.31 


Caroline 


62 


75 


2 


29 


6. 49 


2 


20 


10.32 


84 


05 


1.45 


Carroll 


64 


06 


5 


58 


5.54 


5 


77 


11.29 


92 


24 


22.18 


Cecil 


59 


00 


6 


61 


6.17 


2 


01 


7.78 


81 


57 


10.59 


Charles 


66 


64 


4 


86 


9.03 


5 


38 


22.50 


108 


41 


1.95 


Dorchester 


61 


69 


3 


83 


7.34 


4 


16 


11.52 


88 


54 




Frederick 


57 


60 


4 


3i 


4.57 


1 


72 


4.95 


73 


18 


i.ii 


Garrett 


55 


39 


4 


;^5 


4.17 


1 


30 


23.04 


88 


25 


.41 


Harford... 


61 


64 


3 


58 


5.29 


3 


21 


.40 


74 


10 


12.98 


Howard. 


57 


65 


5 


04 


5.49 




77 


9.65 


78 


60 


5.91 


Kent 


61 


85 




94 


5.99 


3 


51 


14.85 


87 
99 


14 




Montgomery 


75 


34 


8 


14 


11.45 


3 


10 


1.88 


91 


197.46 


Prince George's 


55 


25 


4 


79 


6.28 


5 


70 


4.02 


76 


04 


59.05 


Queen Anne's 


62 


11 


3 


97 


8.60 


1 


98 


17.08 


93 


74 


1.44 


St. Mary's 


40 


49 


5 


60 


5.46 


2 


87 


38.07 


92 


49 




Somerset 


58 


02 


4 


20 


7.06 


2 


64 


10.26 


82 


18 


.52 


Talbot 


58 


50 


3 


43 


5.17 


2 


28 


12.47 


81 


85 




Washington 


52 


83 


2 


34 


5.51 


1 


42 


5.29 


67 


39 




Wicomico 


50 


74 


2 


86 


6.05 


2 


83 


8.42 


70 


90 


.96 


Worcester 


62 


00 


3 


70 


9.59 


4 


39 


11.85 


91 


53 


1.53 


Baltimore City ... 


82 


71 


4 


07 


10.38 


2 


70 


.63 


100.49 


.08 


(Senior High Onl 


y) 






















Total State 


$64.25 


$4 


34 


.$7.27 


$2 


54 


$6.00 


$84 


40 


$19.13 



For expenditures in white high schools, see Table XXX, page 315. 



Salary Cost per Pupil 
The salary cost per white high school pupil in the individual 
counties varied from $40 in St. Mary's, where there were large classes 
and few special subjects taught, to $75 in Montgomery, where 
many special teachers were employed, a high salary schedule was in 
effect, and the sections were relatively small in size. Baltimore and 
Anne Arundel Counties, in addition to St. Mary's, were the only 
ones in which the salary cost per white high school pupil was under 
$50. Increase in salary costs per pupil over corresponding costs for 
1934 were found in 11 counties. (See Table 82.) 

Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost Per Pupil 
Reimbursement from the Federal Government was received by 17 
counties for one-half the salaries of teachers of vocational education. 
In Garrett, where 39.5 per cent of the white high school pupils took 
vocational work, $6.79 federal aid per pupil was received. Howard 
and Queen Anne's ranked second and third in the amount of federal 
aid received, $6.48 and $5.90 per pupil, respectively, and had 36.3 and 



Cost per White High School Pupil; Vocational Aid 



125 



21.2 per cent, respectively, of all white high school pupils enrolled 
for vocational work. Calvert which ranked fourth in the amount of 
federal aid received, $4.70 per pupil, had 42 per cent of the high school 
pupils taking courses in vocational home economics and agriculture. 
On the other hand, Baltimore and Anne Arundel, where the federal 
aid amounted to $.79 per white high school pupil, enrolled only 4 
and 5 per cent of their high school pupils, respectively, in vocational 
courses. (See Table 83.) 



TABLE 83 

Comparison of 1935 Salary Cost Per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and 
Exclusive of Federal Aid, for Counties Providing Vocational Education 





1935 


Salary 












Cost per 








Per Cent 




White 


Rank Among 23 




of White 




High 


Counties 




High 




School 








School 




Pupil 








Pupils 




In- 


Ex- 


In- 


Ex- 


Federal 


Taking 




cluding 


cluding 


cluding 


cluding 


Aid Per 


Voca- 




Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


H. S. 


tional 




Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Pupil 


Work 


Average for 23 












Counties 


$56.43 


$54.50 






$1.93 


9.1 


Montgomery 


75.34 


71.09 


1 


1 


4.25 


18.2 




66.64 


63.36 


2 


3 


3.28 


15.0 


Caroline 


62.75 


60.86 


4 


5 


1.89 


9.3 


Worcester 


62.00 


60.77 


6 


6 


1.23 


9.0 


Dorchester 


61.69 


59.69 


8 


rr 


2.00 


10.5 


Harford 


61.64 


58.25 


9 


10 


3.39 


17.5 


Somerset 


58.02 


56.67 


12 


11 


1.35 


9.3 


Queen Anne's 


62.11 


56.21 


5 


12 


5.90 


21.2 


Frederick 


57.60 


55.24 


15 


13 


2.36 


11.3 


Prince George's 


55.25 


53.56 


17 


14 


1.69 


7.8 


Calvert 


57.89 


53.19 


13 


15 


4.70 


42.0 


Howard 


57.65 


51.17 


14 


16 


6.48 


36.3 


Allegany 


51.83 


50.46 


19 


18 


1.37 


5.3 


Washington 


52.83 


49.39 


18 


19 


3.44 


10.0 


Garrett 


55.39 


48.60 


16 


20 


6.79 


39.5 


Anne Arundel 


49.35 


48.56 


21 


21 


.79 


4.7 


Baltimore 


49.12 


48.33 


22 


22 


.79 


4.0 



By reporting the reimbursement per pupil from federal funds 
separately, it is possible to show the effect of including or excluding 
this aid on the rank in salary costs for the 17 counties which offered 
vocational courses. The greatest effect of federal aid on rank in 
salary cost per white high school pupil appeared in Queen Anne's, 
which would drop from fifth to twelfth place, depending on the in- 
clusion or exclusion of federal aid. Garrett which ranks sixteenth 
when federal aid is included, would rank twentieth, were this aid 
excluded. (See Tahle 83.) 



126 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 84 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland County Day Schools 
For Year Ending July 31, 1935 





Expenditures for Salaries 


of County 






Vocational Teachers 


from 












En- 


COUNTY 








roll- 




County 






ment 






Federal 


Total 






and 


Funds 












■ — 




AGRICULTURE 










White 










Garrett 


$3,682.94 


$3,682.94 


$7,365.88 


184 


Frederick.. 


3,456.56 


3,456.55 


6,913.1 1 


191 


Harford 


2,889.90 


2,889.90 


5,779.80 


123 


Washington 


2,749.92 


2,749.92 


5,499.84 


105 


Montgomery.. 


2 708. 32 


2,708.31 


5,416.63 


110 


Allegany 


2,358.00 


2',358!00 


4,716.00 


80 


Queen Anne's . 


l'959!00 


1,959.00 


3,918.00 


54 


Baltimore . 


1,884.38 


l|884!38 


3,768.76 


103 


Howard 


1^517.04 


1,517.04 


3,034.08 


79 


Dorchester 


1, 389. 96 


1,389.96 


2,779.92 


72 


Prince George's . 


l[l73.82 


1,173.82 


2,347.64 


57 


Charles 


l]056.26 


1,056.26 


2,112.52 


45 


Anne Arundel 


'998.72 


998.72 


1 ,997.44 


50 


Worcester 


1 914.70 


914!70 


1,829.40 


47 


Somerset .... 


897*60 


897.60 


1,795.20 


49 


Calvert 


600.00 


600.00 


1,200.00 


43 


Colored 




M 






Caroline 


396.00 


396.00 


792.00 


39 


Charles 




262.50 


525.00 


43 


Prince George's 


195.00 


195.00 


390.00 


28 


Total 


$31,090.62 


$31,090.60 


— 

$62,181.22 


1,502 


HOME economics 










White 










Garrett.. 


$2,540.03 


$2,540.01 


$5,080.04 


198 


Howard.. 


2,006.23 


2,006.22 


4,012.45 


126 


Montgomery 


1922. 88 


1,922.88 


3,845.76 


121 


Harford... 


1.579.50 


1,579.50 


3,159.00 


111 


Allegany 


1 178.82 


1^178.82 


2,357.64 


118 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


1 160.00 


l' 160.00 


2,320.00 


69 


1 090 50 


1,020.50 


2,041.00 


49 


Caroline 


645.25 


645.25 


1,290.50 


31 


Charles 


566.70 


566^70 


1,133.40 


53 


Anne Arundel 


537.'77 


53 7." 76 


1,075.53 


47 


Calvert 


517.50 


517.50 


1,035.00 


36 


Dorchester 


310.50 


310.50 


621.00 


16 


Washington 


207.00 


207.00 


414.00 


13 


Colored 










Caroline 


450.00 


450.00 


900.00 


81 


Charles 


171.00 


171.00 


342.00 


65 


Total 


$14,813.68 


$14,813.64 


$29, i.6£, 


•l,lo4 


industries 










All-Day Classes 










Washington 


$3,314.16 


$3,314.14 


$6,628.30 


118 


Montgomery 


2,700.00 


2,700.00 


5,400.00 


45 


Baltimore 


1,507.53 


1,507.52 


3,015.05 


108 


Prince George's. 


1,237.50 


1,237.50 


2,475.00 


51 


Frederick 


950.00 


950.00 


1,900.00 


28 


Allegany 


810.00 


810.00 


1,620.00 


18 


Caroline 


712.00 


712.00 


1,424.00 


35 


Part-Time 










Washington 


1,592.00 


1,592.00 


3,184.00 


10 


Total Industries 


$12,823.19 


$12,823.16 


$25,646.35 


413 


Grand Total 


$58,727.49 


$58,727.40 


$117,454.89 


3,049 



t Includes state support through high school aid and equalization fund. 



Vocational Aid in Counties; Cost per White High School Pupil 127 

Total expenditures for salaries of county white and colored teachers 
of vocational agriculture, home econonaics, and industrial arts 
amounted to $117,454 in 1935, an increase of approximately $9,700 
over corresponding figures for 1934. One half of the salaries paid 
were reimbursed from federal funds. (See Table 84.) 

Instruction in vocational agriculture and heme economics was 
offered at the Prince Frederick High School in Calvert for the first 
time in 1934-35. Vocational work in home economics was added to 
the high school curriculum at Vienna in Dorchester, at Poolesville, 
Damascus, Rockville, and Bethesda, in Montgomery, at Baden in 
Prince George's, and at Hancock in Washington County. 

There were no part-time industrial classes in Allegany in 1934-35. 

Expenditures per Pupil for Costs of Instruction Other Than Salaries 

The average expenditure per high school pupil for instructional 
costs other than salaries varied among the counties from $.94 in Kent, 
where there was a large number of unpaid bills for these purposes, 
and $2.29 in Caroline and $2.34 in Washington to $8.14 per pupil 
in Montgomery. Fifteen counties spent more for these purposes in 
1935 than in 1934. Approximately $.89 per pupil was available from 
State funds for textbooks and supplies. In addition, counties 
sharing in the Equalization Fund received aid from this fund for 
books and materials. (See column 2, Table 82.) 

Cost per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance of School Buildings 

Operation which includes the cost of heating and cleaning school 
buildings ranged in cost from $4.17 in Garrett to $11.45 in Mont- 
gomery. Montgomery was the only county which spent more for 
operation than did Baltimore City, where the per pupil cost for 
operation was $10.38. All, except five counties, increased costs for 
operation in 1935 over 1934 costs. (See column 3, Table 82.) 

Expenditures for maintenance per high school pupil varied among 
the counties from $.77 in Howard and $.93 in Baltimore County to 
$5.70 in Prince George's and $5.77 in Carroll. All, except nine coun- 
ties, had higher costs for maintenance in 1935 than in 1934. The 
works projects financed by federal funds supplemented the repair 
program in some of the counties. (See column 4, Table 82 and Tables 
151 and 152, pages 230-231.) 

Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 

Expenditures for auxiliary agencies, which cover the cost to the 
public of transportation, libraries, health, and community activities, 
varied in the individual counties from $.40 per white high school 
pupil in Harford, where few of the high school pupils are transported 
at public expense, to over $37 per pupil in Calvert and St. Mary's 
which transport practically all white high school pupils at county 



128 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



expense. Twelve counties showed an increase in cost per pupil 
for this purpose in 1935 over the preceding year. Only one county, 
Harford, spent less per pupil for auxiliary agencies than did Baltimore 
City where the per pupil cost was $.63. (See column 5, Table 82.) 

11,517 Pupils Transported to County White High Schools at Public Expense 
In 1935 public expenditures for transporting 11,517 county white 
high school pupils amounted to $225,713, an increase of 981 puDils 
and of nearly $1,000 over corresponding figures for the preceding 
year. The average percentage of pupils transported, 36.9 per cent, 
was 2.4 above the per cent in 1934. At one extreme Harford trans- 
ported 6.1 of its high school pupils at county expense, while at the 
opposite extreme 93 per cent in Calvert and 100 per cent in St. Mary's 
were transported at public expense. The greatest change in per cent 
transported at county expense occurred in Baltimore County which 
transported 36 per cent of its high school pupils in 1934-35 as 
against 25 per cent in 1933-34. The reduction in the amount which 
county pupils were required to pay toward the cost of transportation 
probably contributed to this increase. 

TABLE 85 

Public Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools for School 
Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Transportation 



Pupils Trans- 
ported at Public 
Expense 



Number 



11,517 

340 
228 
598 
36G 
323 
282 
301 
406 
408 
896 
413 
302 
287 

1,058 
533 
464 

1,598 
592 
277 
726 
484 
551 
84 



Per 
Cent 



36.9 

100.0 
93.1 
62.2 
70.4 
62.8 
54.5 
40.2 
52.5 
46.2 
57. S 
54.6 
43.3 
50.6 
52.7 
41.3 
40.2 
35.9 
25.1 
13.9 
20.9 
21.5 
30.5 
6.1 



Amount 
Spent 
From 
Public 
Funds 



$225,713 

11.934 
8,847 

20,682 

10,980 
7,951 
7,4 72 
8,460 
8,635 
9,714 

15,743 
7,367 
6,579 
5,215 

17,471 
9,499 
8.173 

16,964 

11,845 
8,583 

13,233 
8,210 
1,971 
185 



Cost 
Per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



$19.60 

35.10 
38.80 
34.41 
30.00 
24 . 62 
26.50 
28.11 
21.27 
23.81 
17.57 
17.84 
21.78 
18.17 
16.51 
17.82 
17.61 
10.62 
20.01 
30.99 
18.30 
16.96 
3 . 58 
2.20 



Libr'iries 



Total 
Expen- 
ditures 



$5,288 

108 
20 
340 
155 
539 



100 
130 
57 
949 



227 
20 
799 
299 



402 
226 
185 
188 
20 
182 
341 



Amount per 



School 



$35.49 

54.33 
10.00 
56.61 
30.97 
107.85 



16.65 
26.00 
9.52 
94.90 



56.71 
4.00 
133.18 
42.68 



36.59 
28.29 
26.43 
17.12 
1.82 
25.98 
42.62 



Teacher 



$4 . 40 

9.88 
2.00 
8.94 
6.45 
24.51 



3.10 
3.61 
1.40 
11 .80 



7.56 
.82 
11.70 
6.15 



3.13 
2.61 
2.35 
1.70 
.23 
2.24 
6.07 



Health and 

Physical 
Education 



Total 
Expen- 
ditures 



$12,140 



55 



250 
36 



337 




Expenditures for transporting pupils to high schools varied among 
the counties from only $185 in Harford and less than $2,000 in Mont- 



Transportation and Library Costs in White High Schools 129 

gomery to nearly $21,000 in Garrett. The amount spent by the pub- 
lic for transporting pupils to high schools was supplemented by the 
parents in Harford, Montgomery, Baltimore, and Howard. Ten 
counties spent less on transportation in 1935 than in 1934. The 
greatest reductions occurred in Queen Anne's, Anne Arundel, and 
Carroll, while the largest increases in transportation costs were found 
in Kent, Talbot, and Allegany Counties. 

The cost per white high school pupil transported which averaged 
$19.60 in 1935, was a decrease of $1.73 from the cost of $21.33 per 
pupil in 1934. The range in cost per pupil transported to high schools 
in the individual counties was from $2.20, $3.58, and $10.62 in Har- 
ford, Montgomery, and Baltimore County, respectively, to $34 in 
Garrett, $35 in St. Mary's, and nearly $39 in Calvert. Parents of 
each high school pupil contribute $15 in Montgomery, $20 in Baltimore 
County, and varying amounts in Harford, in addition to the public 
cost per pupil shown. A large number of the buses used in Mont- 
gomery and Baltimore are owned by the county. Twelve counties 
had increases in the cost per pupil transported over the costs in 1934. 
Other factors affecting the cost of transportation are distance trav- 
elled, type of road, steepness of grade, type of car, and equipment and 
capacity of car. (See Table 85.) 

Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Expenditures for county high school libraries amounted to $5,288 
in 1935, which allowed on the average $35.49 for each school and 
$4.40 per teacher. Three counties — Kent, Caroline, and Cecil — spent 
nothing at all for high school libraries. In the remaining counties ex- 
penditures per school varied from $1.82 in Prince George's to over 
$100 in Queen Anne's and Anne Arundel. In counties making ex- 
penditures for libraries the average spent per white high school 
teacher ranged from less than one dollar in Prince George's and 
Howard to $12 in Anne Arundel and Carroll and nearly $25 in Queen 
Anne's. (See Table S5.) 

COOPERATION FROM THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION* 

In 1934-35 the county white high schools borrowed 6,172 books 
from the Commission now located on the third floor, Enoch Pratt 
Library Building, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, Maryland. This 
number is 2,024 more than the number in 1933-34. All counties 
with the exception of Baltimore, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, and 
Somerset showed increases in the use of these books. (See Table SQ.) 

Although the 90 per cent cut in the State appropriation for books 
was not restored to the Library Commission budget, the Commission 
was able to meet the increased demands for two reasons. First, the 
cooperation of the schools in returning books promptly made a great- 
er circulation of books possible; second, many requests were filled 
through the courtesy of inter-library loans. However, the limited 

* Data supplied by Adelene J. Pratt, Director of Public Libraries. 



130 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



appropriation for books and their transportation was a serious hand- 
icap as a great number of disappointed borrowers can testify. (See 
Table 86.) 

TABLE 86 

Services of the Maryland Public Library Commission to the County White High 
Schools, School Year 1934-1935 







Traveling Libraries 


Package Libraries 






(30 to 35 books in each) 


(1 to 12 books in 


each) 




Total 














County 


No. of 




Number of 






Number of 




"Volun^es 














Supplied 






















Traveling 






Package 






Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 


Schools 


Teachers 


Libraries 






Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


Supplied 


f 1931 


3,236 


31 


47 


77 


27 


32 


125 


1932 


4,562 


31 


48 


105 


49 


54 


189 


Total \ 1933 


6|266 


35 


45 


148 


47 


57 


331 


1 1934 


4 148 


35 


39 


91 


37 


63 


324 


[ 1935 


6 172 


42 






lo 


67 


388 


Allegany 


al48 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


24 


Anne Arundel 


cbfhlll 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


13 


Baltimore.. 


jkl,106 


6 


7 


30 


8 


15 


124 


Calvert 


70 


1 


1 


1 

46 


1 


1 


6 


Caroline 


1,715 


6 


30 


5 


5 


33 


Carroll 


87 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


14 


Cecil 


11 






2 


3 


3 


Charles 


rb7 








1 


1 


1 


Dorchester 


cml25 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


8 


Frederick 


ch858 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


66 


Garrett 


f578 


4 


4 


18 


1 




2 


Harford 


cbfm399 


2 


3 


10 


1 


1 


13 


Howard 


99 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


6 


Kent 


120 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


Montgomery 


fe360 


3 


9 


9 


2 


3 


15 


Prince George's 


ehll9 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


Queen Anne's 


55 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


5 


St. Mary's 


132 


2 


2 


2 


3 


5 


16 


Somerset 


7 








1 




7 


Talbot 


d 












Washington 


dhl06 


1 




3 


1 


1 




Wicomico 


chSO 


1 


1 


1 


3 


5 


12 


Worcester 


f399 


2 


5 


9 


4 


5 


15 



a Cumberland Public Library supplies the schools in Cumberland from its own collections. The 
four largest high schools in the county have organized libraries with full time librarians in charge. 
In addition, the Library Commission took care of some of the needs of the Cumberland schools and 
supplied other schools of the county as shown above. 

b Limited library service given by the County Library. 

c Library privilege extended to any who can conveniently go to the county seat on the days when 
the library is open. 

d County-wide library service takes care of book needs of the county schools with little or no 
outside help. 

e Hyattsville Public Library provides books for school use without charge. Teachers may keep 
these collections as long as they are needed and books from them may be loaned to pupils for home 
use. 

f Teachers also supplied through school librarian or principal. 

g Silver Spring Public Library and Rockville Public Library supply nearby schools from their 
own collections also. All high schools in the county have part-time teacher-librarians and one has 
a full-time librarian in charge of the high school library. 

h The largest high school in the county has an organized library with a full-time librarian in charge. 

k Catonsville and Towson have organized libraries in charge of teacher-librarians. 

m The largest high school in the county has an organized library in charge of a teacher-librarian. 

The inabihty of the Commission to comply with several requests 
for assistance in organizing school libraries was another result of a 
reduced budget. 



Library Service, Health and P. A. L. Service, White High Schools 131 



Because of lack of funds there w^as no Library Institute at Hood 
College under the auspices of the Maryland Library Commission 
in the summer of 1935. Several high school librarians and teacher- 
librarians in the past have taken advantage of the opportunity af- 
forded by the institute for special library training. 

Traveling libraries are collections of books loaned for a period of 
four months, at the end of v^hich time they may be returned and ex- 
changed for another collection or renewed for four more months. 
Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; thirty-five 
in those sent by express. They are not fixed collections, but are select- 
ed to suit individual needs. The cost of transportation must be met 
by the schools and guarantee of reimbursement for lost or damaged 
books is required. 

The package libraries of from one to tv^elve books are made up to 
meet special requirements for school essays, debates, individual 
needs or professional reading of teachers. These are loaned to any- 
one living in Maryland v^ho is v^ithout access to a public library. 

Expenditures by School Officials for Health and P. A. L. Classified as Auxiliary 

Agencies 

Expenditures from school budgets for physical education and 
health of v^hite high school pupils in eight counties were extremely 
limited in amount, except in Baltimore and Montgomery Counties. 
The total spent, $12,140, was $335 more than in 1934. The figures 
shown for Baltimore County, $9,781, included the amount paid to 
the Playground Athletic League for the services of teachers who gave 
instruction in physical education. In a number of counties, regularly 
certificated teachers of physical education were a part of the regular 
high school staff and therefore their compensation was included with 
teachers' salaries. Calvert, Charles, Kent, and Dorchestei', which 
had small expenditures for health in 1934, did not spend funds for 
this purpose in 1935. (See Tahle 85.) 

The medical inspection and health service for school children in 
the counties was rendered by the county health officers and nurses 
found in every county of the State. Most of the inspections were 
made of elementary school pupils, but the health officers were avail- 
able on call to the school officials, especially in connection with 
checkup on contagious diseases. A report on the work in connection 
with school children performed by the county and State health 
officials is given on pages 58 to 64. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The capital outlay for white county high schools in 1934-35 totalled 
$808,331. The largest expenditures were found in Montgomery, Alle- 
gany, Prince George's, and Baltimore Counties, which received grants 
from the federal P. W. A. toward a program of school construction. 
Other counties which invested over $10,000 in high school buildings 
were Carroll, Harford, Cecil, and Anne Arundel. Dorchester, Kent, 
St. Mary's, Talbot, and Washington had no capital outlay in 1934-35. 
(See next to last column in Tah/e 87.) 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



C0t-C^t>-^t>cr>^DO00t>C0r-iO^50(NOTl<OO^i?3 

in .-1 00 t— (M ioo500cO'-ic<!Ooa5t>ocooOrH.-i 
ai" c<r 00 CO* c -"" oo" »o c<r of «o lo' «5 o" t - -t oo" oo" oo oo" 

CC-rt'0?(MCi0C0iC,-i-^00C0lMX'-HiXi'-i^kOC~OO05t> 
^C-Ci ^ Tt CO ,-1 CO --I CO (N i-HCO (MC-iO(N 



•*(N00000000510 

cot-iNt-'^t-crsys 



;oot>cOf-i 
; o CO th iM 



00 t~ (Ni CJ5 
C- 00 ^ 

CO 1-H 



; ^ 00 N ; th ; ^ o 00 



05 



:(o ■.coin icji-irH ii-no : in 



^ in ; 1-1 CO ^ iM 



CO 00 CO 00 



6 



: ^ t- «c 1-1 : CO 



CO 1-H ; i-H o 1-1 T 



2^5 



^ c i= c 

J S « S^J: o £ 3 5 o g o.- §^ g-^^.^ o 



Capital Outlay; Supervision, White High Schools 133 



Since 1920, the construction of high schools for white pupils has 
cost nearly $10,500,000. Baltimore County has spent $1,935,000; 
Allegany, $1,440,000; Montgomery, $1,164,000; Anne Arundel, 
$742,000; Washington County, $708,000; and Prince George's, 
$618,000. At the opposite extreme, Kent and Queen Anne's have 
spent less than $20,000 in high school buildings during the period 
from 1920 to 1935. In most of the counties, school construction has 
been possible because of the sale of bonds authorized by the legisla- 
ture, but in Carroll, Garrett, St. Mary's, and Somerset, the capital 
outlay has been financed from the annual county levy. (See last 
column. Table 87.) 

The average capital outlay per white high school pupil in the 
counties was $27. In Montgomery it was $197; in Prince George's, 
$59; in Allegany, $52; in Calvert, $24; in Carroll, $22; and in Balti- 
more County, $20 per pupil. Except in Harford, Cecil, Howard, and 
Anne Arundel the amounts spent were extremely small or nothing 
at all. (See last column in Table 82, page 124.) 

SUPERVISION IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The high schools in 1934-35 were supervised by three State high 
school supervisors, Mr. Pullen and Mr. Spitznas being new appointees 
in the field of State high school supervision. Mr. Spitznas had the 
three counties at the west, Mr. Fontaine had the Eastern Shore to- 
gether with Harford and Anne Arundel, and Mr. Pullen was respon- 
sible for the remaining nine counties. Expenses of Mr. Spitznas for 
travel were shared by the three counties he supervised. In the fall of 
1935-36, there was a redistribution of the counties for the purposes of 
supervision, Mr. Spitznas being given the five northwest counties, 
Mr. Fontaine the Eastern Shore plus Harford, and Mr. Pullen the 
remaining eight counties. Mr. Spitznas' expense for travel was taken 
over by the State. 

TABLE 88 

Supervision of White High Schools by State High School Supervisors, 1935-36 





Number 


Number of 


Number of 


Section 


of 


Public High 


Teachersf 




Counties 


Schools 




Western 


5 


42 


320 


Central 


*8 


51 


*403 


Eastern 


10 


58 


314 



t Excludes teachers of home economics, industrial arts and agriculture. 
* Each of two counties in the central section employs a county supervisor. 



The number of teachers in all subjects, except agriculture, home 
economics and industrial arts, under the care of the three supervisors, 
was 320 for Mr. Spitznas, 314 for Mr. Fontaine, and 403 for Mr. Pul- 
len. However, Baltimore and Montgomery Counties each employs a 



134 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



county high school supervisor, which makes it possible for Mr. Pullen 
to have the larger group under his surveillance. (See Table 88.) 

High school teachers of agriculture, home economics, and industrial 
arts during 1934-35 were supervised by the respective supervisors 
of these subjects on the State staff. 

Because there was need for more supervision of high school teachers 
than could be given by the State high school supervisors, Baltimore 
and Montgomery Counties employed full-time county high school 
supervisors, and a high school principal in Anne Arundel County was 
assigned to supervision of the remaining high schools of the county 
for part of his time. In each of the remaining 20 counties any super- 
vision of high schools supplementary to that given by the State super- 
visors was given by the county superintendent and/or high school 
principals. 

The work of the State high school supervisors includes visits to 
schools to check on organization and administration, visits to class- 
rooms especially of recently appointed teachers to make suggestions 
regarding improvement of instruction or to more mature teachers 
who need help according to the judgment of the principal, participa- 
tion in conferences of teachers to advise and guide in curriculum 
construction, and in conferences of principals to discuss problems 
of administration and supervision. The State high school supervisors 
meet once a month to go over common problems and to determine 
high school aid. It is their function to stimulate principals and 
teachers to do the finest type of work of which they are capable so that 
the high school work offered will constantly fit more closely the needs 
of the boys and girls who attend. 

At the principals' conferences held in the winter and spring of 1935, 
the topics for discussion were ''The Principal and Curriculum Ad- 
justments" based on Chapters XXV and XXVI of Cox and Lang- 
fitt's ''High School Administration and Supervision" and "Issues 
4 and 6 in Secondary Education" in the "Tentative Report of the 
Committee on the Orientation of Secondary Education." 

Principals rated the influence on Maryland high school curricula 
of college domination, the academic tradition, the State department 
of education, text books, changes in community life and life needs of 
individual pupils. They were asked to judge whether curriculum 
modifications in the past forty years have been adequate to meet the 
changes which have occurred in community life and the character 
of the high school population. Specific plans for educational and 
vocational guidance in individual schools were presented. The 
liberality of entrance requirements of Maryland colleges was dis- 
cussed. 

The advisability of a common curriculum or differentiated offer- 
ings, and of directing secondary education primarily toward prep- 
aration for advanced studies or toward developing courses which 
have their own value regardless of a student's academic career — 
were issues which were criticized and discussed. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 



1934 SCHOOL CENSUS SHOWS 42,288 COUNTY COLORED CHILDREN 

There were 42,288 colored children, five to eighteen years of age 
inclusive, enumerated in the regular biennial school census taken in 
the Maryland Counties in November, 1934. This was a decrease of 
966 children under the 1932 school census. 

The enumeration is most nearly complete for ages six to fourteen 
years and for each age group within these limits the county census 
included from 3,207 to 3,294 colored children. The largest number 
of girls was found in the ten-year old group and of boys in the eleven- 
year old group. The number of colored boys exceeded the number 
of girls except for ages 5, 10, and 13. (See Table 89.) 

TABLE 89 

Census of Colored Children Five and Under Nineteen Years of Age Inclusive 
Residing in the 23 Maryland Counties, November, 1934 





Total 


1930 


41,507 


1932 


43,254 


1934 


42,288 


18 


2,166 


17 


2,293 


16 


2,615 


15 


2,694 


14 


3,287 


18 


3,263 


12 


3,271 


11 


3,369 


10 


3,394 


9 


3,266 


8 


3,289 


7 


3,207 


6 


3,314 


5 


2,860 



Boys 


Girls 


20,969 


20,538 


21,883 


21,371 


21,319 


20,969 


1,160 


1,006 


1,170 


1,123 


1,334 


1,281 


1,365 


1,329 


1,654 


1,633 


1,617 


1,646 


1,655 


1,616 


1,687 


1,682 


1,664 


1,730 


1,639 


1,627 


1,668 


1,621 


1,608 


1,599 


1,677 


1,637 


1,421 


1,439 



Colored Children of Compulsory School Attendance Age 

A slightly smaller number and per cent of county colored children 
of ages seven to fifteen years were in school in 1934 than in 1932. 
There were 25,178, or 86.7 per cent, in public schools, 2.3 per cent 
in private and parochial schools, and 11 per cent not in any school. 
St. Mary's had only 71 per cent of its colored children in public 
schools, but nearly 13 per cent were in private and parochial schools. 
Charles also had less than 80 per cent of its colored children of ages 
seven to fifteen years in public schools. The per cent not in any school 
ranged from less than 3 per cent in Queen Anne's and Allegany to 
over 15 per cent in St. Mary's and Charles. (See Table 90 and Chart 
22.) 

135 



136 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 22 



PER CENT OF COLORED CHILDREN OF AGES 7-15 YFJUiS, INCLUSIVE, 

ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1934 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



County 



Total Per Cent 
No. of In 
Colored Public 
Children Schools 



Per Cent 
In No 
School 



Per Cent 
In Private 
and 
Parochial 
Schools 



Total and 
Co. Av. 


29 


,040* 


86.7 


Q. A.- 




963 


97.9 


Allegany 




303 


95.1 


Caroline 




831 


94.1 


Washington 




261 


92.0 


Harford 




839 


92.6 


Baltimore 


1 


,996 


89.3 


Kent 




937 


91.0 


Wicomico 


1 


,472 


90.7 


Carroll 




364 


89.0 


Somerset 


1 


,685 


89.9 


Talbot 




960 


89.8 


A. A. 


3 


,066 


88.1 


Pr. Geo. 


3 


,497 


86.0 


Frederick 




976 


85.4 


Montgomery 


1 


,757 


87.7 


Dorchester 


1 


,571 


86.9 


Cecil 




471 


85.5 


Worcester 


1 


,683 


86.3 


Calvert 


1 


,207 


84.5 


Howard 




733 


81.4 


St. Mary's 


1 


,599 


71.2 


Charles 


1 


,865 


75 .9 



2.6 03 




11.8 




12.2 




13.0 


■■■1 




14.9 


3.7 1 


IS.0 


iz.a 1 


18.5 


1 



Inciudts 4 colored children in Garret County. 



The census enumeration of colored children of ages seven to fifteen 
years, inclusive, shows a decrease in the public schools in all counties, 
except Kent and Worcester on the Eastern Shore; Calvert, St. 
Mary's, and Anne Arundel in Southern Maryland; and Montgomery, 
Howard, Harford, Carroll and Frederick. 



1934 School Census of County Colored Children 



137 



The following counties, Queen Anne's, Allegany, Caroline, Somer- 
set, Frederick, Montgomery, Calvert, and St. Mary's, showed a de- 
crease in the number of colored children not in any school. (See 
Table 90.) 

TABLE 90 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Children Enumerated of Ages 
7-15 Years Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School 
November, 1934 



NUMBER 



PER cent 



COUNTY 



In 
Public 
School 



In Private 

and 
Parochial 
School 



In No 
School 



Total 



In 
Public 
School 



In Private 

and 
Parochial 
School 



In No 
School 



Total and Average: 



1930 24,804 

1932 25,752 

1934 25,178 

Queen Anne's 943 

Allegany 288 

Caroline 782 

Washington 240 

Harford 777 

Baltimore 1,783 

Kent 853 

Wicomico 1,335 

Carroll 324 

Somerset 1,514 

Talbot 862 

Anne Arundel 2,700 

Prince George's 3,008 

Frederick... 834 

Montgomery 1,540 

Dorchester 1,365 

Cecil 403 

Worcester 1,453 

Calvert 1,020 

Howard 597 

St. Mary's 1,139 

Charles 1,415 

Garrett 3 



685 


3,098 


28,587 


700 


3,145 


29,597 


671 


3,191 


29,040 




20 


963 


7 


8 


303 


5 


44 


831 


3 


18 


261 


2 


60 


839 


45 


168 


1,996 




84 


937 


4 


133 


1,472 


6 


34 


364 


10 


161 


1,685 


4 


94 


960 


62 


304 


3,066 


139 


350 


3,497 


27 


115 


976 


2 


215 


1,757 


1 


205 


1,571 


6 


62 


471 


3 


227 


1,683 


9 


178 


1,207 


27 


109 


733 


204 


256 


1,599 


105 


345 


1,865 



86.8 


2.4 


10.8 


87.0 


2.4 


10.6 


86.7 


2.3 


11.0 


97.9 




2.1 


95.1 


2.3 


2.6 


94.1 


.6 


5.3 


92.0 


1.1 


6.9 


92.6 


.2 


7.2 


89.3 


2.3 


8.4 


91.0 




9.0 


90.7 


.3 


9.0 


89.0 


1.7 


9.3 


89.9 


.6 


9.5 


89.8 


.4 


9.8 


88.1 


2.0 


9.9 


86.0 


4.0 


10.0 


85.4 


2.8 


11.8 


87.7 


.1 


12.2 


86.9 


.1 


13.0 


85.5 


1.3 


13.2 


86.3 


.2 


13.5 


84.5 


.8 


14.7 


81.4 


3.7 


14.9 


71.2 


12.8 


16.0 


75.9 


5.6 


18.5 


75.0 




25.0 



Colored Children Out of School 

Of the 3,191 county colored children of ages seven to fifteen years 
not in any school, 132 were reported as physically and 88 as mentally 
defective and therefore excused from school attendance. (See Table 
91.) Also, there were 1,182 children of ages fourteen and fifteen years 
who were employed who were eligible to be excused from school at- 
tendance. (See Table 92.) 

This means that 44 per cent of the county colored children not at- 
tending school could legally be excused, but that 778, or 24 per cent, 
who were between the ages of seven and thirteen years, inclusive, 
and 1,011, or 32 per cent, who were fourteen and fifteen years old 
who were not employed should be provided with schooling. Each 
county should make a study of the individual non-school attendance 
and provide, if possible, for their school attendance. (See Tables 
91 and 92.) 



138 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 91 

Defective Colored Children Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties, School 
Attendants and Non-School Attendants, Distributed According to Type of 
Defect and Age Groups November, 1934 



County 



Total 

1930 

1932 

1934 

Allegany. 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert-. 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Prince George 
Queen Anne's. 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Physically Defective Children 


School 


Non-School 


Attendants 


Attendants 


Ages 


Ages 


Ages 


Ages 


(7-13) 


(14-15; 


(7-13) 


(14-15) 


110 


15 


97 


31 


79 


11 


91 


35 


110 


22 


104 


28 


8 
11 


3 


-j 


' i 


5 


1 


4 


4 


2 


1 


8 




7 


2 


1 


3 


4 


2 






1 




3 


"i 


8 




6 


1 


14 


' 2 


5 


1 


9 




4 


1 


2 


2 


2 




3 




1 




1 


i 


3 




5 


1 


10 


1 






20 


5 


i 


1 




1 


10 


3 


1 


4 


10 


1 


7 


2 






4 




' 2 




1 




6 


2 


4 




1 




13 


1 



Mentally Defective Children 



School 


Non-School 


Attendants 


Attendants 


Ages 


Ages 


Ages 


Ages 


(7-13) 


(14-15) 


(7-13) 


(14-15) 


55 


13 


48 


16 


58 


9 


62 


24 


39 


13 


66 


22 




1 






5 


2 


■4 




3 




4 








2 




1 




3 




5 


"i 








1 


'1 




"i 


1 


3 


3 


10 


4 


2 


2 






3 


1 






"2 








3 




8 


"i 


1 


"6 






16 


2 




"i 


2 




3 


1 


1 


"3 






5 


1 


1 




6 
1 




1 




6 


' 2 






1 


1 



1934 County Colored School Census; Colored Elementary Enrollment 139 



TABLE 92 

Not Defective Colored Non-School Attendants Enumerated in 23 Maryland 
Counties Distributed According to Employment and Age Groups 
November, 1934 



/^T TXT "V 


Employed 


Not Employed 


Children of Ages 


Children of Ages 


("7-131 


('14-15) 




("14-151 


Total 1930 


204 


1,306 


653 


743 


1932 


125 


1 117 


701 




1934 




1 'l 82 




1 01 1 

X ,V/X X 






2 


1 


5 






56 


R1 

ox. 


140 




9 


94 


17 


35 






7 


80 


81 






25 


2 


10 






19 


3 


12 




6 


34 


9 


8 




13 


83 


109 


127 




14 


63 


38 


80 




3 


44 


16 


43 






1 








2 


25 


15 


16 




8 


57 


12 


29 




1 


38 


5 


34 




15 


87 


49 


46 






165 


55 


87 






9 


8 




16 


69 


78 


84 




4 


70 


23 


49 






38 


22 


24 




1 


9 


2 


4 




11 


66 


9 


35 




21 


121 


15 


54 



COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ENROLL 25,908 PUPILS 

IN 1935 

There were 25,908 pupils enrolled in the county colored public 
elementary schools in 1935, 439 fewer pupils than were enrolled in 
1934. Nine counties had slightly larger enrollments in 1935 than for 
the preceding year, but Anne Arundel, Prince George's, and Balti- 
more were the only counties which enrolled more pupils in 1935 than 
in 1923. (See Table 93.) 

The colored elementary school enrollment in Baltimore City in- 
creased by 1,052 from 24,649 in 1934 to 25,701 in 1935. The increased 
enrollment in the Baltimore City colored elementary schools of 10,026 
pupils since 1923 is approximately twice as great as the decrease of 
5,162 pupils in the county colored elementary schools since 1923. 



140 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The migration of the negroes from surrounding states, as well as from 
the counties, has undoubtedly increased the colored population in 
Baltimore City. (See Table 93.) 



TABLE 93 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, for Years Ending 
July 31, 1923, 1934 and 1935 



County 


Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 




1923 


1934 


1935 


Total Counties 


t31,070 


t26,347 


t2 5,908 


Anne Arundel 


2,853 


2,966 


2,967 


Prince George's. 


2,781 


2,901 


2,885 




1,942 


2,022 


2,024 


Montgomery ~ 


1,898 


1,730 


1,627 




2,255 


1,701 


1,619 




1,803 


1,633 


1,590 


Worcester 


2,088 


1,541 


1,480 




1,947 


1,440 


1,422 


Wicomico 


1,675 


1,386 


1,356 




1,405 


1,145 


1,153 


Calvert 


1,343 


1,151 


1,152 



County 



Talbot 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's ... 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Washington 

Baltimore City 

State 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1923 


1934 


1935 


1,373 


943 


933 


1,150 


872 


884 


916 


826 


847 


1,188 


859 


832 


1,188 


809 


791 


1,093 


755 


761 


848 


583 


584 


548 


407 


388 


440 


374 


376 


267 


275 


267 


377 


272 


267 


tl5,675 


124,649 


t25,701 


t46,745 


t50,996 


51,609 



t Total excludes duplicates. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 286. 



The decline in the colored birth rate from 1920 to 1934, evident in 
most counties, is an important factor in explaining the decreasing 
colored school enrollment. This declining birth rate is counteracted 
in Baltimore City and a few of the counties adjacent to cities by 
migration from elsewhere. (See Table 94.) 

In addition to the public school enrollment, there were 543 colored 
pupils enrolled in 8 county Catholic parochial elementary schools 
and 1,092 in 7 Catholic parochial schools in Baltimore City. There 
were also 121 colored children enrolled in a Lutheran school in Bal- 
timore City. (See Tables III-V, pages 287 to 290.) 



COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OPEN NEARLY 167 DAYS 

Opening dates for the county colored elementary schools in 1935 
ranged from September 4 to October 1, 1934, while closing dates 
ran from May 7 to June 21, 1935. (See Table 95.) 

The average length of session in the county colored elementary 
schools was 166.9 days in 1934-35, about a day and a half shorter than 
in 1934. In the individual counties the colored elementary schools 
were open on the average from the minimum requirement of 160 



Enrollment and Session Colored Elementary Schools; Birth Rates 141 



CO 

OS'— 



1-1 o 



Si 



=5 b 



o 

fx 

IS 

CO 



a> in csi lo oi t- tx) o a; c'j t- '-I 



uo:i3uti{SB7V\. 



rr o rc in 00 ■ 



^asaaiuos 



,9UUV U98n^ 



aouuj 



ko lO ^ t> ic sr. 00 a-. (M a. 1- 00 



CO (N W (N «3 C: 



«^0(N-<i'C:ooc;oot--^ooorct^ 



, in IX! i ~ ^ a; c~ ■ 



Xjaiuo3;uoi^ 



CO 05 (M ■ 



' 00 c? t~ in If.' 



5uax 



ot>o;c<iocO'^ootccCTffctcinin 



cor-eomioc-coc^t-eoc^^t-^t- 



pjBMOJJ 



PJOJJBH 



cjcj(Mai;ct-mc<iM'?o^c~icoo^ 



Jiouapaj^ 



ja^lsaqojoQ 



tct>oo»nt>eoc~cc<j5C<J^«o-^c<Ja) 



Ot^fCt-r-OrtoOO' 



' ci C5 o m 



sa[jBq3 



iftoooi— iccmcDt>c^t~oo-^<X!CD' 



kca:^c^iot~-^a50io^t:-inc~N 



auiioJB3 



— ^NOCCOOXOCOfOiCOCCKN' 



r^jaAi^o 



ajouipiBg 



c<i in o C5 »-i 1-1 1- ■ 



" 00 ^ 05 00 0^ o 
' in in lO c<i — o 



lapunay auuy 



XuB3anv 



^ccu^oo->*'05C5ccinci;oc<it-»-<' 



coNcoeoO'S'^o — c^jt-ooooc^ — 



«ooON050C:0«D— i;cino5inc5t- 



^^!0 
ajouii:;iBa 


--<t-'^ooo«ooo— <'a<^tcm-«ooo 
ccinTi<m!»miniCT*ccc>a--^oo 




icinina5int>-^coc^co^.-icocooo 
t-oototc«C!ininTr->*cceo(MC^)^o 


MvaA 


O^NCO-tifttOt-OOOSOi-H 


w « ^ 



142 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



days in Kent, Calvert, and Dorchester to 191 days in Baltimore. 
Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, and Cecil Counties had the 
colored elementary schools open over 184 days. In Baltimore City 
the colored schools were in session for 190 days. (See Table 95.) 



TABLE 95 



Length of Session in Colored Elementary Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



County 


Average 
Days 
in 
Session 


School Year 
1934-35 


County 


Average 
Days 
in 
Session 


School Year 
1934-35 


First 
Day 
of 
School 


Last 
Day 
of 
School 


First 
Day 
of 
School 


Last 
Day 
of 
School 


County Average 
Baltimore 


166.9 

190.8 
188.0 
185.3 
184.2 
177.3 
172.6 
168.5 
165.2 
165.1 
164.8 
163.9 
162.9 






Anne Arundel .. 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 


162.5 
162.2 
161.8 
161.8 
161.6 
161.6 
161.6 
160.8 
160.5 
160.5 

190.0 

178.7 


9/10 
10/1 

9/17 
10/1 
10/1 

9/17 
10/1 

9/24 

9/5 
10/1 

9/6 


5/17 

6/5 

5/17 

6/4 

5/31 

5/17 

5/31 

5/24 

5/7 

5/31 

6/21 


9/5 
9/10 
9/4 
9/6 
9/4 
9/12 
9/10 
9/17 
9/12 
9/4 
10/1 
9/10 


6/21 

6/14 

6/11 

6/14 

6/7 

5/31 

5/31 

5/24 

5/17 

5/15 

6/5 

5/13 


Allegany 


Howard 


Washington 


Charles 


Cecil 


Worcester 


Carroll 


Queen Anne's ... 

Dorchester 

Calvert 


Harford 


Prince George's ... 
Caroline 


Kent 


Montgomery 

Frederick 


Baltimore City 
state 


Talbot 


Wicomico 







In 1935, there were 17 colored schools in 8 counties open fewer 
than 160 days, the minimum length of session required by law. This 
was an increase of 7 schools and 3 counties over corresponding figures 
for 1934. There were 4 colored schools in Dorchester and 5 in Calvert 
which were open fewer than 160 days. The single school in Charles 
and in Harford which was open less than 160 days opened late in the 
year. The schools which were open less than 160 days in other coun- 
ties lost from 1 to 6 days, in most cases because the teacher was ab- 
sent and did not notify the superintendent in time so that a sub- 
stitute could be provided. (See Table 96.) 



TABLE 96 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Fewer Than 160 Days, 
the Number of Days Required by Law, by Year and by County for 1935 

Year Number County Number 

1929 53 Anne Arundel 1 

1930 41 Charles 1 

1931 34 Harford *1 

1932 12 Worcester 1 

1933 32 Howard 2 

1934 10 Montgomery 2 

1935 *17 Dorchester 4 

Calvert 5 



* Includes new high school opened at Bel Air in Jan., 1935. 



Length of Session, % of Attendance, Colored Elementary Schools 143 



PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The average per cent of attendance in county colored elementary 
schools was 84.5 per cent, an increase of .5 over the per cent of at- 
tendance in 1934, which was unusually low. Nine counties had a 
lower percentage of attendance in 1935 than in 1934. The range in 
per cent of attendance among the counties was from 72 in Calvert 
and 79 in Howard and Charles to over 90 per cent in Queen Anne's, 
Talbot, and Allegany. (See Table 97.) 

TABLE 97 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years Ending 
in Jure, 1923, 1933, 1934 and 1935 



County 


1923 


1S33 


1934 


1935 


County 


1923 


1933 


1934 


1935 


County Average. .76. 2 


86.0 


84.0 


84 


5 


Harford 


79.9 


90.3 


85.1 


84 .4 














Montgomery. 


80.8 


89.1 


83.9 


84 .4 


Allegany 


87.4 


SO. 6 


89.9 


SI 


9 


Carroll... 


72.0 


88.3 


86.2 


83.7 


Talbot 


..84.3 


91.0 


90.5 


90 


2 


Kent 


73.4 


87. S 


84.9 


83 .7 


Oueen Anne's 


73.1 


86.8 


87.6 


90 


1 


St. Mary's 


62.9 


83.6 


83.0 


83 .0 


Washington 


81.7 


93.2 


92.9 


89 


6 


Worcester 


80.1 


85.0 


80.6 


82.7 


Wicomico 


...84.8 


89.3 


87.9 


89 


2 


Dorchester 


74.2 


77.6 


81 .5 


81 .3 


Cecil 


74.4 


88.3 


85.5 


88 


2 


Charles _ 


.... 66.8 


79.6 


78.0 


78 .9 


Somerset 


80.5 


85.3 


85.7 


87 


5 


Howard 


71.0 


81.9 


79.6 


78 .6 


Baltimore.^. 


75.4 


88.5 


86.8 


87 


4 


O&lvert 


65.3 


75.6 


72.2 


72 .4 


Frederick 


84.6 


90.8 


89.2 


86 


8 






Caroline 


76.4 


85.2 


84.7 


85 


4 


Baltimore City._ 


.... 87 .0 


87.3 


86.7 


87.3 


Prince George's 


...76.4 


86.9 


85.1 


84 


7 








Anne Arundel 


...71.2 


87.4 


83.3 


84 


6 


State.. 


.. 79 .0 


86 .6 


85.3 


85.9 



The average attendance in the colored elementary schools in Balti- 
more City was 87.3 per cent in 1935 as compared with 86.7 per cent 
for the preceding year. For the entire State, the average per cent of 
attendance was 85.9 in the colored elementary schools in 1935. (See 
Table 97.) 

TABLE 98 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1935 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


16,731 


2,258 


94.5 


95.9 


October 


24,190 


2,835 


91.4 


94.7 


November 


24,977 


2,848 


88.7 


93.8 


December 


24,953 


2,827 


83.0 


92.0 


January 


24,792 


2,759 


71.1 


85.8 


February 


24,675 


2,695 


79.1 


91.9 


March 


24,586 


2,653 


86.1 


93.8 


April 


24,848 


2,610 


83.3 


91.7 


May 


24,079 


2,553 


87.9 


94.2 


June 


*5,112 


tl,063 


89.9 


95.6 


Average for Year 


24,363 


2,703 


84.5 


92.5 



* Elementary schools were open in June in Allegany, Baltimore, Carroll, Cecil, and Washington 
Counties only. 

t High schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, 
Harford, Montgomery, Talbot and Washington Counties. 



144 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The average enrollment in the county colored schools was at its 
maximum in November with 24,977 pupils in the elementary and 
2,848 pupils in the high schools. The highest percentages of attend- 
ance were found in September and October, while the lowest per cent 
of attendance was reported in January. (See Table 98.) 

There were 3,968 colored children or 15.8 per cent of the total num- 
ber enrolled in the county colored elementary schools who attended 
school under 100 days in 1935, as against 4,070 pupils and 15.9 per 

TABLE 99 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Uunder 1 00 
and 120 Days, by Year 1925 to 1935, and by County, 1935 



Number Present Per Cent Present 

Year and County 

Under Under Under Under 
100 Days 120 Days 100 Days 120 Days 

Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by Year 

1925 9,463 13,195 33.2 46.3 

1926 8,078 11,295 29.5 41.3 

1927 7,643 10,836 29.0 41.1 

1928 , 6,610 9,563 24.8 35.9 

1929 5,987 9.045 22.9 34.6 

1930 4,937 7,842 19.3 30.6 

1931 4,342 7,039 16.7 27.1 

1932 3,807 6,139 14.8 23.8 

1933 3,609 6,074 13.9 23.4 

1934 4,070 6,603 15.9 25.9 

1935 3,968 6,391 15.8 25.5 

Number and Per Cent Present Under 100 and 120 Days by County, 1934-35 

Queen Anne's — 27 — 4.0 

Allegany 14 17 5.3 6.5 

Washington 15 29 5.9 11.4 

Baltimore 133 227 6.9 11.7 

Cecil 27 44 7.5 12.2 

Frederick 96 150 11.2 17.5 

Carroll 42 65 11.5 17.8 

Talbot 72 161 8.1 18.0 

Harford 101 155 12.6 19.4 

Wicomico 159 264 12.3 20.4 

Prince George's 366 595 13.3 21.7 

Caroline 93 169 12.7 23.2 

Somerset 237 413 15.3 28.7 

Anne Arundel 491 779 17.0 26.9 

Kent 108 215 13.6 27.1 

Montgomery 280 446 17.9 28.5 

St. Mary's 206 337 18.3 30.0 

Dorchester 279 434 20.5 31.8 

Worcester 317 483 22.8 34.8 

Howard 137 209 23.7 36.2 

Charles..' 365 569 24.1 37.6 

Calvert 430 603 38.7 54.2 



Pupils Attending 100 and 120 Days; Late Entrants; Withdrawals 145 

cent in 1934. In 1932 and 1933, however, the counties had a smaller 
number and per cent attending for less than five months than in 1935. 
There were 6,391 pupils, 25.5 per cent of the colored elementary 
school enrollment, who were present fewer than 120 days in 1935. 
This was a decrease of 212 pupils and of .4 in per cent under corre- 
sponding figures for the preceding year. In this too, 1932 and 1933 
showed a better record than 1935. Decreases in the per cent of 
colored pupils present under 100 days occurred in 14 counties in 1935, 
and decreases under corresponding figures for 1934 for pupils at- 
tending school fewer than 120 days were found in 11 counties. (See 
Table 99.) 

Among the counties the percentage of pupils present under 100 days 
ranged from none in Queen Anne's and less than 10 per cent in Alle- 
gany, Washington, Baltimore, Cecil, and Talbot to over 20 per cent 
in Dorchester, Worcester, Howard, and Charles, and to nearly 39 
per cent in Calvert. For pupils who attended under 120 days, the 
range was from 4 per cent in Queen Anne's and 6.5 per cent in Alle- 
gany to 54 per cent in Calvert. (See Table 99.) 

NUMBER OF LATE ENTRANTS INCREASES 

There were 1,202 colored pupils, or 4.5 per cent of the total en- 
rollment who entered school late because of negligence or indiffer- 
ence, or employment in 1935. This was an increase of 135 pupils or 
.6 in per cent over corresponding figures for 1934, which are the lowest 
ever reported. The chief cause of late entrance, negligence or in- 
difference, increased from 2.5 per cent in 1934 to 3.2 per cent in 1935, 
but the percentage of late entrants who were legally employed de- 
creased by .1 to .8 per cent in 1935. (See Table 100.) 

In the individual counties the percentage of late entrants for in- 
difference, neglect, and employment comprised from none in Alle- 
gany and .7 per cent in Washington to 18.5 per cent in Calvert. In 
Allegany, Washington, and Cecil, no colored children entered school 
a month or more late because they were employed. In addition to 
these three counties. Queen Anne's and Wicomico reported no chil- 
dren under 14 years as late entrants because of employment. (See 
Table 100.) 

WITHDRAWALS FROM COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In 1935 there were 1,746 pupils or 6.5 per cent of the total colored 
elementary school enrollment who withdrew from school because 
of removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions, the same 
percentage of withdrawals as was reported for these causes in 1934. 
In 1932 and 1933 there were fewer withdrawals for these causes. 
Among the counties these withdrawals ranged from 2 per cent in Alle- 
gany to over 10 per cent in Caroline and Queen Anne's. (See Table 
101.) 



146 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 100 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School after the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or 
Neglect, by Year and by County for 1935 



Year and 
County 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


14 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Under 
14 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 



Late Entrants by Year 



1926 


5,393 
5,204 
4,739 
3,280 
3,148 
2,505 
1,891 
1,279 
1,067 
1,202 


18.1 
17.8 
16.5 
11.6 
11.4 
9.0 
6.9 
4.6 
3.9 
4.5 


6.9 
7.5 
7.8 
5.3 
5.8 
5.0 
4.5 
3.3 
t 2.5 
3.2 


8.3 
7.9 
6.5 
5.1 
4.5 
3.1 
1.6 
.9 
.9 
.8 


2.9 
2.4 
2.2 
1.2 
1.1 
.9 
.8 
.4 
.5 
.5 








1927 








1928 _ 








1929 








1930 








1931 








1932 








1933 








1934 








1935 

















Late Entrants by County, 1935 















1 
5 
10 


1 
1 
1 

6 


1 
1 
1 


Washington .. 
Cecil 


2 

5 


1 


7 
3 


1 


.7 

.3 










Somerset 


21 


1 


3 




.8 




4 


.1 


6 


7 


Kent 


13 


1 


5 




.2 




7 


.6 


2 


13 


16 


Queen Anne's 


13 


1 


7 




.4 


1 


3 




3 


18 


1 


Baltimore 


42 


2 





1 


.2 




6 


.2 


9 


11 


8 


St. Mary's .... 


25 


2 


1 




.4 




3 


.4 


11 


5 


13 


Howard 


14 


2 


3 


1 


.2 




5 


.6 


8 


8 


18 


Talbot 


23 


2 


3 




.9 


1 


3 


.1 


7 


19 


6 


Wicomico .... 


35 


2 


5 


1 


4 


1 


1 




12 


17 


1 


Caroline 


23 


2 


8 




7 


1 


7 


.4 


4 


20 


12 


Charles 


47 


2 


9 


1 


9 




5 


.5 


13 


9 


14 


Frederick 


27 


3 





2 


1 




6 


.3 


14 


10 


11 


Pr. George's 


104 


3 


5 


2 


6 




3 


.6 


16 


4 


15 


Worcester 


61 


4 





2 


.6 




7 


.7 


15 


12 


20 


Carroll 


18 


4 


7 


3 


4 


1 





.3 


17 


16 


9 


Montgomery 


99 


5 


9 


4 


6 




7 


.6 


19 


14 


17 




56 


6 


5 


3 


5 


2 


3 


.7 


18 


21 


19 


Dorchester .. 


113 


7 


7 


5 


2 




9 


1.6 


20 


15 


21 


Anne Arundel 


242 


8 





7 


3 




4 


.3 


21 


7 


10 


Calvert 


219 


18 


5 


13 


3 


3 


5 


1.7 


22 


22 


22 



The total number of withdrawals for ''other" causes was 996 or 
3.7 per cent in 1935, just .1 higher than in 1934. The 1935 total of 3.7 
per cent included 1.5 per cent for employment, .9 per cent because of 
poverty, .7 per cent for mental or physical incapacity, .3 per cent 
who were over or under the compulsory attendance age, and .3 per 
cent for ''other" causes. {See Table 101.) 



Late Entrants, Withdrawals, County Colored Elementary Schools 147 



These percentages varied in the individual counties from less than 
2 per cent in Dorchester, Carroll, and Frederick to more than 6 per 
cent in Calvert and Worcester and nearly 8 per cent in St. Mary's. 
There were no pupils withdrawn because of poverty in Prince 
George's and Cecil, but over 2 per cent of the colored enrollment were 
reported withdrawn from Calvert, Worcester, and St. Mary's ele- 
mentary schools for this reason. Kent and St. Mary's reported 2 per 
cent withdrawn for mental or physical incapacity. (See Table 101.) 



TABLE 101 

Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools by 
Year and by County for 1934-35 



Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer, Commitment, 
or Death 



Number 



Per Cent 



withdrawals for following causes 







PER CENT WITHDRAWING 


FOR 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Poverty 


Mental 

and 
Physical 

Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Other 
Causes 



Withdrawals by Year 



1925 


2,549 


8.6 


3,515 


12.3 


6.4 


2.6 


1.1 


1 


.7 


1926 


2,446 


8.2 


2.697 


9.9 


4.9 


1.9 


1.0 


1 


.5 


1927 


2,340 


8.0 


2,489 


8.5 


4.3 


1.5 


1.2 


1 


1 


1928 


2,130 


7.4 


2,231 


7.8 


4.1 


1.2 


1 .0 


1 


1 


1929 


2,109 


7.5 


2,171 


7.6 


3.7 


1.5 


1.1 




.9 


1930 


2,100 


7.6 


1,717 


6.2 


2.9 


1.2 


1.0 




« 


1931 


1,883 


6.8 


1,405 


5.0 


2.2 


1.0 


.9 




6 


1932 


1,719 


6.3 


1,146 


4.2 


1.2 


1.0 


1.0 




6 


1933 


1,652 


6.0 


1,069 


3.9 


1.5 


1.0 


.7 




5 


1934.:.. 


1,773 


6.5 , 


980 


3.6 


1.2 


.9 


.7 




6 


1935 


1,746 


6.5 


996 


3.7 


1.5 


.9 


.7 




3 



Withdrawals by County, 1935 



Dorchester .. 


112 


7.6 


22 


1.5 


.5 




.4 




.2 


.1 


.3 


Carroll 


13 


3.4 


6 


1.6 


.5 




.3 




.3 


.5 




Frederick 


38 


4.2 


16 


1.8 


.9 




.1 




.5 


.1 


.2 


Anne Arundel 


138 


4.6 


62 


2.0 


.7 




2 




.8 


.1 


.2 


Harford 


68 


7.8 


18 


2.0 


.3 




7 




.3 


.5 


.2 


Pr. George's 


206 


7.0 


78 


2.6 


1.3 








.5 


.5 


.3 


Cecil 


38 


9.5 


11 


2.8 


1.0 






1 


.0 


.8 


Baltimore 


122 


5.9 


57 


2.8 


1.6 




2 


.7 


.1 


.2 


Howard 


29 


4.8 


17 


2.8 


1.1 




2 




.7 


.5 


.3 


Montgomery 


103 


6.2 


49 


2.9 


1.1 


1 







4 


.1 


.3 


Caroline 


87 


10.6 


26 


3.2 


1.7 




1 




5 


.3 


.6 


Allegany 


6 


2.2 


11 


4.1 


1.5 


1 


1 


1 


5 




Somerset 


118 


7.1 


69 


4.1 


1.5 


1 


7 




7 


.1 




Kent 


48 


5.7 


37 


4.4 


1.8 




4 


2 





.2 




Wicomico .... 


81 


5.9 


61 


4.4 


1.5 


1 


5 




9 


.4 


.1 


Queen Anne's 


82 


10.7 


34 


4.5 


2.0 




7 


1 


4 


.3 


.1 


Washington .. 


14 


5.2 


12 


4.5 


1.1 


1 


1 




4 


1.1 


.8 


Talbot 


90 


9.1 


54 


5.4 


1.2 


1 


5 




4 


. 5 


1.8 


Charles 


95 


5.9 


89 


5.5 


2.5 


2 







6 


.3 


.1 


Calvert 


74 


6.2 


76 


6.4 


2.8 


2 


2 




5 




.2 


Worcester 


137 


9.0 


101 


6.6 


2.8 


2 






7 


^5 


.5 


St. Mary's .... 


47 


4.0 


90 


7.7 


1.9 


2 


4 


2 





1.1 


.3 



148 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The enrollment in the county colored elementary schools was lower 
in 1935 than in 1934 in every grade except the sixth and seventh. 
There was an increase in the high school enrollment in 1935 over 
corresponding enrollments in 1934 in every year but the second. (See 
Table 102.) 



TABLE 102 

Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Years Ending 
in June 1932, 1934 and 1935, and as of October, 1921 



GRADE 


Number in Each Grade, 
1935 


Number in Each Grade 


Increase 
192l|to 
1935 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1921 


1932 


1934 


1 


2,670 


2,320 


4,990 


9,804 


5,297 


5,279 


*4,814 


2 


1,998 


1,783 


3,781 


4,237 


3,955 


4,082 


*456 


3 


1,950 


1,759 


3,709 


3,741 


4,006 


3,803 


*32 


4 


1,842 


1,783 


3,625 


3,126 


3,851 


3,821 


499 


5 


1,601 


1,677 


3,278 


2,011 


3,348 


3,406 


1,267 


6 


1,427 


1,537 


2,964 


1,348 


2,847 


2,938 


1,616 


7 


1,226 


1,457 


2,683 


859 


2,459 


2,582 


1,824 


8 


20 


11 


31 


170 


35 


33 


*139 


I 


569 


757 


1,326 


168 


1,068 


1,072 


1,158 


II 


317 


437 


754 


98 


645 


801 


656 


Ill 


217 


290 


507 


51 


415 


506 


456 


IV 


158 


209 


367 


6 


327 


337 


361 


Grand Total.. 


13,995 


14,020 


28,015 


25,619 


28,253 


28,660 


2,396 



* Decrease. 



Between 1921 and 1^35, the first grade colored enrollment has been 
practically cut in half and there have been small decreases in the 
second and third grade enrollment. This is due partly to reduced en- 
rollment, but also to better instruction accompanied by less retarda- 
tion. The greatest increases in enrollment since 1921 appear in the 
fifth, sixth, and seventh grades, and in the various high school years. 
(See Table 102.) 

The colored enrollment by grade in 1935 is given for the individual 
counties in Table 103. Allegany, Caroline, and Washington were the 
only counties in which the enrollment in the first grade was exceeded 
by the enrollment in any grade above the first. 



Grade Enrollment, Colored Public Schools 



149 



= 3 



oo«DooooioooTj'<x>c^i.oic-»"t>ai«D«i— eoio^N 



T?eO— (NIM— '-(N-* —IN— WIN 



-<tCCOt-0C»^;5£>C<IOO — 00 — U5iCCt>C^(MKOO 
-*CC— (NCg— — — iC^Tt — — !N— C<1IM 



■>r — oot>ot>t>cccc-«*'oo — coooicift — ot-iN-^-^ 
5DCON— ec N — — — — — CO — coco 



, Oi o a) ^ 



us 



= £ c c 



XX I 



w C en 

o; a; 



150 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



NUMBER OF COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 

INCREASES 
CHART 23 



PER CENT OF GRADUATES IN TOTAL COUNTY COLORED 
ELET^ENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1935 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 

Total and 874 
Co. Average 



er Cent Bqys rZ/V/J Per Cent Girls 




Caroline 

Washington 

Queen Anne' s 

Somerset 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Harford 



1,190 

44 ^^BIIiB^^ if^B ^^^^ 



Charles 
Kent • 
Howard 
Dorchester 
Wicomico 
Carroll 
Montgonieiy 
Pr. George's ^^'^ 
Talbot 
Worcester 
Baltimore 
Allegany 
Calvert 
Anne Arundel 
St. Mary's 



11 Hj 



49 14.0 



V///////////A 




22 111.5 W//y>/y///////////////////////A 
76 1 10.2 '///////////////^/////////A 




45 LM 



V//////A 




107 Its 
20 



In 1935, there were 2,064 graduates from the county colored ele- 
mentary schools or 8.2 per cent of the total elementary school enroll- 
ment, an increase of 67 or .2 in number and per cent over the 1934 



Graduates and Non Promotions, County Colored Elementary Schools 151 



figures, and a larger number than ever graduated before. This num- 
ber included 874 boys or 6.9 per cent of the boys enrolled in the ele- 
mentary schools and 1,190 girls, 9.7 per cent of the girls. 

TABLE 104 
Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Number 

Year Boys Girls 

1923 350 637 

1924 427 706 

1925 487 705 

1926 483 820 

1927 542 909 

1928 542 984 

1929 733 1,077 

1930 728 993 

1931 884 1,101 

1932 835 1,134 

1933 805 1,105 

1934 861 1,136 

1935 874 1,190 





Per Cent* 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1,192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1,303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1,451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1,526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1,721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1,985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 


1,969 


6.4 


8.9 


7.6 


1,910 


6.1 


8.6 


7.4 


1,997 


6.7 


9.0 


7.8 


2,064 


6.9 


9.7 


8.2 



* Per cent of total elementary enrollment, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, com- 
mitment and death, graduated. 

In the counties the percentage of colored boys enrolled in the ele- 
mentary schools who graduated varied from less than 4 per cent in 
St. Mary's, Anne Arundel, and Calvert to 11 per cent in Caroline and 
nearly 13 per cent in Washington County. For girls the percentage 
of graduates ranged from just under 4 per cent in St. Mary's to 14 
per cent or more in Queen Anne's and Cecil. In every county except 
Washington and Prince George's, the number and per cent of girls 
graduated exceeded the number and per cent of boys graduated. 
Twelve counties graduated more boys and girls than in the ureceding 
year. (See (^W/ 23.) 

FEWER FAILURES IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

TABLE 105 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary Schools* 



Year Number 
Ending in 

June Boys Girls 

1923 5,722 4,616 

1924 5,173 4,104 

1925 4,800 3,700 

1926 4,359 3,334 

1927 4,015 3,091 

1928 3,647 2,657 

1929 3,230 2,361 

1930 3,311 2,343 

1931 2,929 2,022 

1932 2,977 1,983 

1933 3,041 2,230 

1934 3,133 2,184 

1935 2,848 1,959 



Per Cent 



Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 


4,960 


22.9 


15.5 


19.2 


5,271 


23.2 


17.4 


20.3 


5,317 


24.3 


17.3 


20.8 


4,807 


22.4 


15.9 


19.2 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to institutions. 



152 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The 4,807 colored elementary pupils who failed to meet the re- 
quirements for promotion to the next higher grade in 1935 comprised 
19.2 per cent of the colored elementary school enrollment, a smaller 
number than for any year preceding. The percentage was 1.6 under 



CHART 24 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF COUNTY COLORED 
ELEMENT ART PUPILS NOT PROMOTED - 1935 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 



Per Cent Boys I 1 Per Cent Girls 



Total and 2, 


848 


Co. Average 




Cecil 


14 


Carroll 


26 


Queen Anne's 


46 


Washington 


-LD 


Worcester 




Vticomico 


100 


Caroline 


70 


Allegany 


26 


Somerset 


155 


Talbot 


66 


Kent 


79 


Howard 


61 


Frederick 


152 


Montgomery'- 


162 


Charles 


168 


Anne Arundel 


361 


Harford 


107 


Pr. C-eorge's 


569 


Baltimore 


255 


Dorchester 


115 


St. Mary's 


186 


Calvert 


199 




104 124 2 



109 \20T 



180 ISTS 



NoN Promotions, Colored Elementary Schools 



153 



the corresponding fgure for 1934 and was as low as or lower than in 
any year preceding except 1931, which was .1 lower. The non-promo- 
tions for 1935 included 22.4 per cent of the number of boys and 15.9 
per cent of the colored girls enrolled. (See Table 105.) 

In the individual counties the per cent of failures for colored ele- 
mentary boys varied from 7.4 in Cecil to 31 in St. Mary's and 37 in 
Calvert. For girls the range in percentage of non-promotion was from 
less than 10 in Carroll, Cecil, Worcester, and Queen Anne's, to 21 per 
cent in St. Mary's, 24 in Dorchester, and 31.5 per cent in Calvert. 
In only three counties — Cecil, Washington, and Talbot — did the 
percentage of failure for colored girls exceed that for boys. (See 
Chart 24.) 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest on the part of 
pupils and parents were the chief cause for failure reported by teachers 
in the county colored elementary schools. Irregular attendance not 
due to illness, personal illness, mental incapacity and employment 
were reported next in order of frequency as causes for non-promotion 
in the colored elementary schools. 

NON-PROMOTION BY GRADE 

The highest percentage of non-promotion was found in the first 
grade for one third of the boys and nearly 30 per cent of the girls. 
In Grade 7 nearly 28 per cent of the boys and 18 per cent of the girls 
were not found ready for promotion, while in Grade 4 over 22 per cent 

CHART 25 



1935 NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES 
COUNTY colored ELBJENTARY SCHOOLS 

Nvunber 

Grade Boys Girls Cent Boys Per Cent Girls 



890 
375 



3 500 
413 



286 
242 
342 



684 129.5 V//////////////////////// ///////////////A 

215 ^^^^^^^^ ^ 

182 1 10.9^^^^^^ 

158 W^^^^^ 

262 \^^^^^^//////////A 



154 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of the boys and nearly 15 per cent of the girls were reported as not 
ready for the grade above. The lowest percentage of failure for boys 
occurred in the third grade and for girls in the sixth grade. Decreases 
in per cent of non-promotions in 1935 under corresponding figures for 
1934 were found for boys and girls in every grade except the fourth. 
(See Chart 25.) 

PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENT TESTS GIVEN TO COLORED 
ELEMENTARY PUPILS 

The Progressive Achievement Tests, in Reading, Arithmetic, and 
Language were given to county colored elementary pupils in grades 
2 to 7 in 1935. In Reading Comprehension 46.4 per cent of the 
colored pupils tested in grades 2 to 7, inclusive, were either at or 

TABLE 106 

Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Elementary Pupils in Grades 2-7, Inclusive, 
Who Reached the Standard Median in the Progressive Achievement 

Tests, 1934-35 







Per Cent At or 


Above Standard Median in 




Number 












fCOUNTY 


Tested 


Reading 


Reading 


Arith- 


Arith- 






Grades 


Compre- 


Vocabu- 


metic 


metic 


Language 




2-7 


hension 


lary 


Reasoning 


Funda- 












mentals 




Total & Average 


15,239 


46.4 


26.2 


55.9 


45.5 


39.3 


Wicomico 


881 


80.2 


56.2 


82.9 


59.7 


67.9 


Allegany 


206 


78.2 


57.8 


73.8 


76.7 


58.3 


Carroll 


263 


72.6 


35.0 


79.5 


58.2 


5 .2 


Somerset 


1,086 


72.4 


49.4 


76.6 


f4.1 


56.6 


Baltimore 


1,144 


68.9 


48.1 


85.1 


70.1 


64.2 


Frederick 


630 


68.4 


38.6 


60.^ 


41.9 


50.0 


Cecil 


219 


65.8 


43.4 


68.5 


49.3 


45.2 


Talbot 


561 


53.7 


23.7 


45.6 


33.3 


40.5 


Calvert 


480 


52.9 


22.1 


72.3 


45.0 


39.6 


Worcester 


772 


52.8 


23.1 


55.8 


33.9 


34.2 


Washington 


171 


51.5 


21.6 


50.9 


39.8 


40.4 


Harford 


550 


44.7 


18.0 


56.9 


39.3 


33.6 


Anne Arundel. .. 


1,674 


43.0 


21.4 


49.5 


41.1 


36.6 


Queen Anne's .... 


460 


36.3 


12.8 


45.4 


32.0 


26.a, 


Charles 


847 


32.6 


14.4 


39.0 


24.9 


25,1 


Pr. George's 


1,513 


31.5 


18.6 


55.8 


58.5 


37.2 


Kent 


516 


30.6 


11.8 


35.3 


21.7 


17.5 


St. Mary's 


724 


30.1 


11.6 


48.1 


43.6 


31.4 


Howard. 


394 


29.4 


17.5 


32.5 


38.8 


19.8 


Montgomery 


854 


22.2 


13.6 


40.0 


43.4 


23.9 


Dorchester 


751 


20.6 


12.5 


32.2 


30.2 


22.9 


Caroline 


543 


17.5 


11.2 


39.0 


29.8 


29.7 



t Counties are arranged in order of per cent who reached standard median in reading comprehension. 
Whenever at least 50 per cent of the pupils reached the standard median, the figure is shown 
in bold face. 



Results of 



Standard Tests of County Colored Elementary Pupils 155 



Ji 

li 

c © 

il 

If 



H 5' 



if 



I ! 

I I 



f 

J 



?5 j:gs??"'5S:2«g;;-§^2^^::gs:5S^; 



i5 g?5f:^i2SS?2?j^g-^«-S^SS^;^«S 



11 

II 
II 




II 



156 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



above the median reached or exceeded by 50 per cent of the pupils 
who were used in obtaining the norms set up by the authors of the 
tests. In reading vocabulary 26.2 per cent of the colored pupils made 
or surpassed the standard median score. Nearly 56 per cent of all 
colored pupils tested reached or exceeded the standard median in 
arithmetic reasoning, while 46 per cent had scores at or above stand- 
ard in arithmetic fundamentals. The standard median in language 
was made by slightly more than 39 per cent of the colored pupils in 
grades 2 to 7. (See Table 106.) 

In Grades 2 and 4 over 50 per cent of the pupils made or exceeded 
the standard median in reading comprehension while not quite one 
third of the pupils in grade 6 made the standard. In reading vov^abu- 
lary nearly 45 per cent of the colored pupils were at or above stand- 
ard in the second grade and in each succeeding grade thereafter the 
per cent of pupils who made the standard median decreased, the 
lowest, 10.7 per cent, being found for sixth grade pupils. (See Table 
106A.) 

Wicomico and Allegany were the only counties in which 50 per cent 
or more of the colored pupils tested reached or surpassed the standard 
median in all five parts of the Progressive Achievement Tests. In 
Carroll, Somerset, and Baltimore Counties, 50 per cent or more of 
all pupils taking the tests were at or above the standard median in 
all the tests, except reading vocabulary. At the opposite extreme, 
less than 30 per cent of the colored pupils tested in Caroline, Dor- 
chester, Montgomery, and Howard, reached the standard in reading 
comprehension, while fewer than 12 per cent did so in vocabulary 
in Caroline, St. Mary's, and Kent. Not quite one third of the pupils 
tested in arithmetic reasoning in Dorchester and Howard were at 
standard, and in arithmetic fundamentals less than 30 per cent of the 
colored pupils made the standard for the grade in Charles, Kent, 
and Caroline. Fewer than 20 per cent of the pupils tested in language 
were up to standard in Kent and Howard. (See Table 106.) 

COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
Enrollment in Colored High Schools 

The county colored high school enrollment continued its climb 
upward showing an increase of 200 pupils from 2,819 in 1934 to 3,019 
pupils in 1935. The corresponding increase in average number be- 
longing was 225 and in average attendance 242. The total number 
of graduates was 322, just 4 more than were reported in 1934. 

There were enrolled in the last four years of high school in Balti- 
more City 2,652 pupils in 1935, an increase of 99 pupils over corre- 
sponding figures for the preceding year, but a decrease under the en- 
rollment of 1933 when the maximum enrollment was found. How- 
ever, the average number belonging and attending in 1935 was 
larger than for any preceding year. It will be noted that the high 
school enrollment and average number belonging in 1935 was larger 
in the counties than in the City. (See Table 107.) 



Tests in Elementary Schools; Pupils, Session in Colored High Schools 157 



TABLE 107 

Colored Enrollment, Attendance and Graduates in Last Four Years of High School 
in 22 Counties and Baltimore City, 1921 to 1935 





22 Counties 


Baltimore City 


Year 








Four- 








Four- 


Ending 








Year 








Year 


July 31 




Average 




High 




Average 




High 




Total 


No. 


Average 


School 


Total 


No. 


Average 


School 




Enroll- 


Belong- 


Attend- 


Grad- 


Enroll- 


Belong- 


Attend- 


Grad- 




ment 


ing 


ance 


uates 


ment 


ing 

■'■'■'6 


ance 


uates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




801 


795 


722 


135 


1922 


368 


* 


292 


5 


1,065 


1,029 


935 


123 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1,355 


1,336 


1,185 


147 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1 1,557 


1,503 


1,373 


139 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1,745 


1,681 


1,527 


246 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1,783 


1,783 


1,643 


378 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1,858 


1,849 


1,648 


315 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1,957 


1,923 


1,731 


230 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


2,053 


2,028 


1,832 


283 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


2,149 


2,114 


1,931 


283 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 


2,323 


2,247 


2,047 


285 


1932 


2,489 


2,253 


2,069 


288 


2,427 


2,362 


2,155 


312 


1933 


2,750 


2,494 


2,299 


297 


2,685 


2,562 


2,334 


364 


1934 


2,819 


2,478 


2,260 


318 


2,553 


2,483 


2,266 


329 


1935 


3,019 


2,703 


2,502 


322 


2,652 


2,600 


2,406 


391 



* Figures not reported before 1923. 



There were 34 colored high school pupils at Princess Anne A cademy 
and 24 in Catholic parochial and 11 in a Lutheran parochial school 
in Baltimore City. 

Length of Session in Colored High Schools 

On the average the county high schools were open 171.2 days, 2.7 
days under the number in 1934. The length of session ranged from 
160 days in Calvert and St. Mary's, the minimum required, to over 
180 days in Charles, Kent, Carroll, Talbot, Anne Arundel, Cecil, 
AWegany, Frederick, and Washington. Montgomery, Caroline, Prince 
George's, and Dorchester had the colored high schools open from 166 
to over 170 days. The Havre de Grace School in Harford was open 
178 days, but the opening of the Bel Air High School in January 
lowered the county average. In Baltimore City the session in colored 
high schools was 190 days. (See Table VIII, page 293.) 

Only three counties, Caroline, Frederick, and Queen Anne's, showed 
a longer session in 1934-35 than in 1933-34. 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 

The average per cent of attendance in the county colored high 
schools was 92.5 in 1935, as against 91.2 per cent reported in 1934, an 
increase of 1.3 per cent. In the individual counties the percentages of 



158 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

attendance ranged from under 90 per cent in Cecil, Calvert, and 
Prince George's to 96.5 per cent in Worcester. In all but five counties, 
— Kent, Anne Arundel, Queen Anne's, Frederick, and Charles, — 
the colored high school pupils attended school more regularly in 1935 
than during the preceding year. In Baltimore City the per cent of 
attendance in the colored high school was 92.5, the same as for the 
counties. (See Table 108.) 

TABLE 108 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, for School Years Ending 
in June, 1923, 1933, 1934 and 193.'> 



County 


1923 


1933 


1934 


li>35 


County Average 


8&.3 


J2 


2 


91 


2 


92.5 


Worcester 




92 


1 


92 


3 


96.5 


Carroll 




93 





92 


1 


94.6 


Dorchester 


87.4. 


?2 


4 


92 


6 


94.3 


Kent 


86.3 


95 





94 


3 


94.2 


Anne Arundel 


88.9 


95 


1 


S5 


3 


94.2 


Wicomico. . . 


90.5 


94 


7 


93 


4 


93.9 


Montgomery 




94 


1 


89 


1 


93.8 


Talbot .. 


87.3 


92 


1 


92 


4 


93.8 


Washington 




92 





91 


2 


93.4 


Queen Anne's 




90 


6 


93 


.3 


92.2 


Allegany 


.93.5 


91 


1 


88 


6 


92.1 



County 


1£23 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Somerset 




8S 

93 





89 


.4 


91 


2 


Frederick 


90.5 


4 


91 


.2 


90 


p 


Charles 


88.4 


91 


6 


92 


.4 


90 


9 


Harford 




90 


8 


86 


.0 


90 


8 


St. Mary's 




SO 


6 


Caroline 


85.6 


88 


8 


89 


. 5 


90 


6 


Prince George's 




91 


4 


88 


.7 


89 


9 


Calvert 




89 


8 


87 


.4 


8S 


7 






88 


5 


86 





89 





Baltimore City . 


88.8 


91 


1 


91 


.3 


92 


5 


State Average 


88.9 


91 


6 


91 


.2 


92 


5 



Importance of High School in Colored School Program 

The ratio between the number belonging in county colored high 
schools and the total county colored enrollment in elementary and 
high schools combined was 10 in 1935, compared with 9.1, the ratio 
for the preceding year. The ratio in Baltimore City increased from 
9.4 in 1934 to 9.6 in 1935. Since the colored high school pupils from 
Baltimore County who attend secondary schools in Baltimore City 
at the expense of Baltimore County are included in the enrollment 
for Baltimore City, the ratio for the counties as a whole is slightly 
lower and that for Baltimore City a little higher than they would be 
were the figures adjusted for the actual facts. (See Table 109.) 

TABLE 109 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number Belonging 
in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined, for School Years Ending in 
June, 1924, 1933, 1934 and 1935 



County 


1924 


1933 


1934 


1935 


County 


1924 


1£33 


1934 


1035 


County Average. 


2.0 


9.0 


9.1 


10.0 


Frederick 


6.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.9 










Worcester 




11.3 


10.1 


10.6 


Allegany 


11.9 


24.8 


23.0 


23.5 


Montgomery 




6.0 


8.1 


9.7 


Wicomico 


6.0 


17.2 


16.7 


19.7 


Harford 




6.5 


6.6 


9.6 


Caroline 


2.3 


18.2 


19.6 


19.2 


Prince George's 


1.5 


9.4 


8.5 


8.6 


Cecil 




7.9 


14.2 


15.6 


Calvert 




6.9 


6.0 


8.0 


Washington 




14.2 


13.6 


15.1 


Anne Arundel 


2.5 


7.3 


7.1 


7.9 


Carroll... 


4.0 


11.8 


12.5 


14.2 


St. Mary's 








7.9 


Queen Anne's 


2.0 


7.6 


10.6 


13.3 


Charles 


1.8 


7.7 


8.0 


5.3 


Dorchester 


4.7 


12.4 


13.3 


13.1 










*9.6 


Kent 


3.0 


12.5 


fi.7 


11.7 


Baltimore City 


t/.2 


*10.2 


*9.4 


Somerset 


1.6 


10. t 


11.0 


11.5 








9.2 


9.8 


Talbot... 


3.0 


11. f 


11.3 


11.2 


State... 


4.7 


9.6 



* Includes pupils from Baltimore County attending Junior and Senior High Schools in Baltimore 
City whos3 tuition is paid by tha Baltimora County Board of Education. 



Attendance; Per Cent in High School; Graduates, Colored 159 
High Schools 

The range in ratio of high school enrollment to total average en- 
rollment among the counties was from under 8 in Anne Arundel and 
St. Mary's, and 5.3 in Charles to over 19 in Caroline and Wicomico 
and 23.5 in Allegany. Charles, Caroline, Dorchester, and Talbot 
were the only counties which had a smaller proportion of pupils in 
high school in 1935 than in 1934. Except for Charles, where the de- 
crease was 2.7, the differences were slight. (See Table 109.) 

County Colored High Schools Graduate 322 
TABLE 110 

Graduates of Four-Year Maryland Colored High Schools 



High 
Schools 
In 



Boys Graduated in 



Total 



Counties 


t***117 


***128 


Anne Arundel.. 


13 


13 


Caroline 


9 


8 


Prince George's 


*11 


12 


Dorchester 


9 


16 


Wicomico 


t25 


**20 


Somerset 


5 


13 


Montgomery. .. 


8 




Harford 




1 


Frederick 




t3 


Kent 


*9 


3 


Talbot 


7 


6 


Allegany 


5 


3 


Queen Anne's 




2 


Cecil 


1 


2 


Washington 


1 


2 


Calvert 




1 
8 


Charles 


3 


Carroll 


4 


1 


Worcester 


2 


5 


Baltimore 






City 


*139 


116 


Entire 






State 


256 


244 



1933 I 1934 I 1935 



17 
^6 
15 
14 
12 
12 
10 
7 
6 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
1 



**145 
*** 

287 



High ! Girls Graduated In 
Schools 
In 



Total 

Counties... 

Wicomico 

Dorchester.... 

Caroline 

Pr. George's 
Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Kent 

Talbot 

Harford 

Charles 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington . 

Baltimore 

City 

Entire 

State 



1933 



1934 1935 



180 ' :190 



f****28 
9 
12 

****24 

no 

*19 



*4 
5 
3 
10 
*10 
**5 
**13 
4 
2 
6 

**** 
225 

b405 



*****25 
t*23 
*20 

19 
**16 
t*7 
2 
*3 
t**9 
*****9 
t3 
7 
3 



tt*10 
3 



213 
b403 



: 180 

^****26 
20 
*16 
*14 
12 
10 
10 
10 
9 
**9 
*7 
7 
6 
6 
**5 
**5 
*4 
3 
1 

**** 
246 

b426 



* Each asterisk represents a graduate who entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following grad- 
uation from high school. 

t Each dagger represents a graduate who entered normal school in 1935. 

a The following county girls entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following graduation from 
high school: 1933-17; 1931-26; 1935-15. One county girl who graduated in 1933 and 6 who graduated 
in 1931 entered Bowie in 1935. 

b The following entered Bowie Normal School in the fall following graduation from high school: 
1933-21; 1934 -30, 1935-19. One who graduated in 1933 and 7 who graduated in 1934 entered Bowie 
in 1935. 

In 1935, there were 322 graduates from the county colored high 
schools, of whom 142 were boys and 180 were girls. This was an in- 
crease of 14 boys, but a decrease of 10 girls under the number of 



160 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

graduates in 1934. In the individual counties the number of boys 
graduated ranged from 1 in Worcester and 2 each in Carroll, Charles, 
and Calvert to 14 in Dorchester, 15 in Prince George's, 16 in Caroline, 
and 17 in Anne Arundel. For girls, the number of graduates varied 
from 1 in Washington to 26 in Wicomico. There were 145 boys and 
246 girls graduated from the colored senior high school in Baltimore 
City. The Baltimore City figures include and the county figures ex- 
clude graduates from Baltimore County. (See Table 110.) 

Of the 287 boys graduated from the colored high schools in Mary- 
land in 1935, 1 each from Dorchester and Wicomico and 2 from Balti- 
more City entered Bowie Normal School in the fall of 1935. Of the 
426 girls who graduated from Maryland colored high schools in 1935, 
19 entered the Bowie Normal School the following October. Five 
were graduates of Wicomico high schools, two came from Harford, 
Worcester, and Charles, and one each from Caroline, Prince George's, 
Montgomery, and Cecil, and 4 were from Baltimore City. (See 
Table 110.) 

Occupations of 1934 Colored High School Graduates During 1934-35 

Of 128 boys graduated in 1934 from county colored high schools, 35 
or 27.3 per cent continued their education in college, normal schools or 
college preparatory schools during 1934-35. Besides those who were 
enrolled in institutions of higher learning, 28.9 per cent were either 
working or staying at home, 14.8 per cent were farming or working 
in C. C. C. camps, 14.9 were employed at various jobs, but the oc- 
cupations of 14.1 per cent were unknown. Of 190 girls graduated 
in 1934, 39 or 20.6 per cent were in normal schools, colleges, or hospi- 
tals in 1934-35. In addition to these, 65.2 per cent were working or 
staying at home, 6.3 per cent were married, and 2.1 per cent were em- 
ployed in beauty parlors, but the occupations of 5.8 per cent were 
not known. (See Table 111.) 

The Colored High School Program 

In 11 of the 27 county colored high schools, the academic course 
was the only one ofiFered, and in 11 schools, the general course was the 
only one given. The high schools at Annapolis, Denton, Cambridge, 
Upper Marlboro, and Salisbury offered work in both the academic 
and general courses. The colored senior high school in Baltimore City 
gave the academic, commercial, and technical courses. (See Table 
XXXIII, pages 318 to 323.) 

Practically every colored high school pupil was enrolled in Eng- 
lish, 98 per cent took courses in the social studies, 96 per cent received 
instruction in mathematics, and over 86 per cent were enrolled in 
science courses. All the pupils enrolled in 13 county colored high 
schools had courses in social studies, and in 11 schools every pupil was 
enrolled in a mathematics class. Courses in Latin were taken by 125 
boys and 176 girls enrolled in seven high schools of five counties, and 
French classes enrolled 91 boys and 118 girls in six county high 
schools. Annapolis High School ofifered both Latin and French. (See 
Table 112 and Table XXXIV, pages 324 to 329.) 



Occupations of 1934 Graduates; Courses and Subjects Offered 



UMOU3|Uj^ 


i ^ 1 - 












lO I 






















ao "—I 
















; lo 
















CO 


























:iN 






<x>t> 


CO 


























:(N 




JO ssauisng 


PQ 


«> t- 1-1 


























: 1-1 CO 




Ansag jo 
doqs JaqJBg 


d 


(N 
































































pUB SUIUIJB^ 


m 


CTi 00 1-1 t-i 






(N 






(N 












paiJJBj^ 


d 


CO eo 




















eg 




9UIOJJ 


d 


CO 

i 






CO 


1 CO 


(N CO T-^ 


1-1 1-1 in 


PQ 


a; o 
t- : 










(N IN ; 
















CO 


91UOJJ ^sjaq^o 

JO UMQ 

ui 3uij(jo^ 


d 


^00 (^a o (M eo M rH 05 00 lo 

05 • tH 


; 1-1 lo CO 


lO ^ 1-1 ic eg 




00 cn 
IN • 


n 








(N t-i 




IN 1-1 


00 (N 






3uISJn|^J 


d 


<N ^ 






























looqos 
apBJX JO aSaj 
-PO IBOiuqoaj, 




CO ; 
















N 






(N 








;^Jo:)BJBdajj 
aSaijoo 


d 


00 IN : 
■<* : 




















iO (M 








m 


CO CO 






















(N : 










looqos 

JBXUJO^ 


d 


Oi<£> 

(N • ; 










CO lO ; 








02 


i 


























IN ; 




X'4isjaAiufi 
JO aSafioQ 1 

1 


d 


t- t- ; c 

CO 


<I 


(N : 
























CO 


(N • 


<i : 










rHcoiNco ; 


CO N 


aaBnpBjr) ^^61 


d 


i— ; (N Oj c. o i.'^ oj c-j oj t- 
C5 : — 1 N 1-1 


: t> (3> lO CO !£! cj c^. (jj 
IN 1-1 (N 



jaqujn^i iBi^oj, 



C0C0-i00i-iCg00«?C0^C005(NCgc0«0<MOiO 



162 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



2 



i 

I 



= 



i 



I 



if 



I 



11 



11 



11 



I 



} 



I 



^ o. 



I 



IppfllFfllllllfllf 




.1* 

Cecal H 



Subjects Offered in Colored High Schools; Balto. City Col. Schools 163 



Instruction in industrial arts was given to 47 per cent of all county 
colored boys enrolled. It was offered in twelve colored high schools in 
eleven counties. Instead, vocational agriculture was taken by 83 
boys enrolled in three additional counties — Caroline, Charles, and 
Prince George's. Courses in general or vocational home economics 
were taken by 68 per cent of colored high school girls enrolled in all 
counties having colored high schools, except Calvert, Montgomery, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's. Vocational home economics was 
offered in Caroline and Charles. Instruction in music was given to 357 
boys and 583 girls in eight colored high schools of seven counties, and 
137 boys and 184 girls in Westminster, Pomonkey, Cambridge, and 
Nanticoke had physical education. Commercial arithmetic and 
geography were taught to 27 boys and 55 girls in Elkton, Frederick 
and Easton. (See Table 112 and Table XXXIII, pages 318 to 323.) 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOL PROGRAM 

There were 28,353 pupils enrolled in the Baltimore City colored 
schools, which included 22,559 in the elementary schools, 3,614 in the 
junior high schools (grades 7-9), and 1,668 in the senior high school. 
The length of the school year was 190 days, during which the attend- 
ance was 86.7 per cent in the elementary schools, 91.6 per cent in the 
junior high schools, and 93.1 per cent in the senior high school. In 
addition to the regular elementary and secondary schools, the voca- 
tional school enrolled 291 boys and 221 girls. Classes in trades and 
industries which included auto mechanics, carpentry, tailoring, and 
shoe repairing were held for the boys, while the girls were given train- 
ing in cooking, dressmaking and personal hygiene. There were 222 
physically handicapped colored children enrolled in 10 special classes 
and 1,476 in 46 centers for the mentally handicapped, and 32 physical- 
ly handicapped pupils were taught in their homes. (See Table 25, page 
39.) 

Seven schools in which 45 teachers were employed were open dur- 
ing the summer of 1934 for the instruction of 2,758 colored pupils. 
Of these, 1,976 completed the work attempted, 1,775 having taken 
review work and 142 having done advanced work. (See Tables 134 
and 135, pages 204-205.) 

The Baltimore City evening schools enabled those who are em- 
ployed during the day to continue their education after working 
hours. The colored evening school enrollment included 1,095 in ele- 
mentary schools, 549 taking academic work in secondary schools, 306 
enrolled in commercial courses, and 757 who received training in in- 
dustrial and home economics work. (See Tables 136 and 138, pages 
206-207.) 

TRAINING OF THE COUNTY COLORED TEACHERS 

The effectiveness of a school system depends primarily on the 
fitness and training of the members of its teaching staff. Although the 
success of inexperienced teachers can not be determined until their 
abilities have been tested, it is nevertheless possible to insure that all 



164 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



vacancies are filled with teachers who have been well-trained for 
their profession at accredited state normal schools and colleges. Ex- 
perienced teachers keep in touch with recent developments in educa- 
tional theory and methods by attending summer school. 

The minimum requirements for a first grade certificate in Mary- 
land are graduation from a two-year normal school, or the equivalent, 
and attendance at summer school once in four years for the renewal 
of the certificate after it has been issued. 

In May, 1935, the following special regulations regarding summer 
school attendance in 1935 and 1936 were passed by the Maryland 
State Board of Education : 

1. On account of general salary reductions, teachers' certificates 
which expire in 1935 may, upon recommendation of the superintendent 
concerned, be extended for two years without summer school attendance. 
If, on the other hand, summer school credits are presented in 1935, the 
renewal will extend over six years. 

2. On account of general salary reductions, teachers' certificates which 
expire in 1936 may, upon recommendation of the superintendent con- 
cerned, be extended for two years without summer school attendance. If, 
on the other hand, summer school credits are presented in 1936, the 
renewal will extend over six years. 

Of the 708 teachers employed in the county colored elementary 
schools in October, 1935, 699 or 98.7 per cent held regular certificates 
of first or higher grade, an increase of .7 per cent over corresponding 
figures for the preceding year. Four of these teachers held the 
Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Education, which 
means graduation from a four-year teachers college or the equivalent. 
The advanced first grade certificate representing three years of 
training was held by 33 teachers. There were 8 teachers holding sec- 
ond grade certificates, and 1 holding a regular third grade certificate 
compared with 12 and 2, respectively, for October, 1934. In 15 coun- 
ties every colored elementary teacher held at least a regular first 
grade certificate. (See Table XIII, page 298.) 

Of 102 county colored high school teachers employed in October, 
1935, all but 8 who held provisional principals' certificates had 
regular high school certificates. (See Table XIII, page 298.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 

There were 173 elementary and 25 high school teachers who were 
summer school attendants in 1935. They represented 24.3 per cent of 
the county colored teaching staff in October, 1935, an increase of 3.7 
per cent over the 20.6 per cent reported as summer school attend- 
ants in October, 1934. In the individual counties the percentage 
of summer school attendants included from less than 10 per cent of 
the total number of colored teachers in Queen Anne's and Calvert to 
47 and 50 per cent in Howard and Allegany. Eleven counties had 
from one fourth to one half of the colored teaching staflP at summ^er 
school in 1935. (See Table 113.) 

Morgan College attracted the largest number of colored teachers 
from the Maryland counties, having enrolled 84 elementary and 7 



Training, Summer School Attendance, Turnover of Colored Teachers 165 



high school teachers in the summer of 1935. Hampton Institute en- 
rolled the next largest group, 56 elementary and 4 high school teach- 
ers, while Virginia State College drew 10 county colored teachers and 
Storer College, 8. (See Table 113.) 

TABLE 113 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1935, Reported by County 
Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1935 



County 



Teachers Employed Oct. 

1935, Who Attended 
Summer School in 1935 



Ele- 
mentary 



High 



Per 
Cent 



Summer Schools 
Attended 



Number of 
Colored 
Teachers 



Ele- 
mentary 



High 



Total Average.. 

Allegany 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel .. 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Washington 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Kent 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Harford 

Queen Anne's... 
Calvert 



*173 



24.3 

50.0 
47.1 
35.6 
31.9 
30.6 
30.4 
29.0 
27.3 
25.7 
25.6 
25.0 
23.9 
20.8 
20.4 
18.5 
18.5 
17.6 
15.2 
14.3 
13.8 
8.3 
7.4 



Total- 



Morgan College. 

Hampton Institute 

Virginia State College .... 

Storer College 

Temple University 

Columbia University 

University of 

Pennsylvania 

University of Michigan . 
St. Paul Accredited 

Normal School 

Trenton State Teachers 

College 

Other 



tl74 



84 

t56 



Excludes one supervisor. 



t Includes one supervisor. 



TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 78 resignations from the county colored ele- 
mentary schools from October, 1933 to October, 1934, just 2 less than 
were reported for the preceding year. These figures exclude teachers 
who were on leave of absence or who transferred from one county to 
another. 

Inefficiency caused the dismissal of 23 teachers from the county 
colored elementary schools. Fifteen teachers resigned because of 
marriage, 14 left voluntarily, 6 teachers died, 5 were ill, 4 teachers 
received positions in Baltimore City, and 3 outside of Maryland, and 
3 teachers retired. There were 16 colored elementary teachers who 
transferred to another county. (See Table 114.) 

For the same period from the county colored high schools, 5 teach- 
ers were dropped because of inefficiency, 2 for low certificates, 1 
resigned because of marriage, 1 left voluntarily, and 1 secured an ap- 
pointment in Baltimore City. (See 'Table 114.) 



166 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 114 

Estimated Causes for Resignation of Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Elementary and High Schools for the School Year 1933-34 with 
Comparative Figures for Preceding Years 



Cause of Resignation 



Inefficiency 

Marriage 

Voluntary 

Death 

Illness 

Teaching in Baltimore City. .. 

Retired 

Teaching in another state 

Abolished positions 

Dropped for low certificate 
or failure to attend summer 
school 

Left to study 

Supervisory position 

Moved away 

Other and unknown 



Total 

Leave of absence 

Transfer to another county 
Transfer to high schools 



Elementary School 



1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 



52 
3 
8 
1 
4 
1 
6 
7 
4 



93 
4 
10 



27 
6 
9 
1 
8 
2 
4 



11 



80 
5 

19 
1 



23 
15 
14 
6 
5 
4 
3 
3 
1 



78 
3 

16 



High School 



1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 



20 
2 
4 



11 
2 
7 



There were 96 appointments to the staff of the county colored ele- 
mentary schools during 1934-35, 13.2 per cent of the total number 
of teachers employed, an increase of 23 in number and of 3 in per cent 
over corresponding figures for the preceding year. Part of the in- 
crease is due to the increase of 6 in number of positions. This marks 
the first turn upward in the downward trend in number of new ap- 
pointments to colored elementary schools in evidence since 1930-31. 
The figures exclude teachers who transferred from one county to an- 
other. Of the 96 new appointees, 74 were inexperienced, 20 had pre- 
viously taught in Maryland counties, but had not been in service the 
preceding year, 1 had experience outside the Maryland counties, and 
1 was a substitute. Of 60 teachers who received appointments in the 
Baltimore City colored elementary schools, 43 were inexperienced, 11 
were from the counties, and 6 had had previous experience in Balti- 
more City, but had not taught during 1933-34. (See Table 115.) 

Among the counties, the turnover in the colored elementary schools 
ranged from none in Cecil and one in Baltimore, Carroll, Washington, 
and Allegany to 10 in Anne Arundel, 11 in Somerset, and 14 in 
Worcester. One third or more of the staff employed in Calvert and 



Resignations and Turnover of Colored Teachers 167 



Worcester were new to the county. Four counties, — Prince George's, 
Queen Anne's, Allegany, and Caroline — had a smaller turnover in 
1934-35 than in the preceding year. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties 
for School Year 1934-35> Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced and 
from Other Counties with Comparisons for Preceding Years 





New to County 


Change 

No" of 
Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


New to County, Who Were 


Ele- 
mentary 


High 


Inexper- 
ienced 


Experi- 
enced 
but 
New 

to 
State 


Experi- 

in Md. 
Counties 

but not 
Teaching 

Preced- 
ing Year 


From 
Other 
Counties 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 
and 
0th- 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Total and Av, 

1930-31... 


x201 
xll5 
xl03 
x73 
x96 


26.4 
15.4 
13.9 
10.2 
13.2 


x26 
x35 
x28 
xl5 
x20 


30.2 
38.5 
29.5 
15.8 
19.4 

33.3 


+ 13 
+ 3 
—4 
—12 
+ 16 

+ 1 


tl76 
tll3 
t99 
t59 
t91 


*7 
*2 


*33 
**24 
b22 
12 
*21 


33 
*25 
***i4 

°26 
a*14 

*1 


4 
3 
3 
*6 
*2 


1931-32 


1932-33 


1933-34 


1934-35 


Cecil 


Baltimore 


1 
2 
6 
2 
1 
1 
5 
2 

10 
3 
5 
3 
1 
5 
8 
4 
9 

11 
8 
8 

14 

60 


2.3 
6.9 
8.1 
8.3 
9.1 
10.0 
10.9 
11.1 
12.3 
12.5 
13.9 
14.3 
16.7 
16.7 
17.4 
18.2 
22.0 
22.4 
22.9 
33.3 
34.1 

12.0 






1 




Frederick... 








2 
4 
**4 

*2 
1 

5 
2 
*9 

*3 
*5 
*2 








Prince George's .. 
Kent 






+ 1 
—1 






1 




2 
1 


50.0 
33.3 






Carroll.. 










Washington... 












Montgomery 






+ 1 










Howard 














Anne Arundel 


1 
2 
1 
1 


11.1 
50.0 
9.1 
33.3 


+ 5 
+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 




1 
1 
1 




1 

*1 


Harford 






Wicomico.. 






Queen Anne's 
Allegany... 




2 
1 




Talbot 


1 
2 


16.7 
33.3 




*5 
**5 

3 
6 

*6 
5 
8 

43 




1 

4 




Dorchester 


+ 1 
—1 

+ 1 
+ 3 




1 




Caroline 


1 
*1 




Charles 


1 
6 
2 


20.0 
85.7 
100.0 


2 
3 
*2 






Somerset 




St. Mary's 

Calvert 




2 
3 
2 

11 




Worcester . . 






+2 

+ 37 
+ 1 
+2 

+ 56 




4 
6 




Baltimore City: 
El. and Prevoc. 

Vocational..... 


















High 


5 

xtlSO 


4.4 
11.6 


4 
24 


6.6 
14.6 


c5 

tcl39 


d2 

*d4 


d2 

29 






Entire State 


a*25 


*2 





* Each asterisk represents one high school teacher. 

t Includes 22 high school teachers for 1930-31, 28 for 1931-32, 21 for 1932-33, 11 for 1933-34, and 
17 for 1934-35. 

° Includes 7 high school teachers. 

t Includes Baltimore City junior high, vocational, and prevocational with elementary teachers. 

X Total number and per cent new to the counties as a group exclude transfers from other counties, 

a Excludes 3 teachers who were transferred from one county to another before June, 1934. 

b Includes 6 high school teachers. 

c Includes 3 junior and 2 senior high school teachers. 

d Includes 1 junior and 1 senior high school teacher. 

TEACHER TURNOVER IN THE COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1934-35 there were 20 teachers new to the county colored high 
schools, or 19.4 per cent of the high school teaching staff, as against 
15 new appointments or 15.8 per cent for the year 1933-34. The turn- 



168 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



over had decreased each year since 1931-32 and showed its first trend 
upward in 1934-35. There were 10 new positions to be filled in 1934- 
35. There were no changes in the high school teaching staff in 8 
counties, while from 1 to 6 appointments were made in 12 counties. 
Out of a high school staff of 7, Somerset had 6 new appointments. 
The new high school established in St. Mary's in October, 1934, in- 
cluded 1 inexperienced teacher and 1 who had formerly taught 
in the Maryland counties. In Baltimore City there were 9 appoint- 
ments made in the colored high schools, 5 in the junior and 4 in the 
senior high schools. Of these 5 were inexperienced, 2 were experienced 
in other states, and 2 were former City teachers not in service in 1933- 
34. (See Table 115.) 

SCHOOLS IN WHICH NEWLY APPOINTED COLORED TEACHERS 
RECEIVED THEIR TRAINING 

Of the 74 inexperienced teachers who were new to the county 
colored elementary schools in 1934-35, 39 or 53 per cent were gradu- 
ates of the Bowie Normal School, and 4 or a little over 5 per cent were 
trained at the Fanny Coppin Colored Training School in Baltimore 
City. In addition to these, 31 were from schools outside of Mary- 
land, the largest number, 15, having graduated from Cheyney State 
Teachers College in Pennsylvania, the same school having trained 
the one experienced teacher appointed in 1934-35. (See Table 116.) 

TABLE 116 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were New 
to Maryland Counties During the School Year 1934-35 





In- 




In- 




experienced 




experienced 


School or College 


Elementary 


School or College 


High 


Attended 


School 


Attended 


School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


Total 


*75 


Total 


*18 


Bowie Normal School 


39 


Morgan College, Baltimore 


7 




*16 




6 


Coppin Normal School, Baltimore 


4 


Howard University, 






4 




2 


Hampton Institute, Va. 


3 


Virginia State Teachers 




Miner Normal School, Wash., D. C... 


2 


College 


*2 




2 


W. Va. State Teachers College. 


1 


Other Pennsylvania Schools 


2 






1 






Dover, S. T. C, Delaware. 


1 






West Va. Institute 


1 







* Includes one teacher with experience outside the state. 



Of the newly appointed colored high school teachers, 7 were grad- 
uates of Morgan College, 6 were trained at Hampton Institute, 2 
each received training at Howard University and Virginia State 
Teachers College, and 1 graduated from the West Virginia State 
Teachers College. (See Table 116.) 



Turnover, Training of Inexperienced Teachers, Men Teachers, 169 

Size of Class 

MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS 

The counties employed 125.3 men to teach in the colored schools, 
who included 15.4 per cent of the staff. This was an increase of 1.6 
in number, but no change in per cent from the year preceding. The 
number of men employed has been increasing slowly since 1929, 
partly because of the increase in the number of positions in high 
schools. 

Howard, having no high school, employed no men and Calvert and 
Cecil employed one each. Wicomico and Dorchester employed the 
largest number of men, 10 and 12, respectively, but the largest pro- 
portion of men on the staff was found in Carroll, which had 7 men in 
its 14 positions. (See Table IX, page 294.) 

In Baltimore City 151.1 of the 766.5 colored teachers or 19.7 per 
cent were men. This was a decrease of 2 under the number and of 1.3 
in per cent under the 1934 figures. 

AVERAGE SIZE OF COLORED ELEMENTARY CLASS LOWER IN 1935 

The average number of pupils per colored elementary teacher in 
the Maryland counties dropped from 35 to 34 from 1934 to 1935, 
bringing the average close to the number found in 1932. This was 
accounted for partly by the decreased elementary school enrollment 
accompanying a lowering of the birth rate, the migration of colored 
population from the counties, and the consolidation of schools. (See 
Chart 26.) 

Among the counties the number of pupils per colored elementary 
teacher in 1935 ranged from 43.4 in Baltimore County, 42.9 in Cal- 
vert, and 41.5 in Allegany to 29.6 in Talbot, 28.6 in Frederick, 26.4 
in Washington, and 25.6 in Cecil. In the remaining fifteen counties, 
there were on the average between 30 and 37 pupils per teacher. In 
Baltimore City the average colored elementary class included 38 
pupils, making the average for the entire State 35.8 pupils. (See 
Chart 26.) 

The only counties which showed an increase from 1934 to 1935 in 
number of pupils per colored elementary teacher were Baltimore, 
Carroll, Frederick, Harford, and Howard, and in Caroline the num- 
ber remained stationary. In Allegany, Montgomery, Wicomico, 
and Worcester Counties the average number of pupils per colored 
elementary teacher dropped by more than two pupils from 1934 to 
1935. {^ee Chart 2Q>.) 

RATIO OF PUPILS TO TEACHERS IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were on the average 26.5 high school pupils belonging for 
each county colored high school teacher in 1934-35, .2 more than in 

1933- 34. The range in pupils per teacher was from less than 20 in 
Charles, Washington, Talbot, and Carroll to over 40 in Montgomery, 
Calvert, and St. Mary's. The school in St. Mary's was first opened in 

1934- 35. To meet the increased enrollment in Montgomery and 



170 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 26 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PUPILS PER COLORED ELEMENTARY TEACHER 



County 


1933 


1934 


Co. Average 


34.9 


35.0 


Baltimore 


37.7 


43.3 


Calvert 


41.5 


43.3 


Allegany 


37.4 


43.9 


Pr. Gevge's 


36.9 


37.0 


Charles 


36.2 


37.5 


Anne Arxindel 


38.6 


37.4 




37.3 


37.7 


Wicomico 


Ob .D 




JLenu 


O't 


00 . y 


nari oixi 


o< • O 


ox . D 


Montgomery 


38.9 


35 .7 


Carroll 


50.3 


29.5 


Caroline 


32.1 


32.4 


Queen Anne's 


•£) 


o<. . o 


St. Mary's 


32.8 


32.7 


Howard 


30.8 


30.6 


Somerset 


32.4 


32.6 


Dorchester 


30.2 


32.0 


Talbot 


32.9 


29.8 


Frederick 


28.0 


28.2 


Washington 


28.1 


27.1 


Cecil 


28.4 


27.4 


Balto. City 


38.3 


39.2 


State 


36.3 


36.8 






* Excludes 30.6 for junior high and 24.6 pupils for vocational schools. 



Calvert, it was not possible to appoint additional teachers because of 
lack of building facilities. A new high school is under construction 
in Rockville and the superintendent in Calvert has under considera- 
tion plans for additional facilities. 

In eight counties the number of pupils per colored high school 
teacher was lower in 1934-35 than in 1933-34. In Caroline, Charles, 
Dorchester, and Talbot this was due to a reduction in enrollment. 



Pupils per Colored Teacher; Average Salary per Colored Teacher 171 

while in Carroll, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, and Somerset it re- 
sulted from an increase in teaching staff. (See sixth column in 
Table XV, page 300.) 

The average number of pupils belonging per colored senior high 
school teacher in Baltimore City in 1935 was 25.8, a decrease of 3.2 
pupils from the number in 1934, resulting in part from the appoint- 
ment of 7 additional teachers. The average ratio of high school pupils 
to teachers was higher in ten counties than it was in the senior high 
school in Baltimore City. (See sixth column in Table XV, page 300.) 

1935 AVERAGE SALARY PER COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY 
TEACHER INCREASES SLIGHTLY 

The average salary per colored elementary teacher, which decreased 
from 1933 to 1934 as a result of the lowering of the minimum salary 
schedule by the 1933 State Legislature, continued on the reduced 
level in 1935 except for a small increase of $7 from $595 to $602 from 

CHART 27 

Average Salary per Colored Elementary Teacher, 1921 to 1935 
$ 800 I 1 1 1 r— \ 1 



$ 600 




i 400 



$ 200 



1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1935 1935 



172 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



1934 to 1935. The average salary paid in 1935 was the same as that 
paid in 1928, although a much larger proportion of the staff at the 
later date had standard preparation and was experienced. (See 
Table 117 and Chart 27.) 

TABLE 117 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1935 



Year Ending Average 
June 30 Salary 

1917 $228 

1918 279 

1919 283 

1920 359 

1921 442 

1922 455 

1923 513 

1924 532 

1925 546 

1926 563 



Year Ending Average 
June 30 Salary 

1927 $586 

1928 602 

1929 621 

1930 635 

1931 643 

1932 653 

1933 657 

1934 595 

1935 602 



The average salaries of county colored elementary teachers from 
1P21 to 1935 have been plotted in Chart 27. From this it can be clear- 
ly seen that the salaries rose steadily from 1921 to 1933 with the im- 
provement in the certif cation and experience of the teacher, but that 
the cuts in salary in 1934 and 1935 wiped out the increases which 
were earned from 1929 to 1933. 

The salaries for 1935 ranged from over $1,000 in Allegany and 
Baltimore Counties to less than $500 in Dorchester, Somerset, and 
Worcester. In the seventeen remaining counties the average salaries 
varied within the Hmits $501 to $757. (See Chart 28.) 

All of the counties, except seven, showed slight increases in salary 
from 1934 to 1935. In Montgomery and Charles the increase resulted 
from a restoration in whole and in part, respectively, of the salary 
cuts in effect in 1933-34. Six counties, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, St. 
Mary's, Somerset, Washington and Wicomico, showed a further de- 
crease in salary from 1934 to 1935, and Worcester remained station- 
ary. Cecil County was the only one in which the average salary per 
colored elementary teacher increased steadily each year from 1932 to 
1935. (See(::W28.) 

Since salaries of colored teachers are paid on a monthly basis, the 
counties having the highest average salaries are those which keep 
their schools open the longest time. The minimum number of days, 
required is eight months or 160 days; but Allegany, Baltimore, Cecil, 
and Washington Counties keep the schools for colored children 
open as long as those for white pupils and in Prince George's and 
Harford the session is considerably longer than the minimum re- 
quired. 



Average Salary per Colored Teacher 
CHART 28 



173 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEf^ENTAiiY SCHOOLS 



County 


1932 


1933 


1934 


Co. Average 


S 653 $ 657 


$ 595 


Allegany 


1227 


1223 


1131 


Baltimore 


1172 


1139 


1071 


Cecil 


717 


726 


735 


V>'ashington 


795 


907 


739 


Pr. George's 


730 


744 


667 


Harford 


695 


703 


655 


Montgomery 


655 


649 


569 


Anne Arundel 


660 


661 


634 


Charles 


558 


578 


519 


Frederick 


574 


590 


555 


Carroll 


587 


587 


528 


Calvert 


566 


593 


522 


Kent 


587 


582 


524 


Wicomico 


580 


586 


527 


St. Mary's 


554 


570 


518 


Queen Anne ' s 


561 


561 


499 


Talbot 


553 


562 


505 


Caroline 


553 


534 


495 


Howard 


560 


666 


499 


VTorcester 


557 


559 


498 


Somerset 


536 


539 


487 


Dorchester 


559 


541 


488 


Baltimore City 1713 


1614 


1584 


State 


1091 


1056 


1018 




t Excludes $1,902 for junior high and $1,895 for vocational teachers. 

The 1935 average salary per colored elementary teacher in Balti- 
more City was $1,586, an increase of $2 over the amount paid in 1934. 
The State average in 1935 was therefore $1,037. (See Chart 28.) 

SALARIES OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
INCREASE SLIGHTLY 

In 1935 the average salary per county colored high school teacher 
was $790, compared with $784 in 1934. The range in average salaries 
was from $605 in Somerset to $1,020 in Washington and $1,311 in 
Allegany. The length of session affects the salary paid because the 
salary schedule is set up on a monthly basis. Counties having higher 



174 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



salaries have a longer school year. Nine counties — Anne Arundel, 
Calvert, Carroll, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Washington, 
Wicomico, and Worcester— paid on the average less in 1935 than in 
1934. In most cases this resulted from the appointment of a larger 
proportion of inexperienced teachers. The average salary paid to a 
colored senior high school teacher in 1C35 in Baltimore City was 
$1,984, a gain of $180 over 1934. The average 1935 salary in the State 
as a whole was $1,246, an increase of $86 over 1934. (See Table XV, 
page 300.) 

COST PER COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPIL INCREASES 

The average cost per county elementary pupil belonging for current 
expenses increased from $22.58 in 1934 to $24.19 in 1935. Costs in 
the individual counties ranged from less than $20 in Somerset, 
Worcester, and Calvert to $45 in Cecil. Allegany and Baltimore 
Counties which pay the highest salaries to colored teachers, and Cecil 
and Washington with small classes and ranking near the top in aver- 
age salary per teacher, have the highest per pupil costs in the State, 
since these two item.s are the most significant factors in determining 
per pupil costs. As noted before, salaries are closely related to length 
of school tei m which is at its maximum in these four counties. A com- 
parison of Charts 26 and 28 with Chart 29 indicates the effect of size of 
class and salary schedule on current expense costs per pupil. 

In only three counties — Howard, Talbot, and Washington — was 
the current expense cost per pupil lower in 1935 than in 1934. In 
Baltimore City the average cost per colored elementary pupil was 
$52.72 in 1935, an increase of $3.38 over corresponding figures in 
1934. (See Chart 29 and Table 148, page 226.) 



COST PER COLORED HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 

The average current expense cost per pupil in the county colored 
high schools was $46.10 in 1935 as against $44.80 in 1934. Costs per 
high school pupil for current expenses varied from $24 in Worcester 
and $26 in Somerset to $87 in Allegany. Baltimore County tuition 
payments to Baltimore City for 116 pupils attending Baltimore 
City colored secondary schools averaged $114 per pupil. (See Table 
148, page 226.) 

In eight counties in which the average number of pupils belonging 
increased or the staff was smaller, or total current expenses decreased, 
the cost per high school pupil belonging was lower in 1935 than in 
1934. In Baltimore City the current expense cost per pupil belonging 
to the colored senior high school was $98.32, an increase of $15.72 
over the year preceding. (See Table 148, page 226.) 



Cost per Colored Pupil 
CHART 29 



175 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 




Wicomico 
Charles 
Dorchester 
Howard 
Somerset 
Worcester 
Calvert 

Balto. City 55 
State 37 



t Excludes $80 for junior high and $112 for vocational schools in Baltimore City. 



GROWTH IN COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

By comparing the county colored high school enrollment, teaching 
staff, and salary expenditures in 1935 with corresponding figures for 
preceding years, the great gains made in secondary education for 
colored pupils are readily seen. In 1935 the counties enrolled 3,019 



176 



1935 Report of Maryland Statf epartment of Education 



I <o ;d o t- T}< ^ «o w <?i t- in 00 o 00 CO ^ 00 lo 00 

»n I c~ 00 (N as X t- ic lo 00 05 o CO o 'S" »-i CO m c<i o 

CO I CO <^.^,'* I>J '^,L-__O^0_0^0_N -^^O^O^T)<^N -H 00__ 

00 ,—1 



00 u5 crs 00 CO 'T*- a> i-H in (M 00 « o o 
W ■!ra3-^woin--i-^coooo5t>i-i-^ 

inoo'r^inrHN-^'co'cj N afcc'csi"^"" 



CDOC0t~C0t~t-00C0O5£>OC0O 

co^.-Hcoooooa5i-iooo-q<c-t> 

C0__ I> lO__ i-H ;D CO O -"^^^ oo_^ o 

t-' i-T in r-T ,-r eo" eo" co* (N co" co" o" r-T 



X> eg in rf ^ 

in CO CO i-H 
;d o_in «o_oo__ 



o o in -n" 00 

T« t~ 

c<i ^ t- CO 



o^aicoooo-^00500 
oc(MC50i>i;c-^oo 
in -^^^t^ t- o^a: in o CO 



OrHCOO 

C~ CvJ 00 OJ 

00 r-H in a> 



cn c<i CO o 
o o o a> o 
CD cn CO rH c- 

co'co'c^Tin'o^ 



o t- in CO rH o 
Tt< CO t- T-H in 
Tj«_t~ CD ^o^eo^cD__ 

rH i-TcNCO* 



o o 

O 00 



o CO 
o cn 



c- in 

t- 05 

o 



^ CO 

CO <M 

c<i in 



X in^-icg'S- x-tx 

coo>(Mt-cocoincDcO'*-<*-^(Ncocgt>iniMO- 



<N in 05 (M M 

'TX<Nt-(NC0incDCOC<l'*'S<<N(N 



CO t>cg ^X C~ tTCO 
o:t>(NCD(N<N'i<'*C0C0CO'*Cgi-i 



eot-i-ieOrH(Mrococo 



; (N N (M in CD 

-^in icOT-lr-KMTjtT)* 



T}< CO IN 

CO T}< o 1-1 



CO 



X 

CD in (N o 



CD c~ (M o in 



X in 
in in (M CD CO 



lOcDin^-rtinT-Hrroi'^incoasincOi-iiMascC' 

XCOOia3CDt>0(M'-H03'-HXI>THi-H(M(N-^COC 

(M rH rHCOrH .-I rH (N i-H rH (N t-H CO t 



^xo^o-rfa505oo(N050^t-o 
a5eoc-i-HCDt--^corHCDOcDa>05 

(M (N rH(N,-l .-HrHN 



CD(Nt-Oit-O5-<ta3(NC0rf^rHrf 
t-05<DXC<lCCNXOC0^HC0XC0 



f2 rHCDXOt-CD^OSCT. 
S «CX<Na5rHTrX(NO 



OS CD X t- CD 05 



O t- O . 

COCO -rf cj I 

C<I rH (N ' 



CO in in CD 

CO t- t~ 

CO tH CO rH 



t- Ol CO C5 

05 in Tt" CO CO 



w oj :s o 



:5 c S rt o!^ o S S o-c 3^- grt^s^ 



CO XI 

WW 



Growth in Colored High ^hools; Transportation; Libraries 177 



pupils for whom 102 teachers were employed at a salary expense of 
$80,376, as compared with 2,819 pupils, and 94 teachers costing 
$74,328 in 1934. In 1920, the four counties providing high school 
facilities for colored pupils enrolled 187 pupils with 13 teachers 
in charge at a salary cost of $9,610. (See Table 118.) 

All but eight counties had the same number or more colored high 
school pupils in 1935 than in 1934, and only four counties, Charles, 
Prince George's, Somerset, and Talbot, enrolled a slightly smaller 
number of pupils in 1935 than in 1932. Allegany had a slightly 
smaller teaching staff in 1935 than in 1934, while 5 counties, Allegany, 
Calvert, Kent, Washington, and Worcester, showed decreases in the 
1935 salary budget for colored high schools under expenditures for 
1934. In only nine counties was the 1935 salary budget lower than 
that in 1932, which showed conditions before the cut in salaries. 
(See Table 118.) 

TRANSPORTATION AT PUBLIC EXPENSE 

There were 1,074 colored elementary and 1,038 colored high school 
pupils transported in whole or in part at public expense to 49 schools 
in 18 counties in 1935. Anne Arundel, Howard, Somerset and Talbot 
provided no transportation for colored pupils. This was an increase of 
23 elementary and 358 high school pupils over the number transport- 
ed at public expense the preceding year. The total cost for trans- 
porting colored elementary pupils was $22,436 and for high school 
pupils $19,506. These amounts were $2,011 higher for colored ele- 
mentary and $3,199 more for colored high school pupils than corre- 
sponding amounts spent in 1934. The average cost per pupil trans- 
ported to colored elementary schools was $22 and to high schools $19. 
In five counties parents of pupils or P. T. A.'s supplemented the 
payments for transportation of high school pupils. (See auxiliary 
agencies in Table XXXI and XXXII, and Table 155, pages 316-317 
and 234.; 

Excluding 40 pupils from Anne Arundel transported to the Bowie 
Normal Demonstration School at State expense, the 2,112 colored 
pupils transported to county schools represented 7.5 per cent of the 
total colored enrollment, which included 4.1 per cent transported to 
elementary and 36.7 per cent carried to high schools. The range 
among the 18 counties which provided transportation to colored 
pupils ran from less than 1 per cent in Worcester and Prince George's 
to over 25 per cent in Carroll, Caroline, and Cecil. Charles and Alle- 
gany were the only counties which showed a reduction in the per- 
centage of colored pupils transported to school at public expense in 
1935 under 1934. (See Table 156, page 235.) 

COLORED SCHOOL LIBRARIES AIDED BY ROSENWALD FUND 
During the school year 1934-35, the Rosenwald Fund distributed a 
limited number of well-selected sets of library books to the colored 
schools of the South, the cost of which was $36 per set. The conditions 
by which the sets were financed were as follows: (1) $12 to be raised 



178 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



by the school community; (2) $12 to be paid by the county board of 
education; (3) the remaining $12, and the cost of transporting the 
books, to be paid by the Rosenwald Fund. By this plan, 24 county 
colored schools, 8 each in St. Mary's and Anne Arundel, 4 in Carroll, 
2 in Somerset, and 1 in Frederick and Harford received sets in 1935. 
Table 119 shows the schools which have received libraries through 
the Rosenwald Fund from 1928 to 1935. 

TABLE 119 

Colored Schools Receiving Libraries Through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



County and School 



Anne Arundel: 

Brown's Woods..... 

Annapolis El. 

Camp Parole 

Annapolis High ... 

Churchton 

Bristol 

Furnace Branch .. 

Jones 

Galilee - 

Queenstown.. 

Freetown 

Conway - 

Calvert: 

Prince Frederick . 

Mt. Hope 

Caroline: 

Federalsburg 

Carroll : 

Westminster 

Robert Moton El 

Johnsville 

Union Bridge 

Parrsville 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 

1929 
1931 

1928 

1929 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 



County and School 



Cecil: 

Elkton 

Charles: 

Pomonkey 

Dorchester: 

Cambridge 

Frederick: 

Frederick 

Lincoln 

Bentz Street 

Harford: 

Bel Air.- 

Havre de Grace 

Kalmia 

Kent: 

Coleman 

Chestertown 

Montgomery: 

Sandy Spring.... 

Rockville 

Takoma Spring 
Prince George's: 

Marlboro 

Berwy n 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929 

1928 

1932 

1928 
1931 
1935 

1928 
1931 
1935 

1928 
1930 

1928 
1929 
1930 

1928 
1929 



County and School 



Pr. George's (con.) 

Brentwood 

Highland Park... 
St. Mary's 

Abel 

Hollywood 

Mechanicsville... 

Scotland 

Jarboesville 

Great Mills 

Banneker 

Oakville 

Milestown 

Piney Point 

Somerset: 

Princess Anne ... 

Crisfield 

Mt. Vernon 

Talbot: 

Easton 

St. Michael's 

Wicomico: 

Sharptown 

Nanticoke .. 

Salisbury. 



Year 
Aid 
Received 



1929 
1929 

1929 
1930 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 
1935 

1929, 1931 

1930, 1935 
1935 

1928 
1928 

1928 
1929 
1929, 1931 



SERVICES OF THE MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION 
TO THE COLORED SCHOOLS OF MARYLAND, 1934-35* 

During 1934-35 the colored schools used the Commission very 
little more than in 1933-34. One elementary school of Baltimore 
County borrowed three package libraries of twenty-four books. 
Traveling libraries were borrowed as follows: one school in Calvert 
and one in Charles County borrowed thirty books and two schools in 
Dorchester County each borrowed one traveling library of thirty- 
five books. The total number of volumes borrowed by the five colored 
elementary schools was 154. 

One high school teacher in Charles County borrowed two package 
libraries of sixteen books and the high school in Dorchester County 
borrowed two traveling libraries of seventy volumes. 

Traveling libraries are collections of books which are loaned by 
the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission for a period of 
four months at which time they may be returned and exchanged for 

* Information furnished by Miss Adelene J. Pratt, State Director of Public Libraries, 



Libraries Colored Schools; Capital Outlay 



179 



another collection or renewed for four more months. The books are 
selected with respect to the grades for which they are intended. 
Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel post; thirty-five 
in those sent by express. 

For the purpose of meeting special requirements such as school 
essays, debates, or individual needs and professional reading for the 
teachers, collections of from one to ten books are loaned for one 
month to any one living in Maryland who is without access to a 
pubHc library. 

Those borrowing books from the Maryland Public Library Com- 
mission now located on the third floor of the Enoch Pratt Library, 
400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore, must fill out the necessary blanks, 
have them signed by three guarantors, and indicate the grades and 
subjects for which the books are desired. They must pay the trans- 
portation costs and guarantee reimbursement for books defaced or 
lost. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR COLORED SCHOOLS IN 1935 
Capital outlay in 1935 for the county colored schools totalled 
$93,844, an increase of nearly $61,000 over the $33,135 expended in 
1934. This amount was exceeded only 6 times in the sixteen-year 
period from 1920 to 19S5, inclusive. Since 1920 the total capital 
oitlay in the counties was nearly $1,274,000, over $200,000 having 
beea spent in Baltimore and Prince George's Counties. During this 
period hrge investments in school buildings for colored pupils were 
also m?de in Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and Wicomico. In 1935 
in Baltimore City, $247,656 was expended on school buildings for 
colored children as against $113,953 spent in 1934. (See Table 120.) 

In 1935 there were in use by county colored pupils 434 rooms or 
5^^.2 per cent of all those used which had been constructed since 1920. 
Since all school buildings or rooms built since 1920 have met the 
standards set up by the State Department of Education as to ar- 
rangement and lighting, this means that over half the rooms oc- 
cupied by colored children are modern. In the individual counties the 
percentage of modern school rooms comprised from under 20 per cent 
of the total number of rooms in Dorchester and Kent to 75 per cent 
in Washington, 82.6 per cent in Prince George's, and 90 per cent in 
Allegany. The Rosenwald Fund, which since 1920 has contributed 
$114,450 toward school rooms for colored pupils has been a great 
stimulus in promoting the building of well-constructed schools. (See 
Chart 30.) 



180 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



o" oc cm" oT cj* tc oT oT oT cc* «* t-' o' o" o* t-" -J" (nT 
«c — — — > ;cccccec^ c: CO ^ cM-Hrj-oiio 

— CM CM 



^ — c-CMcicMusasiMc; 

:00 Tj< 00 O t> t:~ CO 



: ^ oc lo 1/5 

1 ift ;0 irt 05 CM 

I'^oq^CM -"iiCM 
d't-'cM" 



CM CTS 

CM CM 



■ — < ^ CO C?5 



^ o 
CM n 



on CD 

CM CO 



:t~ CO t> — : CM 



:OC0 iC^CM-" ^ CM 



CM CO 



CC — ' 
— CM 



00 CM — ' 00 . 



^ C c3 c4 



o 

i w 



in rl lO t- CO 



.0) n' 

■^.T: pa 



•is 



Is c 



IS 



*J CM 
CM 

a'i 

Si o 
ai 

^« 
O u 

— o 
rt — 



Capital Outlay; Modern Rooms; School Property Value per Pupil 181 

CHART 30 



NUMBER OF ROOMS USED BY COLORED PUPILS IN 1934-35 
CONSTRUCTED SINCE 1920 




Washington 
Carroll 
Anne Arundel 
Baltimore 
Montgomery- 
Charles 
Wicomico 
Harford 
Calvert 
Queen Anne ' s 
Somerset 
Caroline 
Howard 
Talbot 
Worcester 
St. Mary's 
Cecil 
Frederick 
Kent 

Dorchester 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY USED BY COLORED PUPILS 

The value of public school property used by county colored pupils 
amounted to $1,630,575 in 1935, an increase of $179,765 over corre- 
sponding figures for the preceding year. The average value per 
colored pupil belonging was $60 in 1935 compared with $53 for the 2 
preceding years. Among the counties the range in value of school 
property ran from $20 in Kent and $21 in St. Mary's, where several 
of the buildings are rented, to $128 in Baltimore County, $153 in 
Washington, and $182 in Allegany. Four counties— Baltimore, 
Charles, Harford, and Calvert— showed a decrease in value of school 
property per colored pupil belonging. (See Table 162, page 244, and 
Chart 31.) 



182 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 31 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County- 


1935 


1954 


Co. Average 


$ 53 


$ 53 


Allegary 


178 


176 


Washington 


137 


149 


Baltimore 


137 


133 


Wicomico 


85 


88 


Frederick 


67 


67 


Pr. George's 


57 


57 


Montgomery 


60 


61 


Charles 


52 


52 


Anne Anindel 


39 


38 


Talbot 


42 


46 


Caroline 


46 


47 


Cecil 


39 


38 


Dorchester 


44 


42 


Carroll 


58 


39 


Harford 


42 


42 


Howard 


32 


32 


Worcester 


27 


28 


Queen Anne's 


26 


26 


Somerset 


23 


25 


Calvert 


29 


36 


St. Mary's 


20 


20 


Kent 


19 


20 


Baltimore City 214 


*265 


State 


130 


*157 




A revaluation of buildings in Baltimore City brought about the increases. Includes value of 
construction in progress totalling $628,243. 



School property used by colored pupils in Baltimore City was 
valued at $7,260,385 in 1935 or $267 per pupil belonging, an increase 
of $25 over 1934. The 1935 valuation per colored pupil for the State 
as a whole was $164. (See Chart 31.) 

SIZE OF COUNTY COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Of the 475 county colored elementary schools in 1935, 320 had one 
teacher, 117 had two teachers, 21 employed three teachers, and 17 
had four or more teachers. The largest elementary school with a staff 
of 14 colored teachers was located at Annapolis, and the next largest 



Value of School Property per Colored Pupil; Size of Schools 



183 



with ten teachers was at Sahsbury. There were only two colored ele- 
mentary schools in Allegany and five in Washington, while Dorchester 
had 35, Anne Arundel 40, and Prince George's, 44. 



TABLE 121 

Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools, Year 

Ending July 31, 1935 



Num- 
ber 
of 

Teach- 
ers 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 


1 Baltimore 


1 Calvert 


j Caroline 


1 Carroll 


1 Cecil 


1 Charles 


1 Dorchester 


1 Frederick 


1 Harford 


1 Howard 


1 Kent 


£ 

o 

c 

c 


tc 

u 

O 

<^ 

O 

Q) 
C 

'C 


jn 
"a- 
c 
c 
< 

c 

o 

a 


St. Mary's 


1 Somerset 


Talbot 


Washington 


Wicomico 


Worcester 1 1 


Total ... 


475 


2 


40 


24 


20 


16 


9 


10 


31 


35 


21 


18 


13 


18 


32 


44 


17 


25 


29 


22 


5 


19 


25 


1 or less 
1.1-2 
2.1-3 


320 
117 
21 
6 


1 


19 
17 
2 


14 
6 


17 
2 
1 


13 
3 


7 
2 


6 
4 


23 
6 
2 


*31 
3 


*14 
5 
2 


14 

3 


9 
3 
1 


15 
2 


20 
10 
2 


20 
21 
2 


14 
2 
1 


16 
9 


17 
9 
1 


18 
3 


4 


12 
4 
2 


16 
6 
2 


3.1-4 




1 


2 














1 


1 














1 


4.1-5 


4 






2 






























2 










5.1-6 


3 


1 




































1 


1 






6.1-7 


2 


















1 












1 














9.1-10 


1 








































1 




13.1-14 


1 




1 



















































































* Includes one teacher having the seventh grade only, counted elsewhere as a graded school. 



There were 9 fewer county elementary schools in 1935 than in 
1934. There were 12 fewer one-teacher, one fewer three-teacher and 
five-teacher schools, two additional two-teacher, and three more four- 
teacher schools. Dorchester had 4 fewer schools in 1935 than in 1934, 
Kent had 2 less, and Caroline, Carroll, Charles, and Howard each 
had 1 fewer school, while Montgomery had 1 more colored elementary 
school. (See Table 121.) 

Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 

During the school year 1934-35, there were 318 county colored 
teachers employed in schools with a one-teacher organization or 44.5 
per cent of the colored elementary teaching staff. This was a de- 
crease of 13 teachers or 2.2 in per cent under corresponding figures 
for 1934, and 104 fewer teachers than were employed in one-room 
schools in 1920. (See Table 122.) 

Among the counties the number and per cent of colored elementary 
teachers who instructed in schools with a one-teacher organization 
varied from 1 or 16.1 per cent of the colored elementary teachers in 
Allegany to 30 or 68.2 per cent of the colored elementary staff in 
Dorchester. The 17 teachers employed in colored one-teacher 
schools included 70.8 per cent of the total number of colored ele- 
mentary teachers in Calvert. (See Table 123.) 



184 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 122 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1935 



School Year Ending June 30 



1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 



Colored Elementary Teachers 



Total 



683 
694 
708 
712 
728 
721 
728 
725 
734 
734 
733 
739 
727 
718 
708 
714 



In One-Teacher Schools 



Number 


Per Cent 


422 


61.8 


408 


58.8 


406 


57.3 


403 


56.6 


395 


54.4 


397 


55.1 


394 


54.1 


382 


52.7 


378 


51.5 


372 


50.7 


363 


49.5 


353 


47.7 


344 


47.3 


334 


46.5 


331 


46.7 


318 


44.5 



TABLE 123 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary Schools 
in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County 



Number Per Cent 



County 



Number Per Cent 



County and Average 


318 


44 


.5 




1 


16 


.1 


Anne Arundel 


19 


24 


.4 


Prince George's 


20 


27 


.0 


Baltimore 


14 


31 


.8 


Wicomico 


12 


33 


.3 


Somerset 


17 


35 


6 


Washington 


4 


41 


7 


Worcester 


16 


42 


6 


Cecil - 


6 


42 


.9 




20 


43 


.5 



Frederick 


13 


43.8 


St. Mary's 


16 


47.1 


Howard 


9 


50.0 


Charles 


23 


56.1 


Harford 


14 


57.9 


Caroline 


13 


59.1 


Talbot 


18 


61.6 


Carroll 


7 


63.6 


Kent 


15 


65.2 


Queen Anne's 


14 


66.7 


Dorchester 


30 


68.2 


Calvert 


17 


70.8 



NUMBER OF APPROVED COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

There were 28 county colored approved high schools in 19.S4-35 
of which 25 were first group and 3 were second group schools. Since 
Baltimore County continued its practice of paying the tuition fees of 
its qualified colored elementary school graduates who attended the 
secondary schools in Baltimore City, and St. Mary's organized a high 



Colored One-Teacher Schools; Number and Size of Col. High Schools 185 

school in October, 1934, Howard was the only county which offered 
no high school opportunities to its colored population. All of the 
high schools except the following offered four years of work: the new 
high school in St. Mary's offered two years of work during 1934-35, 
but a third and fourth year course will be added within the next 
two years; a one-year high school which was opened in January, 1935, 
added a second year of work in the fall of 1935; there were 2 two-year 
schools in Worcester County. (See Table 124 and Ckari 17, page 
113.) 



TABLE 124 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, lOS'I 
with Comparisons fcr Preceding Years 



County 


Total 


Group 


County 


Total 


Group 






X2. 
















Cecil 








Total Counties 








Charles 




1 




1920 


4 




t4 


Dorchester 




1 










Frederick 




1 




1925 


16 


*11 


15 


Harford 




1 




1 


1926 


16 


*12 


t4 


Kent. 




1 






1927 


19 


*13 


+6 


Montgomery 




1 




1928 


21 


14 


7 


Prince George's 




3 




1929 


24 


14 


10 


Queen Anne's 




1 




1930... 


25 


17 


8 


St. Mary's 




1 




1931 


26 


21 


5 


Somerset 


2 


2 




1932 


26 


23 


3 


Talbot 


2 


2 




1933 


26 


24 


2 


Washington 


1 


1 




1934 


26 


24 


2 


Wicomico 


2 


2 




1935 


28 


25 


3 


Worcester 


3 


1 




2 


Allegany 


1 














Anne Arundel 




1 




Baltimore City 


5 


1 




4 


Calvert 




1 














Caroline 




1 




State 


33 


26 




7 


Carroll 




1 















X First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two 
teachers. They give a four-year course. Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 
15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

For individual schools see Table XXXTII. pages 318 to 323. 



Baltimore City had three junior and one senior-junior high schools 
for colored pupils. 

SIZE OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The 28 county colored high schools employed from 1 to 9 teachers 
in 1935 and ranged in average enrollment from 22 to 256 pupils. The 
largest colored high schools were at Annapolis and Salisbury with 
Cambridge being next in size. There were 9 teachers employed at 
Annapolis, 8 at Salisbury, 7 at Denton, and 6 at Cambridge. The 
median county colored high school employed 3 teachers and had from 
76 to 100 pupils in average enrollment. (See Table 125 and Table 
XXXIII, pages 318 to 323.) 



186 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 125 

Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in County Colored High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1935 



No. of 






■o 






















rge's 










c 






Teachers 


Total 




c 

3 












u 










o 

01 


c 
c 








o 


o 




A verage 


No. 
High 


:any 


0) 


a; 


line 






K 


best 


OJ 


o 




s 

O 

to 


O 
o 


< 

c 


*>. 
ee 


(_ 


o 




imic 


0) 

a> 
u 


No. 


Schools 




> 


c 


u 


'5 


cS 


u 


T3 




c 


c 


y 
c 


a; 
2 


:§ 


0/ 

e 






o 


o 


Belonging 




< 


a 

< 


O 




U 


U 


-G 

O 


o 



0! 
u 






o 


*C 






o 











SIZE OF TEACHING STAFF 



All Schools ... 


28 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1* 


3 
5 
7 
7 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 




















1 




















2 
1 


2 






1 






















1 




1 


1 




3 








1 


1 








1 






1 
1 
1 




1 
1 


1 


4. 


1 














1 






1 






5 




























6._ 














1 
























7 








1 
































8_._... 




































1 




9 




1 













































































SIZE OF ENROLLMENT 



22- 40 


2 




















1 














1 








41- 50 


3 




































1 




2 


51- 75.... 


5 










1 


1 








1 


















1 


1 


76-100. 


8 


1 




1 






1 










2 




1 


1 


1 








101- 125 . 


5 














1 




1 




1 


1 


1 










151-175 


2 








1 












1 














201-225. . 


1 














1 
























226-260 


2 




1 
































1 

















































* Mid point of interval. 



THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS* 

In 1935 there were 24,187 individual participations of colored pupils 
in the badge tests, games, track and field events scheduled in con- 
nection with the spring county meets held in all of the counties hav- 
ing colored schools through the cooperation of the Playground Ath- 
letic League. These figures represent gross participation and include 
duplicates, since any one individual who was included for a badge 
test may also have appeared and been counted for one game, one 
track, and one field event. (See Table 126.) 

Prior to the county meets there were 6,693 colored boys and 7,827 
girls who tried the preliminary badge tests at their schools under the 
supervision of their teachers who carried out the program of the Play- 
ground Athletic League. At the county meets 4,012 of these boys and 
5,867 of these girls who had passed the tests at their schools entered 
the badge tests at the meets. There were 1,499 boys and 2,352 girls, 
22.4 per cent of the original number of boys and 30 per cent of the 
original number of girls who tried the tests who won the bronze, sil- 



* Data furnished by staff of Playground Athletic League. 



Size of Colored High Schools; Physical Education, Colored Schools 187 



TABLE 126 
Colored Participation in County Meets — 1935 





Badge 






Track and 








Tests 


Games 


Field 


Groq«i 


Tot AT <5 


COUNTY 




















Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


A 

Allegany 


53 


66 


47 


55 


120 


48 


zzo 


169 


Anne Arundel 


263 


592 


95 


193 


141 


120 


499 


905 


Baltimore 


252 


330 


91 


115 


254 


296 


oy I 


'7/11 


L/alvert 


161 


224 


90 


140 


266 


192 


K1 '7 


00b 


Caroline 


189 


325 


90 


130 


279 


176 


ooo 


£?0 -I 

bol 


uarroll 


99 


115 


52 


58 


178 


88 


QOQ 


O/? 1 

Zbl 


Cecil 


89 


87 


60 


47 


151 


87 


oOO 


OO 1 

zzl 


Charles 


1 8fi 

lOD 




1 AR 


± oo 




Lo'± 




boy 


Dorchester 


213 


333 


130 


173 


201 


200 


544 


706 


Frederick 


272 


289 


93 


125 


261 


184 


626 


598 


Harford 


162 


235 


78 


128 


257 


168 


497 


531 


Howard 


87 


110 


53 


75 


142 


80 


282 


265 


Kent 


136 


159 


82 


88 


147 


112 


365 


359 


Montgomery 


337 


376 


189 


172 


488 


272 


1,014 


820 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


273 


574 


247 


247 


458 


360 


978 


1,181 


161 


211 


61 


112 


300 


144 


522 


467 


St. Mary's 


242 


314 


166 


174 


407 


264 


815 


752 


Somerset 


148 


162 


87 


98 


221 


176 


456 


436 


Talbot 


156 


243 


122 


140 


248 


192 


526 


575 


Wicomico 


338 


486 


110 


136 


466 


224 


914 


846 


Worcester 


195 


319 


134 


158 


305 


224 


634 


701 


Totals, 1935 


4,012 


5,867 


2,225 


2,752 


5,540 


3,791 


11,777 


12,410 


Totals, 1934 


3,575 


5,322 


2,278 


2,743 


4,964 


3,440 


10,817 


11,505 



ver, gold, or super-gold badges. In 1935, in 19 counties more boys 
entered the badge tests and in 5 counties a larger number won their 
badges than in 1934. Corresponding figures for girls showed a larger 
number of entrants in 1935 in 15 counties and a larger number of 
winners in 5 counties. (See Tahle 126 and Tah/e XIX, page 304.) 

Every county having colored schools, except Washington, had 
pupils who participated in the county athletic meets held in 1934-35. 
For the first time in 1935 Allegany County colored pupils participated 
in a meet which was held on the same day as the Allegany County 
rural white meet. The entrants engaged in track and field events, 
dodge, speed and volley ball, and flag, block, and run and catch 
relays. Entrants from 471 or 93.6 per cent of the colored schools 
participated in the meets. Every school in eleven counties was rep- 
resented in the contests and in only two counties participating, Alle- 
gany and Baltimore, did less than 90 per cent of the schools have 
representatives in the events. (See Tah/e XX, page 305.) 



188 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The interest shown in basketball played on a competitive basis 
under the supervision of the P. A. L. resulted in the Second Annual 
Shore Basketball tournament for colored high schools. On the Eastern 
Shore four girls' teams and eight boys' teams competed in their 
respective tournaments in which the girls from the Salisbury Colored 
High School and the boys from the Frederick D. St. Clair High School 
in Cambridge, Dorchester County, were the winners. On the Western 
Shore, boys from the Central High School at Prince Frederick in 
Calvert County were the winners among five teams which partici- 
pated in the boys' tournament. A total of 154 boys and 53 girls 
participated in the State Basketball tournament. Progress was made 
in this tournament, the attitude of participants, teachers, and specta- 
tors being most satisfactory. 

WORK OF STATE AND COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS AFFECTING 
COLORED CHILDREN* 

The number of colored children given a complete medical examina- 
tion or inspected in connection with the control of communicable 
diseases, in the schools, is included in the totals reported by the 
County Health Officers for all schools. (See Table 36, page 60.) 

Child health conferences for the examination of colored children 
approaching school age, in preparation for their admission to school 
were held in all of the counties except Carroll, Dorchester, Frederick, 
and Worcester under the joint direction of the Bureau of Child 
Hygiene of the State Department of Health and the County Health 
Departments. In Caroline less than 8 per cent of the estimated num- 
ber of colored school entrants and in Prince George's, Talbot, and 
St. Mary's, between 15 and 20 per cent, were examined; while at the 
opposite extreme, all colored entrants in Howard and Cecil, 86 per 
cent in Kent, 74 per cent in Charles, 60 per cent in Washington and 
Queen Anne's, and 51 per cent in Calvert, Wicomico, and Harford 
took advantage of the opportunity for the health check-up afforded 
by the conferences. (See Table 36, page 60.) 

Of the 1,117 colored county children examined ranging in age from 
five to seven years, 245 or 22 per cent were ten per cent or more un- 
derweight or otherwise gave evidence of malnutrition ; 451 or 40 per 
cent needed dental attention; 336 or 20 per cent had unfavorable con- 
ditions of the throat due to enlarged or infected tonsils; and adenoids 
were observed in 60 or over 5 per cent. There were 488 colored 
children, nearly 44 per cent of those examined, who had not been vac- 
cinated against smallpox, while 556, nearly 50 per cent, had not been 
immunized against diphtheria. Parents were advised with regard 
to the requirement of the State law that children must be vaccinated 
against smallpox before they may be enrolled in any public school 
in the State, and were urged to have their children protected against 
diphtheria, also, before entering them in school. (See Table 36, page 
60.) 

* Data furnished by Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director of State D^partmant of Hsalth, and Mis3 Ger- 
trude Knipp. 



Basketball; Work of Health Departments for Colored Children 189 



National Negro Health Week 

In the 1935 observance of Negro Health Week in Maryland, 
particular stress was laid on health all the year round for individuals 
and for communities and on the possibiHty of worth-while accom- 
plishments through the utilization of facilities within general use. 
The programs carried out in the different counties covered a wide 
range of activities. They included public meetings and educational 
exercises in the schools, churches and at community centers, clinics 
for immunization against diphtheria, for protection against typhoid, 
health conferences for mothers and young children, chest clinics, 
dental clinics, venereal disease clinics, health pageants, sanitary 
surveys and exhibits, demonstrations of sanitary toilet construction, 
correction of insanitary conditions and community improvement 
campaigns. 

Adult education activities were started in some of the counties. 
Under this heading were included classes in home nursing, nutrition, 
preserving and the preparation of foods. The organization of health 
clubs was stimulated in some sections, gardening and school clean-up 
programs in others. Many of the Maryland schools entered the poster 
contest sponsored by the National Negro Health Week Committee. 
In Queen Anne's County the high school students took part in an 
essay contest on ''How We May Improve Health Conditions in 
Oir Community." 

Improvement Contests 

Somerset County was selected for this special Cleanliness and 
Neatness Contest held annually in one or more counties in connection 
with and following Negro Health Week. It was the fifth in the series 
held in response to the offer renewed each year by Dr. H. Maceo 
Williams, a colored physician of Baltimore City, of suitable awards 
to the schools showing the greatest improvement during the period of 
the contest. It was conducted under the joint direction of the County 
Health Officer and the County Supervisor of Colored Schools, and 
was sponsored by the State Department of Health and the State De- 
partment of Education. 

All colored schools in the county were visited by the County Health 
Officer at the beginning of the contest and were graded with respect 
to cleanliness and neatness of the children and the general condition 
of the school buildings and grounds. Four weeks later they were 
visited again and improvements noted and checked. Daily inspections 
were made by the teachers and their interest and cooperation were 
largely responsible for the interest taken by the pupils. First place 
was won by the school at Oakville; second by the school at Mt. 
Vernon. Health Crusader posters — the gift of Dr. Williams, were 
awarded to these schools. A third prize, the gift of the County Super- 
visor of Colored schools was awarded to the school at Westover be- 
cause of its specially active participation in the contest. 

Similar contests arranged by the County Health Officers were held 
in Talbot and Queen Anne's Counties. In the latter county the school 
at Love Point scored a rating of 95 per cent. 



190 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

There were 384 parent-teacher associations organized in 80 per 
cent of the county colored schools during 1934-35. This was a de- 
crease of 10 organizations and a reduction of 1.1 per cent under 
corresponding figures for the preceding year. The reduction was due 
in large part to the decrease in the total number of colored schools. 
At one extreme, Harford, Queen Anne's, and Somerset had a parent- 

CHART 32 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOLS, 1934 AND 1955 
County 

1 

584 81.1 



Number Per Cent 
1954 1935 1934 1955 

Total and 
Co. Aver age 594 



Harford 



17 



Queen Anne's 17 



Somerset 
St. Mary's 
Talbot 
Wicomico 
Kent 
Charles 
Anne Arundel 59 
Baltimore 21 
Pr .George's 45 
Caroline 15 
Worcester 
Montgomery 
Dorchester 
Howard 
Allegany 
Cecil 
Frederick 
Carroll 
Calvert 
Washington 




Colored P. T. A.'s; Funds from Sources Other Than County 191 

teacher association in every colored school, and St. Mary's, Talbot, 
Wicomico, Kent, Charles, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Prince 
George's had them in from 96 to 91 per cent of their schools, while at 
the other extreme there was no colored P.T. A. in Washington County, 
and in Calvert, Carroll, and Frederick less than half of the colored 
schools had P. T. A.'s. Increases over 1934 in the percentage of 
colored schools having these organizations were found in Harford, 
Charles, Baltimore, Caroline, Montgomery, Howard, and Calvert 
Counties. Since P. T. A. groups can be a great stimulus in improv- 
ing conditions for children through an understanding of the purpose 
of the schools, their functioning should be encouraged by the teachers 
and supervisors. (See Chart 32.) 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN PUBLIC FUNDS 

The five counties which reported receipts and expenditures from 
other than public funds in colored schools showed gross receipts of 
$2,105 in Dorchester, $1,516 in Baltimore, $1,402 in CaroHne, $1,039 
in St. Mary's, and $305 in Washington. The P. T. A.'s contributed 
the largest amount collected in Baltimore County. Parties, dances, 
and sales furnished the major part of receipts in Caroline, Dorchester, 
and St. Mary's, while in Washington County, athletics provided the 
chief source of revenue. (See Table 127.) 

Baltimore County used the largest parts of these funds for social 
affairs and trips, for regular classroom instruction and for physical 
education. In Caroline the funds were used for operation of school 
buildings, improving buildings and grounds, and physical education. 
Dorchester devoted a large part toward the auditorium and physical 
education. St. Mary's spent these funds for physical education and 
Washington found these funds useful in furnishing libraries for colored 
pupils. (See Table 128.) 

SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools is responsible for the 
supervision of all the county colored schools. He spends most of his 
time in the field visiting schools with the county supervisors of 
colored schools and working with the high school principals and 
teachers. At the conference at the beginning of the year with the 
county supervisors of colored schools the State Supervisor of Colored 
Schools emphasized the necessity for improvement of classroom in- 
struction. Every supervisor prepared a comprehensive plan along 
this line which the State Supervisor checked and followed up dur- 
ing the year. In many counties standard or informal tests prepared 
by the supervisor were given to check up on the effectiveness of the 
work of the teachers. 

Conferences with Eastern Shore and Western Shore principals 
held early in the year dealt entirely with the administration of the 
colored high schools. Later a conference was held with principals 
and teachers which dealt with classroom instruction. A special 



192 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



O M 



00 05 lO 
CO -Tf Oi 



LO Oi T-H iO 00 t- 

OS lo ;d C5 00 (M 



(M CO CD 00 
CO C<1 <iD ^ 



00 



■rfiocociu:>u5oiit)ait- 

COt^T— i^OO-^CDOtr-O 

lo <:d Tt t-^ c<i 1-H «£5 -^t >o 00 

(MO5t-.«DC0u:it-'^tDC<! 
^ C<I tH t-I 



(MO(M«C(MIOOOOlO 



CO <M rH 



?D O O 
00 C<j iO ^-J 

CO CO od OS 

CO t-I 

CO o 



■^«r>t^-^t'<^«DocoOTtco 
c<i oi oo' oo u:> "rjJ c<i th 

^ r-l r-l 



i-(rH';OOlOlOlX>'r}<-^t-CO'^ 
O^C'-HOOCJ,— IC<1^0 0COOO 

cDt-^cDc^'-Hodt-^iot-^ooaio 

0O<Xi-<:tCOa5'^>itlU3rt<M0OT-H 

y-i '^C^],'-!"^ CO (M T-Hi-t 
^ i-TrH i-T 



13 
03 

o 



5i aT 



W Q Oh C/2 C« Oh <i Q 



W Ol CS 

P2 

O 



OB 







OO 




a) 








t> 


CO 


o o 


Oi 




CO 1-H 


1—1 








CD 


VO (£> 


05 




cr> CO 


C^l 


oj 


OO' CO 


<M* 




CO o 


CO 




o 


00 














CO 


to iO 


o 




C£> O 






^' 


O 




o 


CO 






CO 






1—1 









o 


o «o 




o 


uo o 




o 


1-H ci 


C75 


t-I 


O 05 


O 






00 




i-T 


ee- 










OS Oi 


o 


a: 


C<j CO 


CO 




(X5 1-1 






1-t CO 


00 


















1—1 






€/9- 



co tc 


T-I 


a; CO 


CO 


»o 1-5 


^* 


CO 1-1 




CO Oi^ 




CO t-h" 




(/> 





ai 
-t-J 

to . 

O O 

O ^ 

O X 



c; 



Funds from Other than County Funds 



c 
c 



CO ^ 



o 
o 



to 

o s: 
a, a» 



t- (M CO 
CO t- i-H 



(NJ O 



1— I oi u:> o ^ 

<M Oi Oi Tj* 





rH O 


«0 CO 


o 


C5 00 






00 


o ^* 


CO 


1-H -"^ 


rH CO 






CO (M 









CiCO-^-^t-^t^t-OcO^^t-OiCO 

go' OS CO* c<i o 00 t-^ to oo' CO '-^ ^ cj 
lOoocot'oqiMi-tc-r-iC^aco''^ 



lo oo CO oq 



o o 

00 



oo oo 

00 CO CO 
UO CO t-^ 

CO »o »^ 

I— I T— ( 



OO O CO O ^ 

T-i -"j; t>- 00 00 
CO th co' CO ' co' 

CO CO CO CO 



O rH 

UO 00 
CO 



oo 



CO j lO Oi 
CO I 00 »o 

00 j coco 

CO 

co^ 



CO CO 


UO 


o o 




00 


o 


CD o 


co^ 


tH 00* 








CO 




CO y-t 





CD CO O O 00 

UO CO >o UO 

01 no rH Tt O 
^ UO to rH CO 
rH CO rH 



t-cooouoasOicocoTtcoco-^cocorHas^ 

OCDododcOCOlO-rf^TiJcOCOT-Hi-HrHi-H 
CO rH 



CO o 
CO 
CO* oo* 
'^CO 



CO CO 
CO* CO* 



t- CO 
05 CO 

id 00* 

CO Tfi 
00 



I o 



cod'-i'^ocoaicoasaicoaio'^ioioiol^so 
0'^t>;^cocoocoorocoa5^rHocouoi>:<^ 
'rf'^*CTjt-^cdtdco'u:soa5CO*u:5idco*cdoco 

OUOC OOCOCOO:.iOu:>Ob-Tj<'<:t-rf<COCOi— i t~-o 
tr- lO CO CO CO CO 1— I i-H ,-( rH 



O lO lO »0 |£2 O CO I OicO 

1-3 CO* 
O lO 
''to 

CO T-T 




0) 
t-l 

-1-3 

c 

a> 

X! 

o <a 



194 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



effort was made during the year to employ only teachers regularly 
certificated in the subjects in which they teach. With few exceptions 
this objective was carried out. 

The State Supervisor visited the Bowie Normal School a number of 
times during the year to study the quality of instruction and to con- 
fer with both faculty and students. Much of his time at the office is 
spent in interviewing prospective county teachers in order to make 
suggestions regarding desirable colored teachers to the county 
superintendents. The salary and traveling expenses of the State 
Supervisor of Colored Schools are paid by the General Education 
Board. 

Each of 15 counties received $750 from the State as reimburse- 
ment toward the salary of a full time colored supervisor. Five of 
the supervisors employed were women and 10 were men. In 4 coun- 
ties, the supervisors devoted some time to instruction in home 
economics or manual training in the high school. The attendance 
officers in Cecil, Howard, Queen Anne's and Somerset Counties 
spent part of their time in supervising the colored schools, and the 
Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Baltimore County had the 
supervision of the colored schools as part of his duties. In Allegany 
and Washington, supervision of the colored schools is given by the 
white elementary school supervisors and the county superintendent. 
There are only two colored schools in the former and five in the latter 
county. 

BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment 

TABLE 129 

Enrollment and Graduates, Bowie Normal School 



Year Ending Enrollment 

June 30 Total Freshmen Juniors Seniors Graduates 

1924 ni .... 11 

1925 *26 .... 16 10 10 

1926 *36 .... 24 12 12 

1927 *80 .... 58 22 22 

1928 *109 .... 55 54 50 

1929 128 .... 76 52 46 

1930 119 .... 46 73 56 

1931 113 .... 59 54 41 

1932 112 .... 56 56 54 

1933 123 .... 71 52 49 

1934 96 .... 36 60 56 

1935 t95 46 2 t47 |46 

Fall, 1935 a93 35 37 ; 21 



Excludes high school enrollment. 

t Includes 11 graduates of the two-year course in 1934 who returned for the third year. 

a Includes 6 graduates of the two-year course in 193o who returned for the third year and 2 gradu- 
ates of the three-year course in 1935 who had to make up time. 

% Includes 31 graduates of the two-year course and 15 of the three-year course. Eleven of the latter 
number had graduated previously from the two-year course in 1934. 



Supervision of Colored Schools; Bowie Normal School 



195 



There were 95 students enrolled at the Bowie Normal School during 
the school year 1934-35, one fewer than in 1933-34. The enrollment 
in the fall of 1935 was 93, of whom 35 were freshmen, 37 juniors, and 
21 seniors. The year 1935-36Js_thfi last when there will be students 
enrolled for both the two- and the three-year professional course. 
After this, there will be only the three-year course. The slight de- 
crease in enrollment is due to a reduction in the number of boys en- 
tering as freshmen. (See Table 129) 

Because of the need of having a larger entrance class, some fresh- 
men were admitted on probation who had not had 60 per cent of 
their high school grades A's and B's in the junior and senior years. 
However, the results of the entrance intelligence tests indicated that 
the 1935 freshman class has a higher general level of intelligence than 
the class of 1934. 

The distribution of the 1935 freshmen according to rank in their 
class showed 51 per cent in the upper third, 43 per cent in the middle 
third, and 6 per cent in the lower third. Corresponding figures for 
1934 included 69 per cent in the upper third, 25 per cent in the mid- 
dle third, and 6 per cent in the lower third. 

The Graduates 

There were 46 graduates of Bowie Normal School in 1935. This 
number included 34 graduates of the two-year course and 12 who 
completed the three-year course. 

TABLE 130 

Home and Teaching County of 1935 Graduates of Bowie 



Home Teaching 
County County County 



Total Counties 


46 


28 


Allegany 


1 




Anne Arundel 


**6 


14 


Calvert 


2 


1 


Carroll 




al 


Charles 


1 


bc2 


Dorchester 


1 


cd2 


Frederick 


3 


2 


Harford 


4 


1 


Howard 




el 



Home Teaching 
County County County 



Kent 


*1 


f2 


Montgomery 




gl 


Prince George's.... 




2 


St. Mary's 


n 




Somerset 


4 


dhk3 


Talbot 


*3 


2 


Wicomico 


5 


2 


Worcester 


1 


a; 2 


Baltimore City 


**6 





'* Each asterisk indicates that a two-year graduate returned for the third year of work. 

t Includes one from Baltimore City e Includes one from Frederick. 

a Includes one from Somerset. f Includes one from Allegany and one from 

b Includes one from Anne Arundel. Charles. 

c Includes one from Prince George's. f. Includes one trom Calvert. 

d Includes one from Wicomico. h Includes one from Harford. 

k Includes one from Worcester. 

Teaching positions in the Maryland counties were secured by 28 
of the graduates, 15 of whom were teaching in their home counties. 
Ten of the two-year graduates returned to Bowie to take a third year 



196 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



of work. Of the remaining 8 graduates, chiefly men, 1 entered Morgan 
College, 1 enrolled at Temple University, and 6 were working at other 
vocations. (See Table 130.) 

The Faculty and Practice Centers 

In the fall of 1935, the professional staff of the Bowie State Normal 
School included 16 persons — the principal, 8 instructors, 2 teachers 
in the Demonstration School, a librarian, a secretary-registrar, a 
stenographer, a junior clerk, and a dietician. Twelve cooperating 
practice teachers are helping in 4 two-teacher and 4 one-teacher 
schools located in rural sections. Each normal school student is 
given 160 clock hours of practice teaching during the three-year 
course. 

Enrollment and Cost per Student 
Current expenses for the Bowie Normal School for 1935 totalled 
$46,817 of which $24,195 was spent for instruction and $22,622 for 
the dormitory. This is an increase of $8,431 over the total expend- 

TABLE 131 

Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School, 1934-35 



EXPENDITURES 

Administration : 

Salaries 

Other than Salaries 

Instruction : 

Salaries _ _ 

Other than Salaries 

Operation and Maintenance: 

Salaries and Wages 

Other than Salaries, excluding Food 

Food 



Totals 

RECEIPTS 

From Students, excluding refunds: 

Board and Lodging 

Value of Service Rendered _ 

Laundry and Contingent Fees 

Health Fees 

Athletic Fees 

Registration Fees 

Special Deposits 



Total Receipts from Students..... 

From State 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students 

Average Total Cost per Student 

Average Payment plus Service Rendered per Student 

Average Cost to State per Student . 

Total Cost to State per Resident Student 



a Includes $2,257.07, value of service rendered by students. 

b Excludes $706.15 expended for extra activities paid for by students and faculty. 

c Excludes refunds of $24 for board and lodging; $62.50 for laundry and contingent fees; $21.50 
health fees; $18.00 for athletic fees; $29 for registration fees. 

d Special deposits include a balance of $370.73 carried over from the year preceding plus receipts 
of $1,170.42 less $313.89 carried over to the following year. These are amounts paid for student activ- 
ities such as the store, entertainments, class activities, games, school paper, 'movies," plays, etc. 



Instruction 



$ 1,933.50 
458.29 



Dormitory 

$ 1,417.50 
472.67 



12,774.40 
3,059.19 



1,769.00 
4,200.48 



a6,674.39 
b5,640.90 
b8,416.41 



$24,194.86 ab$22,621.87 



C$335.97 
C461.40 



C$797.37 
$23,397,49 



c?8,807.28 
c2,257.07 
cl,223.19 
c4 10.51 



dl ,227.26 



cd$13,925.31 
$8,696.56 



87 

$?78.10 
9.16 
268.94 



85 

$266.14 
163.83 
102.31 



$371.25 



Bowie Normal; Fanny Coppin School; Physical Education 197 



itures for 1934 due to the increased cost of food and other supphes 
and necessary equipment. 

The instruction cost per student was $278 of which $9 was paid 
by each student and $269 by the State. Of the average enrollment of 
87 pupils, all but 2 lived at the school. The total dormitory expend- 
iture per resident student amounted to $266, an average payment 
of $164 being made by each student in fees or service, leaving a cost 
of $102 to the State. The combined cost to the State for instruction 
and dormitory expenses amounted to $371 per resident student in 
1935, an increase of $80 over the corresponding cost in 1934. (See 
Table 131.) 

Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie Normal School property as of Septem- 
ber 30, 1935, totaling $213,569, was distributed as follows: Land, 
$11,650; buildings, $153,168; equipment and other, $48,750. 

FANNY COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL 

During 1934-35 there were 26 men and 86 women enrolled at the 
Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in Baltimore City. 
The average net roll of 108 students was an increase of 3 students 
over that for the preceding year. The faculty consisted of the 
principal and 4 assistants. The current expenses for the school 
totalled $15,244, making the average instruction cost $141 per stu- 
dent. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE MARYLAND COUNTY SCHOOLS 

Dr. William Burdick, Director of the Playground Athletic League, 
formerly the Public Athletic League, acting as State Supervisor of 
Physical Education, since 1914 had been planning and cooperating 
with the State Department of Education and county superintendents 
of schools in carrying out the program for physical education in the 
counties of Maryland. The death of Dr. Burdick on December 21, 
1935, after a long illness is an irreparable loss to the State of Mary- 
land. Dr. Burdick's conviction regarding the value of team games 
and mass activities in developing character, good behavior, and social 
responsibility shaped the evolving physical education program of 
Maryland. It is a tribute to the fundamental worth of his philosophy 
and to the loyal staff of specialists who worked with him in carrying 
out his ideas that the program has gone on efficiently despite his 
long illness and death. 

Participation in Spring County Meets* 
An outstanding characteristic of the physical education program 
is the participation of a large proportion of the pupils above Grade 3. 
In 1935, there were 74,410 individual participations in the badge 
tests, games, track and field events scheduled in connection with the 
spring meets. These figures represent gross participation and include 
duplicates, since any one individual who was included for a badge 
test may also have appeared and been counted for one game, one 

* Data furnished by the staff of the Playground Athletic League. 



198 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

track, and one field event. In 19 counties there were a larger number 
of individual participations in 1935 than in 1934. (See Table 132). 

TABLE 132 
Participation In County Meets — White — 1935 





Badge 






Track and 






Tests 


Games 


Field 




COUNTY 














To- 
















tals 




Boys 




Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 




Allpcrnn V 


1,005 


1,460 


690 


490 


757 


1,001 


K A AO 

0,4Uo 


Allegany Rural 


164 


191 


114 


96 


264 


301 


i,iou 


Anne Arundel 


908 


1,397 


450 


322 


604 


678 


4,ooy 


Baltimore 


1,373 


2,860 


988 


705 


1,008 


1,310 


o,Z44 


Ca 1 vprt 


119 


250 


125 


109 


242 


216 


i,UDi 


Carolinp 


215 


560 


229 


223 


421 


376 


9 OA 


Carroll 


765 


981 


527 


455 


765 


822 


A Q1 


Cecil 


316 


685 


324 


316 


558 


542 


O lA^ 
Z, /4i 




239 


490 


204 


189 


372 


413 


1 Qn7 
i,yu i 




471 


908 


263 


213 


388 






Frederick 


954 


1,284 


526 


38a 


456 


544 


4,144 


Garrett 


346 


552 


284 


189 


ooo 




2,046 


Harford 


590 


898 


424 


378 


456 


444 


3,190 


Howard 


345 


531 


255 


191 


588 


402 


2,312 


Kent 


304 


458 


216 


192 


335 


295 


1,800 


Montgomery 


974 


1,510 


700 


729 


1,488 


1,143 


6,544 


Prince George's Rural 

Queen Anne's 


848 


1,033 


530 


402 


677 


600 


A AQA 


185 


325 


182 


198 


251 


327 


1,468 


205 


407 


179 


182 


357 


357 


1,687 


St. Mary's 


194 


278 


196 


161 


339 


244 


1^412 


Somerset 


249 


460 


204 


181 


320 


264 


1,678 


Talbot 


262 


573 


247 


242 


370 


347 


2,041 


Washington 


991 


1,088 


439 


305 


508 


635 


3,966 


Wicomico 


473 


773 


298 


264 


307 


370 


2,485 


Worcester 


209 


346 


179 


194 


414 


340 


1,682 


Totals (1935) 


12,704 


20,298 


8,773 


7,306 


12,598 


12,731 


74,410 


Totals (1934) 


11,285 


17,857 


7,904 


6,932 


10,453 


10,541 


64,972 


Tome Institute (1935) 


49 


45 












S. T. C, Towson 


22 


152 













Consolation Dodge 



Boys Girls 

8— 80 Anne Arundel 10—100 

12—120 Baltimore 20—200 

2— 20 Howard — 

The number of white schools which entered pupils for events at 
the county meets increased from 805 in 1934 to 858 in 1935. This 
meant a participation of over 86 per cent of the white county schools 
as against 79 per cent in 1934. Six counties, — Calvert, Caroline, 
Charles, Howard, Queen Anne's, and Talbot — had entries from every 
white school; eight counties — Anne Arundel, Carroll, Dorchester, 
Frederick, Kent, Montgomery, St. Mary's, and Wicomico — had 



Participation in Spring Meets; Badge Tests 



199 



entries from between 95 and 100 per cent of their white schools; 
Baltimore and Prince George's Counties had 92 and 93 per cent of 
their white schools represented. Garrett and Washington Counties, 
with a representation of 31 and 67 per cent, respectively, were the 
only counties having fewer than 80 per cent of their schools partici- 
pating. The greatest improvement from 1934 to 1935 appeared for 
Carroll and Charles Counties. 

The presence of the county superintendent at the meet indicates 
his interest, encourages participation, and gives him an opportunity 
to meet large numbers of parents of school children. 

Badge Tests 

The county schools enrolled 45,633 white boys above grade 3. 
Of these boys, 19,154 or 42 per cent, in the opinion of their teachers 
successfully passed the badge tests on their school grounds, which 
permitted them to enroll for the tests at the meet. According to 
_ Table 132, there were 12,704 boys who were counted at the meets 
as entering the badge tests, 63 per cent of those who had passed them 
-6 at their schools, and of these 6,460 won their badges. Of those who 
entered the meet, therefore, 50 per cent won their badges, although 
® the percentage of the county enrollment of boys above grade 3 who 
won badges was only 14.1. (See Chart 33 and Table XVI, page 301.) 
jft The badge tests on the school premises attracted over one half 
gl of the boys enrolled above grade 3 in ten counties, while at the op- 
posite extreme less than one third of the boys in three counties, Wor- 
Z cester, Garrett, and Washington, tried them. From 23 to 24 per cent 
^ of the boys who entered the tests from Howard, Carroll, and Anne 
>; Arundel won badges. (See Chart 33, and Table XVI, page 301.) 

The badge tests are different for boys and girls, since it is the policy 
in Maryland to plan activities adapted to the special physique and 
oQ interests of the two sexes. Of 45,835 girls above grade 3 enrolled in 
^ the county pubHc schools, 26,072 or 56.9 per cent, tried out the badge 
tests for girls at their schools. According to Table 132, at the county 
meets, 20,298 of these girls who had passed the tests at their schools, 
or 77.8 per cent, entered for the tests at the meets and of these, 8,560 
or 42.2 per cent won their badges. The percentage of county enroll- 
ment of girls above grade 3 who won badges was 18.7. (See Chart 34 
and Table XVI, page 301.) 

In seven counties three fourths or more of the girls above grade 3 
tried out and passed the tests for badges at their schools and in only 
four counties, — Worcester, Allegany, Garrett, and Washington — 
was the percentage who successfully passed the tests at their schools 
less than 50. (See Chart 34, and Table XVI, page 301.) 

The emphasis in the badge tests is on individual attainment 
of physical skills. This is desired before pupils are permitted to enter 
the group activities of the physical education program. The games 
and track and field events set up opportunities for cooperation of 
individuals on teams as representatives of schools or groups with 
which they are identified. It is this phase of the physical education 
program that develops fine character exhibited in good behavior 
and self-control. 



200 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

CHART 33 



PER CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC. BADGE TESTS, 1935, BASED ON 1954-35 EIIROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



County 

Total and 
Average 

Calvert 

Howard 

Kent 

Charles 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Harford 

Talbot 



Number Number 
Enrolled Entered Won 



45,633 19,154 6,460 



282 
868 
655 
622 
915 

1,212 
624 

2,119 

1,603 
491 

1,802 
835 



Pr. George's 3,245 
Frederick 3,055 
Montgomery 3,025 
Anne Arundel 2,^37 
Somerset 1,000 
Cecil 1,464 
Baltimore 6,894 
Allegany 5,470 
Washington 4,273 
Garrett 1,533 
Worcester 1,013 



185 
538 
396 
562 
521 
659 
350 
1,096 
825 
252 
863 
397 
1,517 
1,407 
1,375 
1,177 
425 
501 
2,517 
1,856 
1,412 
477 
288 



58 
208 
102 
113 
153 
165 
122 
506 
184 

81 
517 
120 
611 
264 
467 
609 

76 
125 
860 
625 
455 
208 

77 



Per Cent 



Won 



Entered 



42.0 



13.5 



24.0 



15.S 



18.2 



IS 7 



13.4 



19.i 



23. 



G5.e 



£2.0 



60.5 



582 




51.5 



,17.6 


479 1 


14.4 


47.7 1 


le.B 


1 46.7 1 


E^l 46.1 1 


15.4 


1 45.4 1 


23.] 


■■■ 44.G 


1^9 42.5 1 


KEII 34.2 1 


12.5 1 


33.6 I 




33.6 



33.0 



31.] 



284 



Team Games 

There were 30,534 white boys and girls entered on 2,112 teams 
in the State-wide athletic program of games. Circle dodge ball out- 
ranked all other games in popularity having had 10,554 boys and girls 
as entrants on 750 teams. Of these teams, 121 were mixed. There 
were 7,868 boys on 543 speed ball teams. Soccer had 2,226 entrants 
on 111 teams, baseball 855 on 72 teams, and boys' basketball 700 on 
59 teams. Every county, except Carroll and Calvert, had soccer 



Badge Tests, Team Games 
CHART 34 



201 



PER CENT OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1935, BASED ON 1934-35 ENROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



County 



Nximber Niinber 
Enrolled Entered Won 



Won 



Per Cent 

Entered 



Total and 
Average 


45,835 




8,560 


Calvert 


351 


339 


92 


Kent 


608 


513 


171 


Charles 


670 


529 


177 


Talbot 


822 


636 


201 


Howard 


870 


660 


184 


St . Mary's 


443 


334 


138 


Dorchester 


1,296 


972 


332 


Caroline 


967 


710 


285 


Queen Anne's 


681 


469 


160 


Wicomico 


1,609 


1,082 


290 


Montgomery 


3,007 


1,877 


690 


Harford 


1,856 


1,123 


348 


Carroll 


2,128 


1,292 


468 


Anne Arundel 


2,699 


1,629 


734 


Cecil 


1,448 


839 


276 


Baltimore 


6,728 


3,898 


1,368 


Somerset 


975 


538 


166 


Frederick 


3,012 


1,632 


421 


Pr. George's 


3,330 


1,715 


634 


Worcester 


961 


473 


118 


Allegany 


5,427 


2,600 


689 


Garrett 


1,573 


589 


244 


Washington 


4,394 


1,623 


374 




84.4 



77.4 



31.2 >. ^ 


754 1 




75.0 ) 




G2.4 



£0.7 



60-4 



57.9 



579 



54.2 



49.2 



47.9 



36.9 



teams. Each county winner of soccer played the neighboring win- 
ner until the Western Shore series was won by Hancock of Wash- 
ington County which was the winner over Greensboro of Caroline 
County, the champion team of the Eastern Shore. All counties, ex- 
cept Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and 
Washington, had at least one boys' basketball team. The lack of in- 
door gymnasiums probably accounted for the omission of basketball 
from the athletic program in these counties. (See Table XVII, 
page 302.) 

Outside of dodge ball, the girls showed the greatest support of 
and interest in volley ball, field ball, hit ball, touchdown pass, and 



202 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



basketball, in the order named. Every county, except Calvert and 
Carroll, had field ball teams at the seventh State-wide tournament, 
in which 2,067 girls from 104 high schools participated. Basketball 
was played by girls in fifteen counties. Since an indoor gymnasium is 
needed for practice during the winter months, basketball is, of course, 
limited to the localities having the necessary facilities. (See Tabte 
XVII, page 302.) 

Track, Field, and Relay Events 
In addition to team games, the P. A. L. program includes running 
and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, broad 
jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who make up a 
team which brings success to the school or county represented. In 
Maryland the number of events in which any one participant may 
enter is limited to one running event for girls and one running 
and one field event for boys. It is thus impossible for a few good 
athletes to win the track meet for their school. All children who have 
attained even average ability in the events are needed to bring final 
success to their schools. (See Tabtes XVII and XVIII, pages 302 
and 303.) 

The Spring Athletic Meets 

The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field meets 
took place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The win- 
ners of the county meets came to Baltimore to compete for State- 
wide championships. The girls were entertained at the State Teachers 
College at Towson and a majority of the boys were cared for in the 
homes of members of the City Parent-Teacher Associations. The 
Y. M. C. A. took care of the boys not assigned to homes. The 
county winning the greatest number of points was awarded the Sun 
trophy. In 1935 the award went to Baltimore County. The dodge ball 
championship was won by Prince George's athletes from Brentwood 
School, and the championship in volley ball was won by St. Mary's 
County representatives from Margaret Brent High School. 

State-Wide Group Athletic Meets 

The events for the Fall Meet were Soccer Accuracy Kick and Goal 
Shooting for boys, and Fieldball Throw for Distance and Goal Shoot- 
ing for girls. For the Winter Meet, the events consisted of Baskets 
per Minute and Foul Shooting for both boys and girls. 

Six schools sent 150 girls and 150 boys to participate in the Fall 
events. In the Winter events there were fifteen teams of 2,519 boys 
and twelve teams of 1,604 girls participating. 

The winners in each Meet were awarded placques suitably in- 
scribed. In the Fall Meet, Towson High School boys and girls, as 
well as Kenwood girls, were the winners. In the Winter Meet, Oxford 
High School won both the boys' and girls' placques. 

Expenditures by P. A. L. for the 23 Counties 
Exclusive of any charge for administration of the general P. A. L. 
program, the direction and supervision of school athletics in the 



Spring Meets; P. A. L. Expenditures 



203 



Maryland counties during the fiscal year October 1, 1934, to Septem- 
ber 30, 1935, required a total expenditure by the League of $19,305. 
Toward this the Playground Athletic League received $18,000 from 
the State through the State Public School Budget. In addition, 
certain services were rendered the counties, for which the League 
received reimbursements to the extent of $13,321. Furthermore, 
materials and supplies worth $2,750 were bought for the counties 
through the P. A. L. The actual service rendered the counties, there- 
fore, necessitated a budget of more than $35,376. 

TABLE 133 
Expenditures of P. A. L. for State Work 
October 1, 1934 to September 30, 1935 



Salaries $6,134.73 

Wages 1,630.09 

Printing 372.27 

Postage 217.48 

Telephone 131.18 

Auto 556.99 

Supplies 645.62 

Repairs 3.50 

Awards 5,288.82 

Travel 2,130.12 

Miscellaneous 908.86 



Total $18,019.66 

Research 1,285.37 



Grand Total $19,305.03 



The expenditures for salaries pays for the services of field leaders 
who conduct the meets and tournaments, and of the athletic leaders 
for boys and girls who act as teachers, referees, and umpires for 
*1,971 ''school units.'' A school unit is defined as any school to which 
assistance is given, and the same school may be included a number of 
times in this figure. 

The amount for wages takes care of the cost of recording the badges 
and medals won by different pupils. The system of registration 
prevents unnecessary duplication of awards. The 18,871 badges, 
938 date bars, 4,664 medallions, 8,240 pendants awarded to 
county pupils, and 1,225 badges for officials were all paid for 
through the State appropriation. These incentives to effort 
in the physical education program bring returns out of all proportion 
to the amount of money spent for this purpose, $5,289. (See Table 
133.) 

The amount of $2,130 spent on /r^z(^e/ includes transportation costs 
of the leaders who act as of!icials at the many county meets and 
athletic tournaments that are conducted during the year. (See 
Table 133.) 

The amount of $1,285 spent for research includes the costs of a 
study of color blindness among high school boys and girls. (See 
Table 133.) 

* The 1,971 school units included 203 different schools to which supplies were sold by the P. A. L. 



204 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Physical Education Supplies Purchased for the Counties 
Through the P. A. L. the counties may purchase the suppHes and 
materials needed for the physical education program at a greatly 
reduced rate. During the school year, 1934-35, the counties paid 
$2,750.45 for these purchases. The savings possible through pur- 
chases from the P. A. L. permit more schools to have the needed 
equipment, and thus more children are able to participate with 
pleasure and benefit in these healthful activities. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 

After closing the summer schools in 1933 because of the necessity 
of budgetary retrenchments, Baltimore City reopened fifteen schools 
in the summer of 1934 with an enrollment of 6,139 pupils, of whom 
3,865 were white and 2,274 colored. Except in the advance work in 
junior high school and the demonstration school, there were more 
white boys than girls in the summer schools. But in all types of sum- 
mer schools the colored girls far outnumbered the boys. (See Table 
134.) 

TABLE 134 



Baltimore City Summer Schools, 1934 







Total 


Net Roll at End oi^ Term 


% OF Nft Roll 








Enrollment 








Recommended 


















FOR Promotion 


No. of 


Type of 


No. 








Taking 


Taking 


Teach- 


School 


of 
















ers 


Schools 






Total 














Boys 


Girls 




Review 


Advance 


Review 


Advance 












Work 


Work 


Work 


Work 





WHITE 



Secondary 




















Senior 


2 


1,001 


542 


1,394 


1,276 


118 


92.5 


98.9 


30 


Junior.- 


1 


833 


673 


1,347 


1,139 


208 


98.9 


100.0 


15 


Elementary 


4 


589 


454 


843 


843 




88.0 




18 


Demonstration 


1 


168 


172 


281 


281 




100.0 


12 








Total White 


8 


2,591 


1,841 


3,865 


3,258 


607 






75 

















COLORED 



Secondary 
























Senior 


1 


147 


221 


296 


265 


31 


91 


.5 


95 


5 


8 


Junior 


1 


146 


184 


266 


240 


26 


84 


.0 


100 





5 


Elementary 


4 


761 


1,110 


1,561 


1,561 




87 


.5 






26 
6 


Demonstration 


1 


73 


116 


151 




151 






94 





Total Colored 


7 


1,127 


1,631 


2,274 


2,066 


208 






45 

















ALL SCHOOLS 



1934 


15 
12 
16 
16 


3,728 
3,644 
4,399 
3.865 


3,472 
3,263 
4,088 
3,798 


6,139 
6,081 
7,192 
6,504 


5,324 
5,393 
6,354 
5,592 


815 
688 
838 
912 






120 
107 
154 
145 


1932 






1931. 






1930 













Baltimore City Summer and Evening Schools 205 



In the summer schools the white enrollment in senior and junior 
high schools was much larger than that in elementary schools, while 
the reverse was the case for the colored enrollment. Of the white 
net roll of 3,865 at the end of the term, 607 were taking advanced 
work. The colored net roll of 2,274 included 208 pupils taking ad- 
vanced work. The remaining pupils reviewed work to make up sub- 
jects in which they had failed. 

Only six of the 431 advance pupils, who attended elementary and 
junior high schools and gained a promotion as a result of summer 
school attendance, failed to be promoted again in January, 1935, in- 
dicating that those who successfully complete summer advance work 
are well prepared to continue in the higher grade. Of the pupils who 
were enrolled in advanced sections of the senior high summer schools, 
who passed in their summer school subjects and continued these sub- 
jects during the fall, 87 per cent completed the semester's work suc- 
cessfully. The corresponding rate for pupils who were enrolled in re- 
view schools was 78 per cent. 

There were 120 teachers for the summer schools, of whom 75 were 
white and 45 were colored. (See Table 134.) 

A distribution of expenditures for white and colored schools of the 
different types is given in Table 135. 

TABLE 135 
Expenditures for 1934 Summer Schools 



Type of School White Colored Total 

Elementary $4,643.21 $4,555.87 $9,199.08 

Junior 2,058.76 948.50 3,007.26 

Senior 4,569.41 981.27 5,550.68 



Total $11,271.38 $6,485.64 $17,757.02 



EVENING SCHOOLS 
Baltimore City 

The regular night schools in Baltimore City in the winter of 1934-35 
had an average net roll of 5,670 white and 2,473 colored individuals. 
The per cent of the average net roll in average attendance was close 
to 80 per cent. There was an increase of nearly 420 in the white en- 
rollment from 1934 to 1935 although there was considerable decrease 
under the enrollment in 1932. The colored enrollment in 1934 and 
1935 was practically the same, but was over 12 per cent below that 
for 1932. (See Table 136.) 

The elementary school enrollment for white persons was the 
smallest, while the commercial and secondary courses had the largest 
number enrolled. For the colored, the elementary enrollment was 
largest, and the secondary and home economics were next in size. 

The elementary night schools were kept open 70 nights, the voca- 
tional 48 nights, the commercial 80, the white secondary 98, and the 
colored secondary 80 nights. There were 218 white and 70 colored 
teachers who gave instruction in night schools. 



206 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 136 

Baltimore City Night Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Type of Work 



Net Enrollment 

Americanization 

Academic: 

Elementary 

Secondary 

Commercial 

Vocational: 

Industrial 

Home Economics 

Average Net Roll 

Average Attendance... 
Per Cent of Attend. ... 
No. of Teachers 



Baltimore City Night Schools 



White 



1935 1934 1932 



254 
2,814 
2,986 

1,422 
500 

5,670 
4,528 
79.9 
218 



387 

269 
2,608 
2,516 

1,200 
358 

5,252 
4,175 
79.5 
217 



1,215 

583 
3,181 
2,704 

2,418 
736 

7,310 
5,920 
80.8 
267.5 



Colored 



1935 1934 1932 



1,095 
549 
306 

266 
491 

2,473 
1,964 
79.4 
70 



1,365 
456 
272 

230 
415 

2,475 
1,942 
78.5 
75 



1,461 
540 
350 

376 
576 

2,815 
2,359 
83.4 
74 



Number of 
Nights 

in 1934-35 
Session 



White 



70 
98 
80 

48 
48 



Col- 
ored 



70 
80 
80 

48 
48 



The number of night school students who graduated from high 
school was 339, exceeded only in the year 1933. There were 332 who 
completed a three- or four-year vocational course in 1935, a larger 
number than in any year preceding. Completion of from 2-10 units 
was the accomplishment of 1,587 individuals and 492 students fin- 
ished just one unit. (See Table 137.) 



TABLE 137 

Number of Baltimore City Night School Students Completing 
Definite Courses or Units 





High 


Vocational 


Completion of 


Year 


School 


3 or 4 year 


2-10 


One 




Graduation 


Course 


Units 


Unit 


1929 


175 


92 


1,341 


323 


1930 


203 


188 


1,627 


577 


1931 


237 


165 


],687 


634 


1932 


271 


194 


1,539 


564 


1933 


348 


281 


1,570 


320 


1934 


285 


242 


943 


297 


1935 


339 


332 


1,587 


492 



Evening Schools, Baltimore City and Counties 



207 



The total cost of the night school program is shown in Table 138. 

TABLE 138 

Expenditures for Night Schools in Baltimore City 1934-35 

Expenditures 



Type of Work White Colored 

Americanization $55.50 

Elementary 3,416.14 $5,297.12 

Handicapped 124.50 

Junior 9,156.73 1,417.50 

Senior 29,355.18 6,023.12 

Vocational 5,233.14 1,344.21 



Total $47,341.19 $14,081.95 

$61,423.14 



In addition to the regular program, there were additional oppor- 
tunities for adult classes in the Federal Emergency Relief program 
described on pages 208 to 210. 

In the Counties 

The evening school program in the counties was limited to voca- 
tional work in industries in Allegany, Garrett, and Washington, and 
in home economics in Cumberland. Except in home economics, the 
expenditures and enrollment were lower than for the year preceding. 
Except in the mining classes in Garrett, the federal payments 
matched county expenditures. (See Table 139.) 



TABLE 139 

Salary Expenditures for Vocational Education in Maryland County Evening 
Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1935 



County 


Expenditures for Salaries of Teachers of Voca- 
tional Education in County Evening Schools 


En- 
roll- 
ment 


County 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Industries: 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Washington 

Home Economics: 

Allegany 


$2,369.75 
1,632.00 
548.00 

320.00 


$2,369.75t 
1,249.96* 
548.00 

320.00 


$4,739.50 
2,881.96 
1,096.00 

640.00 


t302 
65 
62 


$4,869.75 


$4,487.71 


$9,357.46 


429 



t Includes $1,125 for mining classes enrolling 79. * Mining. 



208 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



THE EMERGENCY ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM IN MARYLAND 

The Emergency Adult Education Program, begun in a small way 
late in 1933 for the benefit of needy unemployed persons qualified 
to teach, continued to be essentially a relief program during 1934-35. 
Teachers' salaries, materials of instruction, subsistence of nursery 
school children, and local and state supervision were financed from 
Federal relief funds. 

Until April 15, 1935, the program was directed by Dr. J. D. Black- 
well, State Director of Vocational Education. In August, 1934, Glenn 
H. Van Dorp was appointed State Supervisor of Adult Education 
and Nursery Schools. John J. Seidel, who succeeded Dr. Blackwell 
as State Director of Vocational Education, was appointed State 
Director of the program in April, 1935. 

Each county superintendent of schools was responsible for the 
program in his county. There were also classes at the University of 
Maryland, Bowie Normal School, Maryland Training School for 
Colored Girls, Cheltenham Reformatory, the Maryland Peniten- 
tiary, and the House of Correction. There were adult education and 
recreation classes for persons 16 years of age and over not regularly 
enrolled in day schools, nursery schools for children of pre-school age 
from underprivileged homes, and a vocational rehabilitation pro- 
gram supplementing the regular state program. The subjects in which 
instruction was given are listed. 

SUBJECTS TAUGHT 1934-35 



French 

Spanish 

German 

Plain sewing 

Garment making 

Remodeling 

Repairing 

Crocheting 

Knitting 

Canning of 
meats 
fish 

vegetables and 
fruits 

Cooking 

Home management 
Home nursing 
First aid 

Health education 
Parent education 
Child psychology 
Hygiene 

Weaving 
Basketry and 

other handicrafts 
Domestic service 



Agriculture 
Gardening 



Reading and 
writing for 
illiterates 



Singing 
Choral work 
Music appreciation 
Band music 
Orchestra music 
Piano 



Elementary subjects Art appreciation 



Science 
Chemistry 
Current events 
History 

English literature 
Current literature 
Arithmetic 
Algebra 
Grammar 

Junior college work 

Wood working 
Furniture repairing 

Blue print reading 

Hairdressing 



Swimming 
Life saving 



Physical Education 



Typewriting 
Shorthand 
Bookkeeping 
Commercial art 



Landscape gardening 



Americanization 



Nursery school classes 



Federal Emergency Adult Education Program 



209 



The size of the programs offered in the counties and Baltimore City 
is indicated by the total expenditures from federal funds for the 
period from September 1, 1934 to September 30, 1935, the enrolllment 
and the number of teachers employed in April, 1935, when they were 
close to the peak. 

TABLE 140 

Federal Emergency Education Program in Maryland 
Expenditures September 1, 1934 to September 30, 1935 
Enrollment and Teaching Staff April, 1935 



County 
Institutions 


Salaries 


Materials 


Enrollment 
April, 1935 


Teaching Stapp 
April, 1935 


Nursery 
School 


Adult 
General 


Nursery 
School 


Adult 
General 


Nursery 
School 


Adult 
General 


Total Counties 
Allegany 


$19,620 


$126,731 

8,300 
18,666 
5,158 


$1,886 

101 
414 
111 


241 


12,287 

796 
1,804 
640 


30 


299 

23 
38 
11 


Anne Arundel 
















Calvert 








Carroll 




*289 
2,984 
1,780 
3,616 
6,985 
7,965 
4,853 
3,436 
5,858 
9,290 
15,808 
4,891 
847 
7,513 
5,061 
8,687 
t484 
2,049 

60,739 
32,505 

5,951 

834 






*55 
250 
110 
205 

1,200 
361 
403 
302 
867 
777 

1,138 
482 
154 

1,021 
389 
755 
t272 
142 

8,478 
4,365 

203 

349 




6 
*1 
9 
3 
6 
19 
12 
10 
10 
18 
IS 
34 
11 
6 
30 
10 
21 
t3 
2 

197 
42 

5 

4 


Cecil 




41 


















5 

116 
96 

75 
67 
49 

43 














Harford 














































St. Mary's 










Somerset 


2,497 


309 


31 


4 




Washington 


17,123 


250 


210 


26 






2 

1,495 
1,630 

a4,2-32 

104 
66 

8 
25 
524 

bl,486 

$11,486 






Baltimore City .... 
P. A. L. 


21,386 


305 


32 


Vocational 

Rehabilitation 

Bowie Normal 
Univ. of Md. 








3,284 
2,619 


15 
22 


3 
4 


Md. Training 
School, Colored 


167 
1,024 
20,462 

5,030 

$253,443 


41 
60 
1,385 


3 
1 
20 

2 

573 








Penal Institutions 
















Grand Total 


$46,939 


583 


27,168 


69 





* Classes offered in July and August only. t Classes offered in Augasl only, 
u Appliances lor the handirappea. b Travel. 



Of a total expenditure of over $300,000 from federal funds for 
salaries, nearly $47,000 was used for the staff in the nui'sery schools 
and the remainder for the adult general classes. The expenditure for 
materials approximated $11,500. In the counties over $146,000 was 



210 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



spent for salaries of which nearly $20,000 was used for the nursery 
schools in Somerset and Washington. Anne Arundel and Prince 
George's counties had the largest programs. Calvert was the only 
county which did not participate. In April, 241 county children were 
cared for by 30 on the staff for the nursery schools and 12,287 adults 
were under the instruction of 299 unemployed teachers. (See Table 
140.) 

In Baltimore City nearly $82,000 was spent on salaries of which 
over $21,000 was devoted to the nursery school program, the remain- 
der being used for the adult general classes including the college centers 
for white and colored and classes in parental education. The April 
enrollment in the nursery schools was 305 with a staff of 32, while 
8,478 were in adult general classes under the instruction of 197 un- 
employed teachers. (See Table 140.) 

Baltimore City reopened the College Center at the Forst Park 
High School for 499 white students and established one for 482 colored 
high school graduates at the Douglass High School. These centers 
offered a definite program of freshman and sophomore academic 
college work under fully qualified teachers. 

The Baltimore City nursery school program included 7 schools 
and 30 teachers for 313 white children, and 3 schools with 19 teachers 
for 186 colored children. 

There were discussion groups for the parents of the nursery school 
children. Over 2,000 parents in Baltimore City were enrolled in 58 
discussion groups organized for the purpose of studying the problems 
of family life, especially those related to the education and conduct 
of children. 

A recreation program almost entirely confined to Baltimore City 
was carried on under the supervision of the Playground Athletic 
League. An expenditure of $32,500 for salaries and $1,630 for mater- 
ials was used by the 42 teachers who enrolled 4,365 in April. (See 
Table 140.) 

Under the supervisor of vocational rehabilitation, $5,951 was ex- 
pended for salaries and $4,262 for appliances during the year through 
the emergency federal program. In April 203 handicapped individ- 
uals were under the care of the staff of 3 case workers and 1 clerk. 
(See Table 140.) 

A nursery school program at the Bowie Normal School and the 
University of Maryland and adult classes at Bowie, the Maryland 
Training School for Colored Girls, Cheltenham for Colored Boys, 
and the Penitentiary and House of Correction completed the program. 
The cost of administration and travel paid by the federal govern- 
ment for Mr. Van Dorp and a clerk totalled $6,516. The services of 
the director of vocational education in general charge of the pro- 
gram were contributed by the State Department of Education. 
(See Table 140.) 



Emergency Adult Education; Vocational Rehabilitation 211 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 
Service Rendered from July 1, 1934, to June 30, 1935 

Some type of rehabilitation service was rendered to 574 physi- 
cally handicapped adults in Maryland during the year ending June 
30, 1935. Of this number, 101 were placed in satisfactory em- 
ployment after they had received vocational training or some other 
type of service; 49 others were placed on jobs but had not been em- 
ployed sufficiently long to determine whether they should be reported 
as rehabilitated (only permanent placements are reported as re- 
habilitations); 20 additional persons had completed courses of train- 
ing and were awaiting employment; 168 were in training or under- 
going other preparation service; and plans for the training and place- 
ment of 160 additional cases had been made. Besides the above 
group that was active on June 30, 1935, after some type of service 



TABLE 141 

Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland 
During Year Ending June 30, 1935 











Training 


Being 




Closed 




Total 




Being 


Completed 


Prepared 


Surveyed, 


after 


COUNTY 


No. of 


Rehabili- 


Followed 


Awaiting 


for 


under 


other 




Cases 


tated 


on Jobs 


Jots 


Employ- 


Advise- 


Services! 












ment* 


ment 




Total Counties .. 


324 


59 


4 


12 


93 


108 


48 


Allegany 


52 


8 




2 


15 


21 


6 


Anne Arunde! 


9 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 




Baltimore 


21 

3 


6 






9 


6 




Calvert 








2 


1 




Caroline 


10 


1 






4 


5 




Carroll 


8 


5 






1 


2 




Cecil 


14 


2 


1 




2 


5 


4 


Charles 


3 






1 




2 




Dorchester 


15 


1 




1 


4 


6 


3 


Frederick 


25 


5 






5 


12 


3 


Garrett 


22 


3 




2 


13 


2 


2 


Harford.. 


11 


1 


1 


1 


2 


5 


1 


Howard 


2 


1 






1 






Kent 


8 


1 






4 


2 


Montgomery 

Prince George's.. 
Queen Anne's .... 
St. Mary's 


9 








4 


3 


2 


8 

9 


1 






2 


4 




4 






2 




3 


2 








1 






Somerset 


10 


2 




1 


3 


4 




Talbot 


9 


3 








4 


2 


Washington 


43 


12 




1 


9 


10 


11 


Wicomico 


25 


1 


1 


1 


9 


7 


6 


Worcester 


6 


1 






1 


2 


2 


Baltimore City 


250 


42 


45 


8 


75 


52 


28 


Total State: 
















1935 


574 


101 


49 


20 


168 


160 


76 


1934 _ 


261 


73 


31 


12 


99 


46 


x82 


1933 


°228 


43 




22 


59 


90 


x35 


1932 


245 


41 




11 


52 


141 


x95 


1931 


246 


18 




12 


29 


137 


50 



♦ Through training, artificial appliance, hospitalization, or otherwise, 
t Cases accepted and rendered service, but not rehabilitated. 

° Includes 14 cases in Baltimore City where period of employment was not sufficiently long 
to determine whether the jobs were permanent. 
X Not eligible or susceptible. 



212 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



had been rendered, 76 other cases were closed as not feasible 
because they had left the State, or for other reasons. (See Table 
141.) 

Disabled persons from every county in the State and the City of 
Baltimore received rehabilitation service during the year, the num- 
ber of cases in the counties being somewhat larger than in Baltimore. 

Legislation 

The 1935 session of the Maryland Legislature passed three laws 
that will affect the rehabilitation program : 

(1) Creation of a State Department of Public Welfare with an organ- 
ization in each county to render financial and other assistance to "un- 
employable" citizens. Many of the disabled will be so classified and will 
be entitled to assistance under the new law. 

(2) A board of examiners for barbers was created and apprenticeship 
training in this vocation for a two-year period was made compulsory. 

(3) A board of examiners for beauty culturists was established and 
rigid requirements concerning school training and apprenticeship were 
set up for all operators. 

Cooperation with Other Agencies 
Contacts have been maintained with the various educational, 
health, social welfare, and civic agencies of the State. Working 
agreements have been in effect between the rehabilitation service and 
the State Employment Commission, State Industrial Accident Com- 
mission, Emergency Relief offices, and the National Reemployment 
service. 

Training Objectives 
During the past year it was possible to secure training in craft 
work for 13 disabled rehabilitation clients in Garrett County, the 
most rural section of the State. Individual instruction was given 
in such crafts as rug weaving, doll making, and die stamping. There 
are no industrial training facilities in this territory and until the 
present program was begun, most of the disabled persons of the 
county were supported entirely by their relatives or through relief 
agencies. Some of the 13 to whom training was given are already 
earning money from the sale of their products to tourists who frequent 
the county in large numbers during the summer months. It is our 
hope that all 13 will be self-supporting as a result of the intensive 
training which they received. 

In addition to the craft work, training and placement was given 
in the following job objectives during 1934-35: 

Accountant Dressmaker Poultryman 

Aeroplane Wood Worker Elevator Inspector Refrigeration Repair 
Auto Repairman Farmer Salesman 

Auto Ignition Furniture Repairman Shoe Repairman 

Barber Lens Grinder Sign Painter 

Beauty Culture Linotype Operator Stenographer 

Bookkeeper Laboratory Assistant Tie Maker 

Cabinet Maker Machinist Truck Driver 

Cleaner and Presser Miner Typist 

Crane Operator Photo Retoucher Upholsterer 

Dairyman Printer Welding 



Vocational Rehabilitation 



213 



Emergency Relief in Rehabilitation 
It was only through the help of the Federal Emergency Relief Ad- 
ministration that it was possible to increase the program over that of 
last year. With the funds made available through this government 
agency, three case workers and one clerk were employed to take care 
of needy and unemployed disabled persons. ' ' Of the 574 cases shown 
in Table 141, 254 were cared for by the Emergency staff. 

Cost of the Program 

The rehabilitation program has cost $106,016 during the six-year 
period since its beginning on October 1, 1929 to June 30, 1935. 

Rehabilitation has proved itself to be a profitable investment as 
shown by the earnings of those who have been placed by the Service 
during the past five years. From $6,410 spent in 1929-30 and $10,686 
in 1930-31, expenditures have grown each year until, with the aid 
of the emergency reUef program, $32,438 was expended in 1934-35. 
Accompanying the increase in cost, there has been a steady increase 
in the number rehabilitated from 5 in 1929-30, 18 in 1930-31, 41 in 
1931-32, to 101 in 1934-35. (See second column in lower part of 
Table 141.) Of the amount expended, $46,157 came from State funds, 
$58,885 from the federal government, and $974 from private sources. 

Of the 281 rehabilitated during the six-year period ending in June 
1935, 218 or 77 per cent were employed on January 1, 1936. At that 
date there were 332 persons entirely dependent for their support on 
these 218 individuals, which means that these rehabilitations were 
responsible for the sustenance of 550 individuals. 

The weekly wage of rehabilitated individuals, which averaged 
$12.46 at the time of rehabilitation, increased to $17.30 for the 218 
still employed on January 1, 1936, a gain of 39 per cent. Since the 
majority of the individuals were rehabihtated in 1933-34 and 1934-35 
the average period of employment was one and a half years. 

The aggregate earnings of the 281 individuals rehabilitated during 
the six-year period totalled $369,560. The excess of earnings over the 
cost of the rehabilitation program was $263,544. This means that 
for a total investment of $106,016, the return has been 250 per cent 
during this short period and if the State's investment of $46,157 alone 
is considered, the return has been 570 per cent. These same in- 
dividuals will continue working for many years to come, so that rich 
returns will continue to pile up on the small amount expended for 
their rehabilitation. 



FINANCING THE MARYLAND SCHOOLS 
School Costs from 1920 to 1935 

The expenditure of $8,189,910 for school current expenses in the 
Maryland counties in the school year ending in July, 1935, was nearly 
$80,000 more than was spent in 1934, but was from $300,000 to 
to $700,000 less than ;had been spent in the four years preceding 
1934. (See Table 142 and Chart 35.) 



CHART 35 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid in the 23 Counties and 
Baltimore City*, 1919 to 1935 




i<?z3 1925 ^'^^'\ i«v3» I'jaa I'^^s 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training taachars in City training school(s), but excludes 
amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 



During the period from 1919 to 1935, State aid to the counties was 
at its maximum in 1934 and 1935, totalling approximately $3,730,000, 
the large increase being due to provision of the State fund of 
$1,500,000 for reduction of taxation in the 23 counties and the lower- 
ing of the minimum county school tax rate from 67 to 47 cents for 
a county eligible to share in the State Equalization Fund. In con- 
sequence, county support of schools totalling $4,330,000 and 
$4,460,000 in 1934 and 1935 was lower than for any year since 1924. 
(See Table 142 and Chart 35.) 



214 



Financing the Maryland Schools 



215 



TABLE 142 

Expenditure for School Current Expenses From State and Local Funds and 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1935 



CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 



Total 



From State 
and Federal 
Funds 



From Local 
Funds 



$3,184 
3,703. 
5,043, 
5,291, 
5,964, 
6.475, 
6,743, 
7,143, 
7,517, 
7,787, 
8,164, 
8,456, 
8,852, 
8,892, 
8,485 
8,010, 
8,189 



351.22 
153.29 
923.02 
124.43 
,456.44 
802.93 
015.08 
,149.65 
,728.77 
,298.09 
,657.18 
,414.05 
,073.43 
,181.36 
,145.77 
,424.97 
P08.69 



,832, 
,706, 
,394, 
,631, 
,949, 
,963, 
,419, 
,660 
,040, 
,503 
,910. 
,340: 
.817 
,542 
,494. 
,095. 
.576. 



543.59 
641.51 
655.76 
682.32 
793.45 
332.47 
638.99 
,787.84 
694.93 
,427.29 
245.11 
,560.01 
,669.53 
,054.34 
,508.42 
588.20 
553. .32 



$6,016 
7,409 
10,438 
11,922 
i2,914 
13,439 
14,162, 
14,803 
15,558 
16,290 
17,074, 
17,796 
18,669 
18,434 
16,979. 
16,106 
16.766 



,894.81 
,794.80 
,578.78 
,806.75 
,249.89 
,135.40 
,654.07 
,937.49 
,423.70 
,725.38 
,902.29 
974.06 
742.96 
235.70 
654.19 
,013.17 
462.01 



Total Counties 



$1,230, 
1.186, 
1,554, 
1,545, 
2,026, 
2,068, 
2,161, 
2.248. 
2, .329 
°2,246 
°2,322: 
t2,348 
2,386 
2,725, 
2,596 
3,680 
3.729 



181.60 
192.67 
693.60 
695.85 
315.58 
186.05 
571.04 
399.75 
,031.35 
,541.47 
643.82 
,530.19 
,738.76 
,905.04 
544.97 
,609.01 
778.20 



$1,954, 
2,516 
3,489 
3,745 
3,938 
4,407 
4,581 
4,894, 
5,188 
5,. 540 
5,842, 
6,107 
6,465. 
6,166, 
5,888. 
4,329 
4.460 



,169.62 
,960.62 
,229.42 
,428.58 
,140.86 
,616.88 
,444.04 
,749.90 
697.42 
756.62 
013.36 
883.86 
334.67 
276.32 
600.80 
,815.96 
130.49 



Baltimore City^ 



$ 671 
713. 
1.032 
1,026 
1,066 
1,061 
1,042 
1,056 
1,086 
+1,016 
tl,037 
995 
946 
985 
1,083 
958 
980 



,006.78 
,287.02 
,541.55 
,972.79 
,100.96 
,111.63 
,479.92 
,893.87 
,496.95 
.993.13 
,490.92 
,063.18 
,023.62 
562.39 
401.42 
666.94 
?96.61 



$2,161 
2,993! 
4,362 
5,604 
5,883 
5,902 
6,377 
6,603 
6,954 
7,486 
7,872 
8,345 
8,871 
8,556 
7.411 
7,136 
7.596 



,536.81 
,354.49 
,114.21 
,709.53 
,692.49 
,220.84 
,159.07 
,893.97 
,197.98 
,434.16 
,754.19 
,496.83 
,645.91 
,491.95 
,107.00 
,921.26 
.256.71 



Entire State"^ 



$1,901, 
1,899, 
2,587, 
2,572, 
3,092, 
3,129. 
3,204, 
3,305. 
3,415, 
3,263, 
3,360. 

+3,343 
3,332 
3,711 
3,679 
4,639 
4.710 



188.38 
479.69 
235.15 
668.64 
416.54 
297.68 
050.96 
293.62 
.528.30 
,534.60 
,134.74 
,593.37 
,762.38 
,467.43 
,946.39 
,275.95 
.074.81 



$4,115, 
5,510. 
7,851, 
9,350, 
9,821, 
10,309. 
10,958, 
11,498, 
12,142, 
13,027, 
13,714, 
14,453, 
15*36, 
14,722, 
13,299, 
11,466, 
12.056, 



706.43 
315.11 
343.63 
138.11 
833.35 
837.72 
603.11 
643.87 
895.40 
190.78 
767.55 
380.69 
980.58 
768.27 
707.80 
737.22 
387.80 



Capital 
Outlay 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school(s), 
excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for thp Retirement Fund. 
+ Excludes recoiots from liquidation of Free School Fund. 
° Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



but 



216 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Capital outlay in the counties in 1935 totalling $1,591,000, in- 
cluded aid from federal P. W. A. funds. In only six years of the seven- 
teen for which data are reported did the school capital outlay in the 
counties exceed the amount for 1935. (See Table 142.) 

In Baltimore City the current expenses for schools totalling 
$8,576,553 in 1935 were almost $481,000 more than for the preceding 
year when they were at their lowest point in the past eight years. 
Baltimore City current expenditures for 1935 were over $387,000 
higher than 1935 county expenditures. Baltimore City figures ex- 
clude contributions by City and State to the Employees' Retirement 
System on account of teachers. (See Table 142 and Chart 35.) 

State aid for schools to Baltimore City, exclusive of contributions 
to the Retirement System which amount to nearly half a million 
dollars, were nearly $980,300 in 1935, an increase of $21,600 over 
1934. Since 1921, State school aid for Baltimore City has fluctuated 
between $946,000 and $1,086,500. (See Table 142 and Cliart 35.) 

Baltimore's local levy for schools, $7,596,000 in 1935 was $460,000 
more than for the preceding year. It was exceeded by appropriations 
in only four preceding years, those from 1929 to 1932. Capital outlay 
in 1935 totalling $642,191 was smaller than in any preceding years, 
except 1919, 1920, and 1929. (See Table 142.) 

The 1935 current expenditures for the entire State, $16,766,462, 
exceeded those for 1934 by $660,000. Expenditures from 1923 to 
1933, inclusive, were greater than those for 1935. State aid in 1935 
totalling $4,710,000, was at its maximum. County and local support 
of schools in 1935, aggregating $12,056,000, was exceeded during the 
period from 1927 to 1933, inclusive. Capital outlay totalled 
$2,233,000 in 1935. (See Table 142.) 

Causes of Increase in Cost 
From 1920 to 1935 the total current expenses of public schools in- 
creased approximately 121 per cent in the counties and 131 per cent 
in Baltimore City. The levy in the counties increased by 77 per cent, 
while that in Baltimore City increased by 154 per cent. State aid 
increased 228 per cent in the counties and 51.5 per cent in the City. 
Meanwhile, attendance in the counties increased by 48.5 per cent 
and in Baltimore City, the gain was 41 per cent. The difference 
between per cent of increase in cost and in number of pupils is ac- 
counted for by changes in the purchasing power of the dollar, longer 
school terms for colored schools, a larger proportion of pupils in high 
schools (the more expensive part of the school system) , a larger pro- 
portion of trained and experienced teachers and school officials who 
command higher salaries, provision for supervision for elementary 
schools in every county, provision for transporting county children 
to consolidated elementary and high schools, specialized provision 
for handicapped children. (See Tables 142 and 143.) 



Cos: OF Schools; Causes of Increase in Cost; Per Cent of State Aid 217 



TABLE 143 

Day School Enrollment and Attendance in Elementary and Secondary Schools 
of Counties and Baltimore City 1920 to 1935 





23 Counties 


Baltimore City- 


Entire 


State 


School 














Year 










, 




Ending 


En- 


At- 


En- 


At- 


1 En- 


At- 


June 30 


rollment 


tendance 


rollment 


tendance 


rollment 


tendance 


1920 


*145,045 


99,812 


*96,573 


75,500 


*241,618 


175,312 


1921 


*149 045 


108 178 


*100 092 

X \J\J f\J *7 id 


81,570 


*249,137 


189,748 


1922 


*147,409 


114,190 


*101,480 


84^208 


: *248,889 


198,398 


1923 


152,474 


115,743 


104,072 


86,124 


I 256,546 


201,867 


1924 


151,538 


117,222 


104,764 


86,540 


256^302 


203',762 


1925 


153,636 


121,665 


107,133 


89,467 


260,769 


211,132 


1926 


154,969 


123,260 


108,280 


90,844 


263,249 


214,104 


1927 


156,788 


127,018 


111,029 


91,925 1 


267,817 


218,943 


1928 


158,368 


131,439 


112,532 


94,230 


! 270,900 


225,669 


1929 


160,217 


131,923 


113,315 


94,731 


273,532 


226,654 


1930 


162,209 


137,481 


115,250 


98,074 


277,459 


245,555 


1931 


165,314 


142,397 


116,203 


101,064 


' 281,517 


243,461 


1932 


168,964 


145,676 


119,205 


103,722 


288,169 


249,398 


1933 


172,745 


150,301 


121,374 


105,627 


294,119 


255,928 


1934 


172,109 


147,239 


121,569 


104,987 


293,678 


252,226 


1935 


172,409 


148,174 


123,068 


106,443 


295,477 


254,617 


Increase 














1920-35 




48,362 




30,943 




79,305 


% of In- 








crease 




48.5 




41.0 




45.2 



* Duplicates not excluded as in later years. 



Per Cent of Aid Available from State and Federal Funds 

The State and Federal aid represented 45.5 per cent of county 
school current expenses in 1935, a decrease of .4 under the percentage 
of the previous year which had showed a gain of nearly 50 per cent over 
1933. The distribution on the basis of total population in the counties 
of $1,500,000 for reduction of taxation and the reduction of the re- 
quired minimum county taxation for receipt of the Equalization 
Fund from 67 cents to 47 cents accounted for the big change between 
1933 and 1934 in the proportion of State aid given the 23 counties. 
Among the counties, the State aid varied from 30 per cent in Mont- 
gomery to 71 per cent in Somerset. Eight counties received more than 
half of their school current expenses from State and Federal Funds. 
These counties were Somerset, Garrett, Calvert, St. Mary's, Caroline, 
Charles, Dorchester, and Carroll. (See Tahle 144 and Chart 36.) 

In Baltimore City, excluding City and State contributions to the 
Retirement System, receipts from State and Federal funds repre- 
sented 11.5 per cent of the total school current expenses, thus bringing 
the total percentage for the State to 28.1. (See Table 144 and Chart 
36.) 



218 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 144 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State and Federal 
Funds for Year Ending July 31, 1935 



Countv 



Total Counties 



Somerset 

Garrett 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Wicomico.. 

Howard..... 

Kent 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Washington 

Prince George's. 
Anne Arundel .. 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

A'hgany 

Montgomery 



Baltimore City 
State 



Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses 



$8,189,908.69 

191,312.72 
277,784.36 
95,443.76 
119,930.33 
186,343.90 
173,624.22 
250,126.46 
386,871.89 
202,768.75 
272,085.42 
150,634.21 
145,631.77 
154,050.76 
176,156.97 
314,139.65 
593,766.10 
600,774.98 
532,104.41 
264,968.10 
505,408.56 
1,104,282.14 
810,401.71 
681,297.52 

t8,561,309.64 

16,751,218.33 



Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 



*State and 
Federal 
Aid 



County and 
Other 
Sources 



$3,729,778.20 

135,891.03 
193,569.25 
65,854.85 
75,500.77 
117,146.99 
106,904.87 
147,332.95 
196,526.33 
99,755.30 
133,445.67 
73,562.51 
69,613.86 
72,993.56 
80,837.76 
138,893.34 
255,954.97 
255,810.23 
225,281.52 
110,674.53 
210,418.43 
441,428.92 
314,557.90 
207,822.66 

t980,296.61 

4,710,074.81 



$4,460,130.49 

55,421.69 
84,215.11 
29,588.91 
44,429.56 
69,196.91 
66,719.35 
102,793.51 
190,345.56 
103,013.45 
138,639.75 
77,071.70 
76,017.91 
81,057.20 
95,319.21 
175,246.31 
337,811.13 
344,964.75 
306,822.89 
154,293.57 
294,990.13 
662,853.22 
495,843.81 
473,474.86 

7,581,013.03 

12,041,143.52 



Per Cent of Current Expense 
Disbursements received from 



45.5 

71.0 
69.7 
69.0 
63.0 
62.9 
61.6 
58.9 
50.8 
49.2 
49.1 
48.8 
47.8 
47.4 
45.9 
44.2 
43.1 
42.6 
42.3 
41.8 
41.6 
40.0 
38.8 
30.5 

11.5 

28.1 



cSt3 ' 

l|.sl 



41.2 

49.5 
35.4 
45.9 
52.0 
44.5 
44.7 
45.1 
39.9 
46.3 
47.2 
48.8 
43.9 
44.2 
45.9 
44.2 
43.1 
42.6 
38.6 
41.8 
41.6 
40.0 
38.8 
30.5 

11.5 

26.0 



11 

si 



4.3 

21.5 
34.3 
23.1 
11.0 
18.4 
16.9 
13.8 
19.9 
2.9 
1.9 



3.9 
3.2 



3.7 



c o 

C3C/2 



54.5 



2.1 



41. 

49. 

50.8 

50.9 

51.2 

52.2 

52.6 

54.1 

55.8 

56.9 

57.4 

57.7 

58.2 

58.4 

60.0 

61.2 

69.5 

88.5 

71.9 



* Excludes all statp and federal aid due for the year 1933-1934, received aft^r .July 31, 1934. 
t Excludes $850,991 for Teachers' Retirement System, of which $597,528.50 was paid by the 
State. 

The per cent of school current expenses in the 23 counties repre- 
sented by the Equahzation Fund was 4.3, but in the 13 individual 
counties which participated in its distribution, the per cent of the 
receipts from the Equalization Fund reached a maximum of 34.3 in 
Garrett and was at its minimum in Wicomico with 1.9 per cent. 
This Fund represents the difference between the current expense 
cost of the minimum program as calculated by the State Depart- 
ment staff and the total funds available when to a 47 cent county levy 
for schools are added the various forms of State aid other than 
the Equalization Fund. (See Table 144 and Chart 36.) 

Baltimore City and most of the counties which did not receive the 
Equalization Fund, which appear at the bottom of Table 144 and 
Chart 36, carried a program in excess of State minimum requirements 
with respect to salaries, number of teachers, number of grades of- 
fered below the last four years of high school, and provision for costs 
other than salaries of teachers. (See Table 144 and Chart 36.) 



Per Cent of State and Federal Aid 



219 



CHART 36 

PER CENT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1955 



Received from 



State and Federal Funds Excludixig 

„ , Equalization Fund 
Equalization Fvind 



Y/////A County Funds and Other Sources 
60 80 




100 



V//////////////7, 



y///////////////////////////. 



4 V//////////////////////////A 



V///////////////////////////, 



V/////}/////////////////////. 



y///////////////////////////M 



'/////////y///////////////////A 



4 y//////////////////////////////. 



'^/////////////////////////////. 



y////////////////////////////. 



y////////////////////////////A 



y///////////////////////////77> 



Baltimore City 
State 



THE SCHOOL CURRENT EXPENSE TAX DOLLAR 

Of the average dollar spent in 1935 in the 23 counties for school 
current expenses, 3.1 cents were used for general control or adminis- 
tration, including the cost of the office of the county superintendent, 
with its clerical staff and attendance officer, and expenses of the 
county board of education. In several of the largest counties, an 
assistant superintendent was employed. Countv supervision of 



220 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



schools, chiefly elementary, since only two counties employ high 
school supervisors, cost 1.8 cents of each dollar. The largest item in 
the tax dollar, 67.4 cents, went to pay the salaries of teachers and 
principals. Books, materials, and other costs incident to instruction, 
other than salaries, took 4.2 cents. Heating, cleaning and repairing 
buildings required 10.5 cents of each dollar, while transportation, 
health, libraries, and fixed charges including insurance, needed 13 
cents. (See Tahie 145 and Chart 37.) 

TABLE 145 

Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1935 





Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used for 


























Per Cent of 














03 






03 




Expenditures 




















.i 


c ,.2 


for Current 


COUNTY 


"o 
















"S 
c 




Expenses and 




















a; 




Capital Out- 




c 

o 


s 






05 






s 

a 


< 




! lay Used for 




O 








^ 




c 


C3 


>> 




lanital 




"rt 


"> 






U 




_o 


c 




U.2_c 


Outlay 




ener 


a! 

Q 




alari( 


03 
OJ 
-1 


ooks 
and 
of I 


pera 


+j 
_c 
'55 


uxili 


ixed 
Tui 
join 






O 


1/ 








pa 


O 




< 






County Average 


3.1 


1 


8 


67 


.4 


4.2 


7.6 


2.9 


11.6 


1.4 


16.3 


Allegany. 


2.3 


1 


5 


71 


.0 


5.9 


8.1 


1.7 


9.0 


.5 


17.0 


Anne Arundel 


3.2 




5 


63 


.6 


5.1 


8.1 


2.0 


14.4 


2.1 


5.0 


Baltimore 


2.6 


1 


4 


71 


.8 


3.2 


8.1 


1.8 


8.9 


2.2 


14.4 


Calvert 


6.2 


3 


6 


50 


.5 


1.8 


5.5 


1.4 


30.0 


1.0 


6.5 


Caroline 


4.6 


2 


1 


62 


.7 


3.4 


6.9 


2.7 


16.6 


1.0 


1.4 


Carroll .... 


2.5 


1 


4 


62 


.0 


5.6 


5.5 


2.7 


17.7 


2.6 


16.9 


Cecil.. 


2.9 


1 


5 


68 


.9 


5.9 


6.6 


3.0 


10.4 


1.8 


5.3 


Charles. 


3.3 


2 


3 


57 


.7 


6.1 


7.6 


4.5 


17.7 


.8 


2.7 


Dorchester 


3.7 


2 


7 


65 





3.3 


6.6 


3.7 


14.1 


.9 


.4 


Frederick 


2.5 


1 


6 


65 


9 


4.8 


6.6 


2.9 


13.3 


1.4 


1.1 


Garrett.. 


3.7 


1 


8 


59 


1 


3.4 


4.2 


2.2 


21.4 


4.2 


1.9 


Harford 


2.8 


2. 





74 


5 


3.8 


6.8 


4.3 


5.1 


.7 


10.2 


Howard.. 


4.4 


2. 


4 


64 


8 


4.5 


6.4 


1.0 


12.8 


3.7 


4.0 


Kent 


4.8 


2. 


8 


63 


3 


1.1 


7.5 


3.6 


16.5 


.4 


51.9 


Montgomery . 


2.8 


1. 


8 


69 





4.0 


9.9 


3.8 


7.2 


1.5 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


2.6 


1 


5 


69 


5 


5.1 


9.8 


5.7 


5.7 


.1 


33.1 


4.8 


2. 


1 


58 


1 


3.9 


6.4 


3.0 


20.9 


.8 


2.9 


St. Mary's 


5.9 


3. 





55 


3 


3.9 


4.1 


4.1 


22.8 


.9 




Somerset 


4.1 


1. 


7 


68 


2 


4.2 


7.0 


2.4 


11.4 


1.0 


.5 


Talbot 


5.3 


2. 


3 


63 


4 


3.6 


8.0 


2.2 


13.6 


1.6 


.1 


Washington 


2.2 


1. 


6 


75 


9 


3.0 


7.2 


1.7 


7.1 


1.3 


.4 


Wicomico 


3.8 


1. 


9 


66 


7 


3.9 


7.6 


6.3 


9.5 


.3 


2.2 


Worcester. .. 


3.9 


2. 





61 


4 


3.4 


8.5 


4.5 


15.4 


.9 


.8 


Baltimore City 


3.3 


1. 


3 


76 





3.3 


10.2 


3.1 


2.5 


.3 


6.4 


State 


3.2 


1. 


5 


71 


8 


3.8 


8.9 


3.0 


6.9 


.9 


11.3 



Changes from the preceding year meant a reduction of seven tenths 
of one cent for salaries, of three tenths of one cent for repairs, and of 
one tenth of one cent for fixed charges, while costs of instruction 
other than salaries were greater by five tenths of one cent, of.heating 
and cleaning buildings by four tenths of one cent, and auxiliary agen- 
cies by two tenths of one cent. The change in fixed charges and 
auxiliary agencies in part was due to the classification in seven coun- 
ties of the cost of insurance on buses under auxiliary agencies in 1935 



How THE School Tax Dollar Is Used 221 

instead of under fixed charges as in preceding years. (See Table 
145land Chart 37.) 

CHART 37 




■* Fixed charges and payments to adjoining counties. 

Among the counties the percentage distributions showed wide 
variation due to size of county, density of population, the stage of the 
program of consoHdation and other factors. For general control, the 
larger counties, Washington, Allegany, Frederick, Carroll, Baltimore, 
2nd Prince George's spent from 2.2 to 2.6 cents out of each tax dollar 
in contrast with amounts from 4.8 to 6.2 cents in small counties such 
as Calvert, St. Mary's, Talbot, Queen Anne's, and Kent. All of the 
functions of running a county school system have to be performed 
whether the county be large or small. The proportionate overhead 
cost in the small county is necessarily much greater than in the large 
county. 

Variation in per cent of current expense funds devoted to super- 
visory costs was from 1.4 and 1.5 cents in Baltimore, Carroll, Alle- 
gany, Anne Arundel, Cecil, and Prince George's Counties, which 
counties employed fewer supervisors than the number for whom 
they were eligible to receive State aid, to from 2.8 to 3.6 cents in 
Kent, St. Mary's, and Calvert in which the number of elementary 
teachers to be supervised is small. Since the supervisory program is a 



222 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



most important element in promoting and maintaining the efficiency 
of instruction, every county is required to have at least one super- 
visor. (See Table 145.) 

The per cent of funds used for salaries of principals and teachers 
varied from less than 60 in Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, Queen Anne's, 
and Garrett to more than 70 per cent in Washington, Harford, Balti- 
more, and Allegany Counties. The former group of counties pay only 
the required minimum salaries and because of the scattered popula- 
tion transport a high percentage of pupils to school, which means 
that a large proportion of their funds must be set aside for auxiliary 
agencies. On the other hand, the latter group of counties pay salaries 
above those required in the minimum State salary schedule, and 
transport a smaller proportion of their pupils to school, either be- 
cause of the concentration of population in urban or suburban cen- 
ters or because a widespread program of school consolidation has 
not yet been adopted. (See Table 145.) 

Great variation appeared also for auxiliary agencies, — transporta- 
tion, libraries, health, evening schools, and community activities. 
Four counties^ — Harford, Prince George's, Washington, and Mont- 
gomery — devoted between 5.1 and 7.2 per cent of their current ex- 
penses to these purposes, whereas between 20 and 80 per cent were 
used in Calvert, St. Mary's, Garrett, and Queen Anne's, which 
transport a large proportion of their pupils. (See Table 145.) 

Kent and Calvert were the only counties which spent less than 3 
per cent of their current expenses for books, materials, and other 
costs of instruction," and in these counties only 1.1 and 1.8 per cent 
was devoted to these purposes. Kent had not paid for purchases 
made and put to use, so that amounts which would have increased 
this low percentage appeared among outstanding bills. In contrast, 
Charles, Cecil, Allegany, Carroll, Anne Arundel, and Prince George's 
used between 5 and 6 per cent of their current expenditures for these 
tools and aids to instruction. (See Table 145.) 

Operation — heating and cleaning buildings — took as little as 4.1 
and 4.2 per cent of current expenses in St. Mary's and Garrett, which 
have a large proportion of one-teacher schools. Schools in these 
counties are kept clean by giving a small allowance to the teacher and 
in Garrett they are heated with inexpensive coal available close to 
the surface. (See Table 145.) 

Repairs absorbed between 1 and 2 per cent of current expenses in 
Howard, Calvert, Washington, Allegany, and Baltimore Counties, 
while in Wicomico, Prince George's, Worcester, Charles, Harford, 
and St. Mary's, between 4.1 and 6.3 per cent was used for this pur- 
pose. (See Table 145.) 

Less than half of one per cent of the budget was used for fixed 
charges and tuition to adjoining counties in Prince George's, Wicom- 
ico, and Kent, while, at the opposite extreme, Howard and Garrett 
spent 3.7 and 4.2 per cent, respectively, for these purposes. Both 
of the latter counties had to pay a considerable amount for tuition 
to adjoining counties and states. (See Table 145.) 



Use of School Tax Dollar; Cost per Day School Pupil 



223 



Per Cent for Capital Outlay 

The per cent of the combined amount for current expenses and 
capital outlay used for the latter averaged 16.3 per cent, but among 
the counties it varied from less than one per cent in St. Mary's, Kent, 
Talbot, Dorchester, Washington, and Worcester, to 33 and 52 per 
cent in Prince George's and Montgomery, which had available 
grants of funds from the Public Works Administration. (See last 
column in Table 145.) 

COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL 

The downward trend in average current cost per county day school 
pupil from the peak in 1931 when it was $56.44 to the trough in 
1934 when it was $48.74 moved upward slightly in 1935 to $49.90. 
The increase from 1934 to 1935 was, therefore, $1.16 or 2.3 per cent. 
These figures exclude expenditures to adjoining counties and states 
and costs of evening schools. Enrollment figures for the elementary 
schools connected with the State Teachers Colleges have been 
excluded, since no costs appear for these schools in the county bud- 
gets. (See Table 146.) 

TABLE 146 

Cost Per Day-School Pupil Belonging for Current Expense for Years 
1932, 1933, 1934, and 1935 



County 


tl932 


tl933 


tl934 


tl935 


Increase 

1935 
over 1934 


County Average 


$55.51 


$51.89 


$48.74 


$49.90 


$1.16 


Montgomery 


65.96 


59.17 


56.51 


62.14 


5.63 


Carroll 


66.71 


60.82 


55.40 


57.62 


2.22 


Cecil 


58.07 


57.38 


55.05 


56.74 


1.69 


Garrett 


66.86 


61.22 


54.41 


55.37 


.96 


Queen Anne's 


61.34 


59.01 


53.92 


55.27 


1.35 


Kent 


61.13 


58.19 


56.56 


52.46 


*4.10 


Talbot 


56.26 


51.79 


51.47 


52.44 


.97 


Allegany 


60.37 


55.9T 


52.15 


51.35 


*.80 


Caroline 


57.37 


54.15 


49.58 


51.08 


1.50 


Harford 


53.06 


50.26 


49.10 


49.94 


.84 


Frederick 


50.99 


49.03 


49.15 


49.68 


.53 


Charles 


47.80 


46.03 


44.64 


49.63 


4.99 


Baltimore 


55.98 


50.03 


48.20 


48.64 


.44 


Anne Arundel 


52.87 


49.47 


45.59 


48.29 


2.70 


St. Mary's 


51.50 


49.09 


45.79 


48.28 


2.49 


Howard 


54.25 


51.87 


50.98 


47.66 


*3.32 


Dorchester 


51.20 


50.68 


46.69 


46.47 


*.22 


Worcester 


51.42 


49.36 


44.95 


46.43 


1.48 


Prince George's 


52.31 


49.87 


44.01 


46.23 


2.22 


Calvert 


48.96 


47.07 


44.44 


45.18 


.74 


Wicomico 


48.83 


46.45 


44.70 


45.08 


.38 


Washington 


51.01 


47.41 


43.68 


43.36 


*.32 


Somerset 


45.72 


44.57 


39.96 


42.35 


2.39 



t In making this calculation, expenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for 
evening schools have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Frostburg, Salisbury, and 
Bowie Normal Elementary Schools have been eliminated. 

* Decrease. 



224 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Among the counties, per pupil costs ranged from $42.35 in Somer- 
set to $62.14 in Montgomery. In five counties — Montgomery, Car- 
roll, Cecil, Garrett, and Queen Anne's, the 1935 cost per pupil was 
over $55. In Washington and Somerset, the per pupil costs were un- 
der $45. Montgomery County which restored in full salary cuts 
which had been in effect the year previously had the largest increased 
cost per pupil, $5.63. Charles County which restored one half of 
the salary cut in effect in 1933-4 had the second largest increase, 
$4.99. Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, Somerset, Prince George's, and 
Carroll had increases of over $2 in cost per pupil. (See TahLe 146.) 

In five counties, — Kent, Howard, Allegany, Washington, and 
Dorchester, — the cost per pupil was lower than it was for the pre- 
ceding year, the decreases being particularly large in Kent and 
Howard. (See T^/^/e 146.) 

The proportion of high school pupils, the proportion of colored 
pupils, the length of session in colored schools, the proportion of 
pupils in small one-teacher schools, the ratio of pupils to teachers, 
the enrichment of the high school curriculum, the proportion of 
pupils transported to school, the length of transportation route and 
type of vehicle used, the salary schedule are some of the factors which 
affect the total average cost per pupil. In general, the county having 
a large proportion of pupils in one-teacher schools, a small number of 
pupils per teacher, a large proportion of pupils in high school, and 
an enriched curriculum is likely to have higher costs per pupil. (See 
Table 146.) 

Cost Per Pupil for General Control 

The average cost per pupil of general control, which was $1.53 
in 1934, increased to $1.55 in 1935. About half of the counties spent a 
smaller amount for general control per pupil in 1935 than in 1934. 
In three of the remaining counties, the cost remained stationary. 
The greatest increases appeared in Caroline, Calvert, and Anne 



TABLE 147 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



COUNTY 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Increase 
1935 
Over 
1934 


COUNTY 


1933 


1934 


1935 


Increase 
1935 
Over 
1934 


County Average 


$1.68 


$1 


53 


$1.55 


$ .02 


Dorchester 


$1 


80 


$1.78 


$1.72 


*.06 






Cecil 


1 


78 


1.66 


1.67 


.01 


St. Mary's 


3.29 


2 


86 


2.86 






1 


42 


1.75 


1.63 


*.12 


Calvert 


2.95 


2 


34 


2.83 


.49 


Anne Arundel 


1 


33 


1.30 


1.55 


.25 


Talbot 


2.62 


2 


64 


2.80 


.16 


Carroll 


1 


77 


1.55 


1.46 


*.09 


Queen Anne's. .. 


3.28 


2 


69 


2.68 


*.01 


Harford 


1 


47 


1.37 


1.42 


.05 


Kent 


2.92 


2 


76 


2.53 


*.23 


Baltimore 


1 


28 


1.29 


1.27 


*.02 


Caroline.. 


1.79 


1 


70 


2.34 


.64 


Frederick 


26 


1.33 


1.26 


*.07 


Howard 


2.39 


2 


44 


2.14 


*.30 


Prince George's. .. 


1 


63 


1.19 


1.18 


*.01 


Garrett 


2.24 


2 


23 


2.13 


*.10 


Allegany 


1 


35 


1.18 


1.17 


*.01 


Worcester.. 


1.90 


1 


79 


1.79 


Washington.. 


1 


15 


.91 


.94 


.03 


Montgomery 


2.02 


1 


65 


1.75 


.10 














Wicomico 


1.94 


1 


73 


1.73 




Baltimore City .... 


2 


24 


2.25 


2.36 


.11 


Somerset - 


1.83 


1 


65 


1.72 


.07 










.06 














Entire State 


$1 


91 


$1.83 


$1.89 



* Decrease, 



Cost per Day School Pupil, Total and for General Control 225 

Arundel. In Caroline, changes involved in the retirement of the 
former superintendent and appointment of a new superintendent 
brought about additional salary payments. In Calvert the appoint- 
ment of a part-time attendance officer with the accompanying travel- 
ing expense explained the increase. In Anne Arundel the increase was 
due to additional expenditures for expenses and operation of the new 
office, to purchase of a new car for the attendance officer and to in- 
creased cost of legal and auditing service. (See Table 147.) 

General control costs per pupil varied from less than $1.50 per 
pupil in the counties having the largest school population — Wash- 
ington, Allegany, Prince George's, Frederick, Baltimore, Harford, 
and Carroll — to over $2.50 per pupil in the counties having a relative- 
ly small school population, — St. Mary's, Calvert, Talbot, Queen 
Anne's, and Kent. As mentioned before under distribution of school 
costs, all the administrative functions of a county school system have 
to be performed whether the county be small or large. (See Table 
147.) 

The expenditure per pupil of $2.36 for general control in Balti- 
more City was exceeded in only 5 of the smallest counties. (See 
Table 147.) 

Comparative Cost per White Elementary ani High School Pupii 

Excluding the cost of general control, the current cost of instructing 
a white elementary pupil in 1935 was $45.16 in contrast with $77.58 
for a white high school pupil. The instruction of a high school pupil 
therefore cost 1.72 times more than that of an elementarv school 
pupil. (See Table 148.) 

The 1935 salary cost per white elementary school pupil, $31.39, 
compared with a salary cost of $56.43 per white high school pupil. 
The difference is due to the higher basic salary schedule for high 
school teachers, who in the past have been required to spend more 
years in professional preparation for their work as teachers than did 
the elementary teachers, to the fact that the ratio of pupils to teach- 
ers in high school is lower than in elementary school, and to inclusion 
of high school supervisory costs with teachers' salaries for the two 
counties which employ supervisors. For elementary schools, super- 
vision is reported as a separate item. (See Chart 38.) 

Auxiliary agencies, including transportation of pupils, libraries, 
and health activities, cost $6.12 for each white elementary and $8.28 
for each white high school pupil. Since the number of high schools 
available is smaller than the number of elementary schools there is a 
larger proportion of high school pupils for whom transportation must 
be provided and the distance these high school pupils must travel is 
greater than for the average elementary school pupil. High school 
pupils need to use library books to a greater extent than do elemen- 
tary school pupils. These factors explain the excess cost of auxiliary 
agencies per white high school pupil. From 1934 to 1935 the cost of 



226 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 148 

Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses by Types of Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1935 



COUNTY 



County Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel ... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City., 

State. 



&2 



$1.55 

1.17 
1.55 
1.27 
2.83 
2.34 
1.46 
1.67 



COST, EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL, PER 
D\Y SCHOOL PUPIL IN 



2.36 
1.89 



$77.58 

67.89 
71.53 
64.59 

106.44 
84.05 
92.24 
81.57 

108.41 
88.54 
73.18 
88.25 
74.10 
78.60 
87.14 
99.91 
76.04 
93.74 
92 . 49 
82.18 
81.85 
67.39 
70.90 
91.53 

100.49 

84.40 



White Elementary Schools 



$48.30 

47.89 
97.37 
45.61 
33.81 
45.37 
45.23 
49.19 
41.99 
45.12 
42.83 
46.98 
47.80 
43.60 
55.88 
72.32 
52.51 
57.44 
50.25 
45.57 
54.95 
42.28 
43.27 
43.04 



So 



$45.05 

40.96 
55,78 
44.75 
42.84 
51.41 
40.98 
44.66 
39.76 
42.04 
40.35 
37.60 
44.82 
47.91 
47.53 
57.60 
50.84 
49.64 
51.41 
42.01 
56.66 
35.80 
55.97 
56.80 



O 

$43.49 

44.36 
46.98 
43 . 09 
59.23 
39.90 
45.73 
43.40 
52.71 
40.59 
43.68 
41 .10 
40.41 
39.18 
46.89 
54.49 
40.38 
48.89 
62.15 
41.72 
45.54 
35.16 
38.85 
42.16 



eg 



$45.16 

45.27 
48.88 
44 . 01 
56.29 
43.17 
46.16 
45.84 
52.63 
43.49 
44.25 
44.40 
43.62 
42.88 
50.53 
56.96 
42.98 
51.39 
55.33 
43.41 
48.45 
36.80 
42.10 
45.31 

t62.27 

t51.24 



Colored Schools 



"o 




High 
Schc 


Eleme 
Sch( 


x$46.10 


$24.19 


87.49 
45.36 
all3.96 
44.67 
56.42 
58.10 
79.32 
82.38 
32.69 
39.41 


36.11 
22.89 
32.78 
16.60 
24.91 
28.27 
44.78 
20.69 
20.36 
26.99 


55.30 


28.27 
19.92 


47.28 
46.90 
55.28 
47.65 
37.40 
26.26 
45.89 
66.27 
34.63 
23.90 


23.96 
27.40 
25.73 
23.16 
22.30 
18.94 
23.44 
34 . 61 
21.29 
18.92 


98.32 


*52.72 


65.70 


*37.58 



X Excludes Baltimore County tuition payments to Baltimore City for junior and senior high school 
pupils. 

t Excludes $80.40 for junior high and $130.97 for vocational schools. 
* Excludes $80.35 for junior high and $112.35 for vocational schools. 

a Average tuition payment to Baltimore City for 116 Baltimore County pupils attending Balti- 
more City junior and senior high schools, included under Baltimore City. 
t Excludes cost of supervision. 



auxiliary agencies per white elementary school pupil increased 25 
cents while that per white high school pupil decreased 8 cents. The 
consolidation program between 1934 and 1935 evidently affected 
elementary pupils more than it did high school pupils. (See Chart 
38.) 

The average cost per pupil of heating, cleaning, and repairing 
buildings was $4.94 for elementary schools in contrast with $8.41 
for white high schools. The latter fig^ure was 47 cents higher than for 
the year preceding. The smaller sections for high school classes using 
rooms of ordinary size make the cost of operating and maintain- 
ing high schools greater than for elementary schools. (See Chart 38.) 



Comparative Cost per White Elementary and High School Pupil 227 

CHART 38 

1935 COST, EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 
PER COUNTY PUPIL BELONGING 



In White In White 

Elementary High Schools 

Schools 



$ 77.58 

$ 45.16 




Books, materials, and other costs of instruction cost $1.63 per 
elementary school pupil as against $4.46 per high school pupil. 
These amounts were increases of 22 cents per elementary and 60 
cents per high school pupil over 1934. The high school pupil needs 
more large expensive books than the elementary pupil is ready to 
use. (See Chart 38.) 

An analysis of cost per pupil in individual counties for white ele- 
mentary schools is given on pages 51 to 56, and for white high 
schools on pages 121 to 131. For colored schools per pupil costs are 
considered on pages 174 to 175. 

FEDERAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

The allotment to Maryland for 1934-35 from the Federal Govern- 
ment under the Smith-Hughes and George-Ellzey Acts was $127,702. 
This was $38,158 or 42.6 per cent more than for the year preceding. 
Of this amount, a maximum of $44,356 was allocated to agriculture, 
$70,004 to industrial education and home economics, and $13,342 
to teacher-training and supervision. The amount of Federal funds 
actually spent was $104,497, which meant that $23,205 was the 
unexpended balance of Federal money in the State treasury June 30, 
1935. 

Of the $104,497 actually received from Federal funds, $31,090 
was expended for salaries of teachers of agriculture, $17,042 for teach- 
ers of home economics, $40,996 for teachers of trade and industry, 
and $15,369 for administration, supervision, and teacher-training 
in these branches. 



228 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Vocational work was further aided in 1935 by State appropriations 
amounting to $5,544 for administration and supervision of work in 
agriculture, home economics, and trades and industries. In addition, 
there were expenditures for vocational work from county funds and 
from State funds for high school aid and the equalization fund aggre- 
gating $63,597, and from the University of Maryland of $8,037. The 
total amount spent for salaries of the vocational program in the 
Maryland counties in 1935 including Federal funds was $155,762, 
an increase of $7,230 over 1934. For the vocational salary expendi- 
tures in the various counties, see Tables 84 and 139, pages 126 and 207. 

The Vocational Program in Baltimore City 

The 1935 expenditures for salaries of teachers of vocational educa- 
tion in Baltimore City were $174,796, an increase of $47,734 over 
those of 1934. The City supported the program to the extent of 
$148,883, more than for the year preceding by $31,903, while the 
Federal reimbursement totaled $25,193, an increase of $15,832 over 
1934. (See Table 149.) 

TABLE 149 

Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 1, 1935 



Type of School 


P'rom 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enrollment 


Vocational 
Education 

Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Boys 


Girls 


Day Vocational ... 
Part-time 

Industrial 


$135,053.62 
6,587.95 
2,789.80 
2,544.00 
1,908.00 


$12,083.12 
6,587.95 
2,789.80 
2,544.00 
1,908.00 


$147,136.74 
13,175.90 
5,579.60 
5,088.00 
3,816.00 


1,485 
12 

760 


239 
69 
110 


$85.35 
162.67 
50.72 
6.69 
4.38 


General 

Continuation.... 
Evening 

Industrial 


Evening Home 
Economics 

Total 




871 


$148,883.37 


$25,912.87 


$174,796.24 


1,497 


2,049 


$49.29 





Over 84 per cent of the salary expenditures for vocational work 
in Baltimore City was paid to teachers in the five day vocational 
schools which enrolled 1,485 boys and 239 girls at a salary cost for 
vocational teachers of over $85 per pupil. These schools include the 
new General Vocational School opened during the year to accom- 
modate 300 boys ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. The objective 
of the school is general training in a number of industrial fields which 
will fit for one of several occupations. Some of the boys go on to the 
Boys' Vocational School for further specialization. The average 
length of the course in the General Vocational School is two years. 
(See Table 149.) 



Federal Aid to Vocational Education 



229 



There was an increased expenditure for part-time industrial classes 
carried on at the Printing School and the Girls' Vocational School, 
12 boys and 69 girls benefiting from the program which cost $13,176, 
or an average per pupil of $163. One half of the total expenditure 
came from Federal funds. 

General continuation classes were available for 110 girls in four 
department stores, the cost per pupil instructed being $51. 

Evening vocational courses were available to 760 men and 871 
women at a cost of $8,904, the salary expenditure per man being 
$6.69 and per woman $4.38. (See Table 149.) 

Administration, Supervision, and Teacher-Training in Vocational Education 

For agriculture, the cost of administration, supervision, and 
teacher-training in 1935 required expenditures of $10,213. The de- 
crease of $3,210 under the amount for the preceding year was due to 
the resignation of Dr. J. D. Blackwell, Director of Vocational Educa- 
tion and Supervisor of Agriculture, to become president of the State 
Teachers College at Salisbury. Dr. Cotterman, who was appointed 
to act as supervisor of agriculture, did not receive salary for his work 
in this capacity until September, 1935. 

For trades and industries, the expenditure in 1935 of $10,293 for 
administration, supervision, and teacher-training was $1,160 more 
than for 1934. This increase would have been somewhat less had the 
expenditure in 1934 not been decreased by the absence for two months 
of the supervisor of trades and industries at the request of the Office 
of Education, Division of Vocational Education, while he acted as 
chairman of a committee to work out permanent plans for apprentice- 
ship training to be carried on under a national committee on ap- 
prenticeship, consisting of representatives of the Department of 
Labor, Office of Education, employers, and labor organizations. 
The 1935 increase was due to the appointment in April, 1935, of Mr. 
John J. Seidel as Director of Vocational Education, while he con- 
tinued in his capacity as Supervisor of Trades and Industries. 



TABLE 15 

Expenditures for Administration, Supervision and Teaching Training in Vocational 
Education, Year Ending July 1, 1935 





Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher- 
Training 


Total 


Purpose 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 
Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 


$1,353.14 
2,120.36 
2,070.22 


$2,443.23 
2,512.12 
2,376.56 


$3,208.40 
2,830.16 
1.998.46 


$3,208.41 
2,830.15 
1,998.46 


$4,561.51 
4,950.52 
4,068.68 


$5,651.64 
5,342.27 
4,375.02 


Trade and Industry .... 
Home Economics 


Total 


$5,543.72 


$7,331.91 


$8,037.02 


$8,037.02 


$13,580.74 


$15,368.93 





230 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For home economics the expenditure of $8,444 in 1935 was a de- 
crease of $84 under the amount spent the preceding year. Ex- 
penditures from State Department of Education funds were $669 
less in 1935 than in 1934. The University of Maryland spent for 
teacher-training $175 more in 1935 than in 1934. The Federal funds 
for administration, supervision, and teacher- training were greater 
by $409 in 1935 than in 1934. (See Table 150.) 

W. p. A. PROJECTS FOR COUNTY SCHOOLS 

During 1934-35 all of the counties, except Baltimore, Carroll, 
Cecil, and Harford, took advantage of the opportunity of improv- 
ing schools through work relief projects. There were 263 white and 
147 colored schools which benefited from the value of federal aid 
estimated at $184,820. The largest programs were carried on in 
Prince George's and Frederick, the work done being valued at over 
$40,000 in each of these counties, but Anne Arundel, Garrett, 
Howard, and Washington Counties each valued their projects at 
close to $15,000. (See Table 151.) 

TABLE 151 

Work Relief Projects Affecting Schools: Number of School Benefited; Type of 
Project; Estimated Value of Federal Aid for School Year 1934-35 



No. of 

Schools 
Benefited 



COUNTY 



All Counties 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester... 

Frederick 

Garrett...^ 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Pr. George's 
Queen Anne's 
St. Mary's... 

Somerset 

Talbot 

"Washington 
Wicomico .... 
Worcester... 



263 

2 
12 



147 



Painting 


1 Grading 


1 Cleaning and 

1 Improving Grounds 


Sanitation Projects 


1 Repairs 


1 Alterations 


Construction of 
Streets and Drives 


1 New Buildings or 
1 Additions 


1 New Equipment 


1 Roofs Recovered 


1 New Floors 


1 Construction of 
1 Playgrounds 


1 Removing Buildings 


1 Serving Hot Lunches 


Weatherstripping 


Tennis Courts 




































\ 

X 






























X 


X 


X 






X 


X 








X 


X 
























X 
X 


X 
X 


X 

\ 


X 


X 


X 










X 












X 


































































































X 












X 
X 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 




X 










X 
X 


X 

\ 


X 
X 














X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






X 




X 




X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 




X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 






X 










































X 
X 






X 
X 


X 
X 




X 
X 




X 








X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 
















X 
























X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 


X 

X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 




X 






X 












X 
X 
X 
X 




X 
X 


X 














X 










X 
X 




X 














X 




X 










X 


X 



























Estimated 
Value of 
Federal 
Aid 



$184,820 



509 
18,187 



774 
,198 



782 
1,376 
40,687 
16.246 



14,592 
4,715 
6,940 
46,524 
235 
942 
3,053 
896 
14,523 
4,515 
7,126 



Painting was done in 15 counties, sanitation in 11, repairs in 12, 
grading, cleaning, and improving grounds in 10 counties, alterations, 
construction of streets and drives, new construction in 7 counties, 



W. p. A. Projects for County Schools 



231 



new equipment in 5 counties, roofs recovered, playgrounds con- 
structed, buildings moved in 4 counties, new floors in 3 counties, 
tennis courts in 2 counties, sewing, hot lunches, and weatherstripping 
each in one county. (See Table 151.) 

Construction and Installation of Sanitary Privies in Maryland County Schools" 

Up to and ending July 31, 1935, under the supervision of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health there were 1,463 sanitary earth 
pit privies constructed for county rural schools. Of this number, 620 
were constructed during 1934-35 at a total cost of $24,112. The 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration contributed $7,824 for 
the cost of labor; the county boards of education and Parent-Teacher 
Associations provided $3,563 for labor and $10,950 for materials; 
the Civil Works Administration provided $1,775 for materials. (See 
Table 152.) 

TABLE 152 

School Sanitation Projects, August 1, 1934 to July 31, 1935° 







Number 














Number 


Schools 


Labor 


Source 


Cost of 


Source 


Total 


COUNTY 


Privies 


Sanitated 


Cost 




Materials 




Cost 








/ $7,823.68 \ 


FERA 


$1,774.76 


CWA 




Total Counties 


620 


304 


\ $3,563.34 / 


Local 


$10,950.00 


Local 


$24,112.38 












500.76 


CWA 




Allegany* 


42 


21 


1,605.37 


FERA 


200.00 


Local 


2,306.13 






/ 1,675.14 \ 


FERA 


1,274.00 


CWA 




Anne Arundelx 


89 


44M 


\ 416.22 / 


Local 


1,040.00 


Local 


4,405.36 
















































Carroll* 
















Cecil* 


















27 


13 H 


394.00 


Local 


540.00 


Local 


934.00 




19 


9H 


199.50 


Local 


85.00 


Local 


284.50 


















Garrettx 


132 


66 


2,673.91 


FERA 


3,300.00 


Local 


5,973.91 


Harfordx 


40 


20 


1,077.50 


Local 


1,000.00 


Local 


2,077.50 




32 


16 


511.40 


FERA 


720.00 


Local 


1,231.40 


Kent* 






































/ 395.00 \ 


Local 








Prince George'sx 


51 


20H 


\ 201.60 / 


FERA 


918.00 


Local 


1.514.60 
















42 


21 


813.60 


FERA 


813.60 


Local 


600.00 


Somerset* 


69 


33H 


690.00 


Local 


1,449.00 


Local 


2,13P.OO 


Talbotx 


4 


2 


50.00 


Local 


80.00 


Local 


130.00 








/ 175.80 \ 


FERA 








Washingtonx 


15 


m 


\ 105.00 / 


Local 


375.00 


Local 


655.80 






/ 236.12 \ 


Local 








Wicomicox 


58 


29 


\ 166.80 / 


FERA 


435.00 


Local 


837.92 


Worcester* 




















/ 













* School privy projects completed. 

X School privy projects working toward completion. 

t School privy project contemplated. 

° Data furnished by the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of tha St^t^ Department of Health. 



232 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

THE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM CONTINUES TO GROW 

Transportation of county pupils, paid for entirely or partly at 
public expense, cost $892,422 in 1935, an increase of $28,873 over the 
expenditure in 1934. It was realized for the first time in 1935 that 
seven counties had not been reporting insurance on school buses as a 
charge against transportation, but had been reporting it with insur- 
ance on school buildings under fixed charges. Since the change in 
the method of reporting insurance was made in 1935, it explains 
$11,286 of the increase of $28,873 from 1934 to 1935. The gradual 
increase of the transportation program since 1910, when it cost 
$5,210 as carried on in four counties, to the program carried on in 
all of the counties since 1927, is shown in Table 153. 



TABLE 15a 

Maryland County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910-1935 



Year 


Public 
Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 

Pupils 
Transported 


Cost to 
Public per 

Pupil 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 






1915 


17,270 


10 






1920 


64,734 


18 






1921 


84,870 


18 






1922 


90,011 


18 






1923 


132,591 


20 


4,344 


$30.59 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


29.01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28.09 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


29.57 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


27.88 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 


27.45 


1929 


t512,385 


23 


18,928 


27.12 


1930 


603,148 


23 


22,814 


26.51 


1931 


744,400 


23 


29,006 


25.71 


1932 


834,679 


23 


35,019 


23.88 


1933 


858,274 


23 


40,308 


21.32 


1934 


863,549 


23 


42,241 


20.44 


1935 


892,422 


23 


44,576 


20.02 



=*• Excludes $700 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



The number transported in whole or in part at county expense, 
first reported in 1923, included 4,344 pupils. The number transported 
in 1935 was 44,576, an increase of 2,335 over the year preceding. (See 
Table 153.) 

The average cost per pupil transported has shown a steady down- 
ward trend each year from $30.59 in 1923 to $20.02 in 1935. (See 
Table 153.) 



Transportation of Maryland County Pupils 



233 



The size of the 1935 transportation program in the elementary and 
high schools of each county with respect to number of pupils trans- 
ported and cost of the program is shown in Table 154. 

TABLE 154 

Maryland Pupils Transported in 1935 at County Expense 





Pupils Transported 


Public Expenditures 


UUUiN i 1 








for 


Transportation 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 


mentary 


High 


Total 


mentary 


High 






School 


School 




School 


School 


Total Counties 


a44,576 


a32,021 


12,5551 


$892,422.42 


$647,203.74 


$245,218.68 


Baltimore 


5,674 


4,076 


1,598 


84,574.98 


67,610.61 


116,964.37 


Anne Arundel .. 


a3,933 


a2,875 


1,058! 


71,887.07 


54,415.83 


17,471.24 


Frederick 


3,073 


2,796 


277i 


71,130.19 


62,547.26 


:8,582.93 


Carroll 


3,398 


2,459 


939 


67,230.98 


51,238.05 


15,992.93 


Allegany 


3,133 


2,395 


738 


60,644.50 


46,435.25 


14,209.25 


Garrett 


l,DOO 


1 AO O 

l,0oo 




en CIO (\C\ 


36,929.53 


20,682.47 


Montgomery .... 


3,088 


2,411 


6771 


41,744.17 


36,652.64 


15,091.53 


w asningLon 


1,935 


1,343 


592 


40,524.63 


28,679.15 


11,845.48 


Dorchester 


1,638 


1,100 


538 


34,972.04 


23,609.81 


11,362.23 


Prince George's 


1,787 


1,300 


487} 


31,492.69 


23,202.97 


8,289.72 


Queen Anne's.... 


1,230 


818 


412 


31,186.59 


20,957.21 


10,229.38 


Worcester 


1,539 


1,131 


408! 


30,894.47 


22,201.16; 


8,693.31 


Caroline 


1,700 


1,137 


563 1 


30,785.76 


20,459.87 


10,325.89 


Charles 


1,325 


911 


414! 


30,169.38 


18,143.38, 


12,026.00 


Calvert 


893 


575 


318! 


28,535.53 


17,402.94 


11,132.59 


St. Mary's 


954 


502 


4521 


26,537.38 


13,275.63 


13,261.75 


Wicomico 


1,471 


819 


652' 


24,600.83 


14,101.92' 


10,498.91 


Cecil 


1,412 


896 


516j 


25,830.56 


16,410.65| 


9,419.91 


Kent 


914 


570 


344 


23,567.58 


14,867.51 


8,700.07 


Talbot 


918 


617 


301 


23,170.74 


14,710.79 


8,459.95 


Somerset 


1,042 


740 


302j 


21,380.40 


14,801.621 


6,578.78 


Howard 


977 


690 


287! 


18,946.43 


13,731.44 


t5,214.99 


Harford 


856 


772 


84, 


15,003.52 


14,818.52 


tl85.00 



a Includes 40 pupils transported to Bowie Normal Demonstration School at state expense. 

t Pupils contribute in addition toward cost of high school transportation. 

% Until January 1935, high school pupils contributed toward the cost of transportation. 



Every county, except CaroHne and Charles, transported more pupils 
at public expense in 1935 than in 1934. All counties, except Balti- 
more, Anne Arundel, Charles, Calvert, Wicomico, and Cecil, trans- 
ported more elementary pupils in 1935 than were transported in 
1934, while only Garrett, Worcester, Caroline, and Harford trans- 
ported fewer high school pupils in 1935 than in 1934. (See Table 154.) 

All counties, except Anne Arundel, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, 
and Kent, spent more for transportation of pupils in 1935 than they 
spent the year preceding. In Montgomery, Queen Anne's, and Kent, 
the amount spent for transportation in 1935 was less than in 1934 for 
both elementary and high schools. Calvert spent less in 1935 than 



234 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in 1934 for transportation of elementary pupils, while this was the 
case for high school transportation only in Anne Arundel, Charles, 
Calvert, Carroll, Caroline, Somerset, Howard, and Harford. (See 
Table 154.) 

Cost per Pupil Transported 

The average cost to the public per county pupil transported, $20.04, 
was $20.19 for white elementary, $19.60 for white high, $21.70 for 
colored elementary, and $18.79 for colored high school pupils. Under 
ordinary conditions, the cost of transporting a high school pupil is 
higher than for an elementary pupil, since the average high school 
pupil as a rule has to travel a longer distance to reach school and re- 
quires more bus space. In counties paying the entire cost. Queen 
Anne's, Washington, Carroll, Allegany, Anne Arundel, and Prince 
George's, however, the reported cost of transporting a white high 
school pupil was lower than for an elementary pupil. In the counties 
in which high school pupils must contribute to the cost of trans- 
portation, — Howard, Harford, Baltimore, and Montgomery, — 
these additional amounts are not included in the figures given for 
cost per pupil to the county. The parent-teacher associations con- 
tributed to the cost of transporting colored high school pupils in St. 
Mary's, Kent, Dorchester, Carroll, and Wicomico. The entire cost 



TABLE 155 

Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported at Public Expense, for Year 

Ending, July 31, 1935 





Average 
Cost per 
Pupil 
Transported 


WHITE 


COLORED 


COUNTY 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 


County Average 


°$20.04 
33.77 


.$20.19 


°$19.60 


$21.70 


°$18.79 


Garrett 


33.42 


34.41 


Calvert 


31.95 


32.24 


38.80 


19.21 


25.39 


St. Mary's 


*27.82 


28.92 


35.10 


13.96 


*11.86 


Kent 


*25.79 


25.92 


26.50 


27.24 


*19.81 




25.35 


25.45 


24.62 


30.36 


25.60 


Talbot- 


25.24 


23.84 


28.11 








23.15 


22.35 


30.99 


23.17 




Charles 


22.77 


19.99 


30.00 


15.00 


21.79 




*21.35 


21.35 


23.81 


23.81 


*12.68 


Washington 


20.94 


20.87 


20.01 


61.52 




Somerset 


20.52 


20.00 


21.78 






Worcester 


20.07 


19.58 


21.27 


29.29 


29.30 


Carroll 


*19.79 


20.99 


17.57 


15.61 


*5.82 




19.48 


19.41 


18.30 


57.96 


81.38 


Howard 


tl9.39 


19.90 


tl8.17 






Anne Arundel 


18.47 


19.19 


16.51 






Cecil 


18.29 


17.32 


17.61 


30.09 


23.98 




18.11 


17.83 


17.84 


19.73 


19.73 


Prince George's 


17.62 


17.85 


16.96 




26.67 




117.53 


19.47 


t2.20 


11.93 






*16.72 


17.22 


17.82 




*8.40 




tl4.91 


16.54 


tlO.62 


17.21 






tl3.52 


14.74 


t3.58 


54.64 


t24.77 













t Additional payment made by parent of each high school pupil transported. 

* Additional payment made by parent or P. T. A. for each colored high school pupil transported. 
° Some counties required parents or P. T. A. to contribute additional amounts toward the cost of 
transporting high school pupils. 



Cost per Pupil and Per Cent of Pupils Transported 



235 



beginning in September, 1935, in these Equalization Fund counties 
is being carried by State and county funds. (See Table 155.) 

The average cost per pupil transported was over $25 in Garrett, 
Calvert, St. Mary's, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Talbot. It was under 
$15 in Baltimore and Montgomery, both of which counties require a 
payment from high school pupils toward the cost of transportation, 
and both of which counties own a number of the buses used in trans- 
porting pupils. (See Table 155.) 

Per Cent of Pupils Transported 

The counties transported at public expense 30.5 per cent of the 
white pupils to school. Washington, Harford, Prince George's, and 
Allegany transported fewer than 20 per cent of their white pupils to 
school, while Calvert, Charles, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Worcester, 
Caroline, and Carroll carried over one half of their white pupils. 
(See Table 156.) 

TABLE 156 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at Public 
Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1935 









White 


























Colored 




county 




















Elementary 




High 












Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


30,947 


28 


7 


11,517 


36 


9 


*2,112 


7 


5 


Carroll 


2,387 


49 


3 


896 


57 


8 


115 


26 


8 


Caroline 


1,040 


50 


4 


413 


54 


6 


247 


27 


1 




790 


52 


8 


323 


62 


8 


117 


15 





Calvert 


488 


64 


3 


228 


93 


1 


177 


14 


7 




897 


62 





366 


70 


4 


62 


3 


9 


St. Mary's 


419 


41 


3 


340 


100 





195 


15 


8 


Anne Arundel 


2,835 


47 


3 


1,058 


52 


7 


*40 






Garrett 


1,088 


27 


4 


598 


62 


2 




Worcester 


1,125 


51 


6 


406 


52 


5 


8 




5 


Kent 


501 


35 


8 


282 


54 


5 


131 


14. 


5 


Howard 


690 


34 


2 


287 


50 
46 


6 










1,051 


34 


8 


408 


2 


179 


11. 


3 


Frederick 


2,731 


37 


2 


277 


13 


9 


65 


6 


7 




826 


26 





464 


40 


2 


122 


28. 





Montgomery 


2,383 


31 


1 


551 


30 


5 


154 


8. 


8 


Talbot 


617 


36 


9 


301 


40 


2 










3,761 


22 


7 


1,598 


35 


9 


315 


16. 


3 


Wicomico 


819 


23 


7 


533 


41 


3 


119 


7. 


3 


Somerset 


740 


33 


4 


302 


43 


3 








Allegany 


2,388 


19 


1 


726 


20 


9 


19 


5. 


5 


1,327 


11 


9 


592 


25 


1 


16 


5 


3 


Prince George's 


1,300 


16 


3 


484 


21 


5 


3 




1 


Harford 


744 


18 


1 


84 


6 


1 


28 


3.' 


1 



* Includes forty pupils from Anne Arundel transported to the Bowie Normal Elementary School 
at State expense who are excluded in obtaining percentage. 



The counties transported 28.7 per cent of their white elementary 
and 36.9 per cent of their white high school pupils in whole or in part 
at public expense. These were increases of .9 and 2.4 over the corre- 
sponding percentages in 1934. A smaller per cent of white elementary 



236 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

than of white high school pupils was transported in all counties, ex- 
cept Frederick, Montgomery, and Harford. Since there are more 
elementary than high schools, more children live close to elementary 
schools than to high schools and therefore fewer elementary pupils 
require transportation. The payment toward transportation costs 
required of high school pupils in Frederick, Montgomery, and Har- 
ford may explain in part the fact that the percentage of high school 
pupils carried at county expense is lower than that of elementary 
pupils. Over sixty per cent of the white elementary pupils in Calvert 
and Charles, which have nearly completed their consolidation pro- 
gram for white schools, were transported to school while less than 20 
per cent were transported in Washington, Prince George's, Harford, 
and Allegany. (See Table 156.) 

All of the St. Mary's white high school pupils and 93 per cent of 
those in Calvert were carried to school at public expense, while this 
was true of less than 15 per cent of the high school pupils in Frederick 
and Harford. Both of these latter counties charge parents for part 
of the cost of transportation, which probably has an effect on number 
transported. 

In 1935 there were 7.5 per cent of the county colored pupils trans- 
ported in whole or in part at public expense, an increase of 1.6 over 
the corresponding percentage in 1934. Cecil, Caroline, and Carroll 
transported over one fourth of their colored pupils to school at 
county expense, while at the opposite extreme none were transported 
in Anne Arundel, Howard, Talbot, and Somerset. When the colored 
elementary and high school pupils transported are reported sepa- 
rately, 4.1 per cent of the former were transported, in contrast with 
35.1 per cent of the latter. Most of the colored elementary schools 
are located within walking distance of most colored pupils. Between 
16 and 20 per cent of the colored elementary pupils in Carroll, Cecil, 
and Baltimore Counties were transported at public expense. Anne 
Arundel, Howard, Prince George's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico 
transported no colored elementary pupils. The per cent of colored 
high school pupils transported in 1935 entirely or partly at public 
expense was 35.1. In nine counties, St. Mary's, Calvert, Queen 
Anne's, Caroline, Montgomery, Cecil, Carroll, Dorchester and Kent, 
from one half to all of the colored high school pupils were transported 
in whole or in part at the expense of the public, but in Anne Arundel, 
Frederick, Harford, Somerset, Talbot and Washington Counties, no 
colored high school pupils were transported at county expense in 
1934-35. Somerset is transporting colored high school pupils in 1935- 
36 at State and county expense. (See Table 156.) 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided 

Transportation was provided for pupils attending 465 schools in 
1935, an increase of 5 schools over the number in 1934. There were 
416 white and 49 colored schools to which pupils were transported 
at county expense. Of the schools for white pupils to which children 



Per Cent Transported; Schools to Which Transported 



237 



were transported at public expense, 46 had one-teacher and 79 had 
two-teacher organizations, 149 were graded schools for elementary- 
pupils only, 113 were combined elementary and high schools, and 29 
were high schools only. Garrett and Dorchester had the largest num- 
ber of one- teacher schools to which pupils were transported. All 
high schools for white pupils, except eight, had pupils transported to 
them in whole or in part at county expense. There were two white 
high schools in Allegany and Prince George's and one white high 
school in Cecil, Harford, Somerset, and Worcester to which trans- 
portation was not provided. (See Table 157.) 

TABLE 157 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation was Provided at County Expense 
Year Ending July 31, 1935 



COUNTY 



Total Counties. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

PVederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's ... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot. 

Washington.. 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



White 

Schools with Elementary 
Grades Only 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



23 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



149 

14 
20 
14 
2 
3 
6 
4 
1 
6 
17 
4 
3 
1 
3 
9 
6 
6 



White Schools 



Having 
Both High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 

113 

9 



Having 
High 
School 
Pupils 
Only 



Cilored 
Schools 



Total 
Numbr-r 
of 

Different 
Schools 



465 

29 
30 
40 

9 
19 
23 
21 

8 
26 
34 
38 
13 

9 
14 
24 
1^ 
19 
10 

9 

9 
29 
19 
14 



*To Elementary Only 

Baltimore 2 

Frederick 2 

Harford 4 

Washington 1 

Harford, Prince George's, and Wicomico each showed one more 
colored school in 1935 to which transportation was provided, while 
Carroll, Frederick, and Montgomery showed one less. (See Table 
157.) 

Number and Type of Vehicle Used for Transportation 

In the fall of 1935, the counties used 814 motor buses for trans- 
portation, of which 71 were owned by the counties and 743 were 
owned by contractors. In addition, there were 84 private cars used 
to transport small numbers of pupils or to bring children from side 



238 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



roads to the main road to meet the buses. There was also 1 motor 
boat and there were 4 horse-drawn vehicles. Of the 71 county owned 
buses, Montgomery had 38, Baltimore had 15, Garrett and Queen 
Anne's 5 each, Harford and Calvert 3 each, Carroll and Frederick 
one each. Prince George's owned the bodies of 26 cars in use. Of the 
private cars used to transport pupils, 26 were in Queen Anne's and 
21 in Garrett. 

The total distance reported in October, 1935, as covered one way 
by the 814 motor buses and the motor boat was 9,939 miles, an aver- 
age distance of 12.2 miles per motor vehicle. Of the private cars, 64 
had a mileage one way of 294, an average of 4.6 miles, while the 4 
horse-drawn vehicles, with a total of 11.3 miles traveled one way, 
had an average of 2.8 miles. In addition to transportation in buses 
and private cars the counties paid for the transportation of 476 pupils 
on public conveyances such as trains, electric cars, and public buses. 

SCHOOL CAPITAL OUTLAY 

Capital outlay in the counties in 1935 totalled $1,590,919. The 
largest amounts were expended in counties which had projects ap- 
proved by the Federal Public Works Administration — Montgomery, 
Prince George's, Baltimore, and Allegany. The following amounts 
were received from the Public Works Administration during 1934-35: 
County Amount 

Baltimore $ 9,334.90 

Montgomery 102,722.70 

Prince George's 58,829.68 

Total $170,887.28 

Over half of the capital outlay, $808,331, was for white county 
high schools, the largest projects being in Montgomery, Allegany, 
Prince George's, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, and Cecil Counties. 
White county elementary schools cost $688,742, the largest amounts 
being spent in Montgomery, Prince George's, Baltimore, Carroll, 
Harford, and Anne Arundel. The total capital outlay for county 
colored schools was $98,844, Prince George's spending nearly $58,000 
and Montgomery over $19,000. (See Table 158.) 

In Baltimore City, of $642,191, the total capital outlay, $265,238 
was spent for white elementary, $247,656 for colored elementary 
$113,841 for white junior high, and $10,039 for white vocational 
schools. 

The total capital outlay for schools in the counties for the period 
from 1920 to 1935 was $24,106,000, while in Baltimore City, it ag- 
gregated $35,669,000, a grand total of $59,775,000. Among the 
counties, Baltimore County had the highest capital outlay over the 
period, $5,672,000, while Montgomery was second with $4,394,000, 
Allegany third with $2,827,000, Prince George's fourth with 
$1,904,000, Anne Arundel fifth with $1,847,000, Washington County 
sixth with $1,822,000, and Frederick seventh with $1,138,000. Kent, 
Queen Anne's, and Calvert had a capital outlay of less than $100,000 
during this sixteen year period. (See Table 159.) 



Vehicles Used for Transportation; School Capital Outlay 



239 



o y 



X! O 
bC O 



s\ 

S 



t3 m 



OX! O 
i> O O 
^f*^ CSX 



S a o 



05 

o" 



CO i-H t-; i;D O O GTi OO C» CO 

c^i CO (^i oi to rH ci 00* cx) t>^ 00* CO o 

K0CDCOU0C0(M(M<M'-HU0t-Tj<T}< 
iO(M<X)COiX)'^t>t^Ot-COOOCO 



rHOTj«co>ooooai 
coooa;oooo«50T-H 

l-Hl-HT-JcOl-HOlrHlOaj 

(Mcooo oo CO o:> t> -^t 

00 Tf 00 o 



(MCO 
CO o 
1-H oi 

CO 



OU5t-tDOOOiO(M 

'•^ 1-3 1-' 00 oi 00* 00 uo 
cot-(Mt-cot:-a5?c> 

lO 00^ O (M^ UO Oi 
uo o tr-" uo" i-T CO i-T 

IX> rH 00 CO T-H 





l-H ICl 


247,( 






; oo o <X> CO 
t-^ CO C<j C^] 


O O 


o 




CD 


o 
lo 






o 

U3 


: 1-H* CO oi <>i 
: oo CO 1-H 

■ O CO '-i,C^3_ 


CO Tt oi 
^ CD oa 
o os^t- 


CO 




t-^ id 

CO 
1-H 1-H 


CO 

o 






CO 

o 


(m" t> co" 

>-H 


1-H 1^^" 

(M 
CO 1-H 






tH 


1-H 









OOO 00 
O 1-H l-H 

IC O 
1-H t:- O 
O C^] 



OOO 
O t- CO 









00 




00 




i-H 


as 


OOO* 






oo 


lO 00 






lO 


i-H(M 




00 


rH 

















t> o 



CDCOlOOOC^JUONUOi-H 
TfC0U0CTia5t>-UDC<ji-H 

aii-H'^oco*cDidoa> 

OOCOOOt-'^(NO'?f(M 

uo o o^Oi as CD o as t>-^ 

T-^cScS COkOCD'c^r 



ast'-^ocoi-HoofMCJ 
oooooot^-^asasi-HO 
uo CD o OS as "^^co 
1-H 1-H CO*" co" CD(m" 

'^l^ 1-H 



> O t- 



as Tj< o 

O 00 00 (N 
1-H CO r-H 



^ U3 

O (M «5 C<I 
CD CO CO CD 

eg C^J 



QJ is -i-J 



OOOi-hOOOCOCDOJ 

1-H as CO o CD lo 
c<i id 00 00* uo o 00* t>-* 

COOlOlOOO<MOOCO-r}* 
OO^rruO 00 (M 1-H^ 1-H CD 

idt-^Tir c<rcDi-H 

CO as 



cj as Lo CO o 
eg lO uo 
1-3 CO 00 ^ 1-H 
as as CO CO 

i-H oo O 00 o 

cicgo co^i-H 

1-H T— ( 1— ( 

CD lO 1-H 



CO Tf O 00 lO lO 

,-( lo CD liO as eg 
00 eg eg 



00 OS O 


O 


CO 00 1-H 


CD 00 lO CO 


00 


o eg t-; 


CD 


CD 00 1-H 


CO lo lo eg 


00 


00 id 


00 


o o eg* 


00 1-H 


00 


O 00 CD 


""^ 


00 O 1-H 


1-H CO CO ^ 


la 


lO lO 




i-H^as^"^ 


i-^_cg_^o^oo 


00 


id^jTi-T 




eg "«^^ 


as id'o co" 


t> 


t- 1-H 






00 CD 1-H 1-H 




CO 1-H 






CO eg T-t 


o 










1-H 



CO as 00 
t> eg CO 
id TjJ 
as 00 tr- 

cfTti-T 

1-H 
CO i-H 



X (X) oj o 



£ O C 



a; 



2 o 

tuo CJ ^ 

£=2 ^8 ^ 



Tj< IC 

eg o 



lO lO 
lO lO 
CD CD 



lO oc^ 

U3 O 1-H 

1-H as 



|:i 

CO 



Qj • ^- ^ 
o § g c c 5^ 



240 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



(M CC CO O «D i-H (N 00 05 00 03 O O t- CO «D 00 00 lO i-H 00 00 r-( 

»ft 50 O CD CO 03 1-1 lO t- -rj* O CO O lO >0 00 (M 00 CO •<^< 05 

if:__(N C£>^«5_«5^-^^C--_t~ O^t-_^CO OOCOOOC-^iOOOOfMi-Hi-iCO i-H 

c~ " OS (M i> co'o; t- o^ro'co io'co"-^"t>ci(>ry3"cJ -rf CO*" cn 

(N t~ U: 00 »0 ^ O CO lO (N ?£) OS O C~ ^ --I (N 00 CO 
«_00__CD T-H «D M< CO '-'^(N «5 CO W,"^, tH CO 00__00 «5_ 



(NOOCOO«£>i-((NOOa3000>-rt<0 

ino«5cDcoc<ic<i(M>-iini>^T)< 

(N «C t> t-_^ 0_ t> C0_^ 00_^ 00 

cd" 00 lo" ;d (N 00 Tin' Tt ,-H m" ic lo" 

to 05 00 t- i-H CO 



CO 'S' (N (N (N «D O IC 

CO CO <x> ^ ,-1 .-I 



t-co<xiooooin^oooo 
oooininooc^ooco-^ 



; 1-H ic 



c<iot-^Dt-ocr>iOTj<t-o50i-^eoi-iiocoo5iococOi-ieo 

^OO i-H^CDN C^IIMCO «^i-H T-H OOOO 

rH ,-1 00 r-l ^ ^ T-t 



00 o 
lo CO 

■Xi 00 



'-iOOCOOO'<*'"5CO«SI'-HC<IO^-*iOCCuOTH«DTHO?DOOt- 

t- rH O (N Tl< l-lt-lC-Cl rHt-lOOilO 



O cn 
O lO 

in cr> 



co o 



ioa30cD^-<i<oiftco<oa3-^<NCD,-toioa5cooiCTtco 
CO »n --H .-I rH (N lo >-i ^ CO T-H Tfo i-i(Mi>co 



coooot~aiT-HTj<inrHinioooc<iTHooOTj<oco"5005t~ 

t- C- CD (N l> CO 00 CO tH rH IM rH tH Oi C<1 CO 

CO 00 (NCO <N 



o CO 

O (M 

in 



,-Hooouo-^oooo^cDC^oicD,-Hcocooeor-(t-cOi-Hoo 

t> (M CO T-H CO T-H rH in (M OJ C0-^03 CO CD(M 

(Nt-HCD t-H t-Ht-H(M,-H (N 



in CO 



owi-HcoiMCDt-oocOT-HTfT-HOT-Hin-^ooT-HcoT-HoocTiin 

Tj-T-HOO <M 1-H C~ T-H 00 OOt-lH THt> 

(N T-H 



t~T-HincOTHcc>(N<35eo(NT-H«5'S"eoo(MeoTfiHeoT-HcocD 
cooo(M thnt-h ooc^tHt-h inin -rf-^M 

Tt ,-H (M tH r-H 



00 t- 

CD 05 

(N ,-H 

T-T (N 




School Capital Outlay; School Bonds Outstanding 



241 



SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING, SEPTEMBER, 1935 

In September, 1935, 20 of the 23 counties reported school bonds 
outstanding totalHng $16,806,000, an increase of nearly $800,000 
over the year preceding. The bonds outstanding represented ap- 
proximately 70 per cent of the total school capital outlay in the 
counties over the sixteen-year period from 1920 to 1935. The net 
amount outstanding in Baltimore City totaled $26,643,153, bringing 
the State total to $43,449,000. (See Table 160.) 



TABLE 160 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, as of September, 1935 







1935 Assessable 


Assessable 


Per Cent 




ocnool 


rJasis laxable 


Basis Back of 


that 




Bonds 


at the 


Jiiacn Dollar 


Indebtedness 




Outstanding 


run Kate 


01 bcnool 


for School 




September, 


for County 


Indebtedness 


Bonds Is of 


County 




Purposes t 




lotal uounty 








Basis 


Total Counties ... 


. $16,806,133 


$930,220,695 


$55 


1.8 


Allegany 


2,475,000 


76,790,374 


31 


3.2 


Anne Arundel 




CA >410 AOC 

50,413,035 


A -a 
41 


2.4 


Baltimore 


3,728,000 


175,656,640 


47 


2.1 




net c AA 

7^,500 


5,794,824 


OA 

80 


1 o 


Caroline 


54,000 


14,603.750 


270 


.4 


Carroll 




36,257,978 






Cecil 


100,000 


37,912,630 


379 


.3 


Charles 


93,000 


9,805,216 


105 


.9 


Dorchester 


' 315,000 


21,663,570 


69 


1.5 


Frederick 


1,034,000 


64,182,659 


62 


1.6 


Garrett 




17,630,088 






Harford 


100,000 


52,131,791 


521 


.2 


Howard 


bl55,000 


17,846,250 


115 


.9 


Kent 


3,000 


16,171,470 


5,390 




Montgomery 


'2,384,300 


88,528,801 


31 


8.3 


Prince George's... 
Queen Anne's 


f 2,392,000 


68,197,254 


29 


3.5 


36,000 


16,336,784 


454 


.2 


St. Mary's 




8,583,009 






Somerset 


25,500 


11,529,091 


452 


.2 


Talbot 


271,000 


20,707,158 


76 


1.3 


Washington 


fl,159,000 


72,036,022 


62 


1.6 


Wicomico 


416,000 


27,557,014 


66 


1.5 


Worcester 


269,000 


19,885,287 


74 


1.4 


Baltimore City... 


. g26,643,153 


1,273,610,333 


48 


2.1 


Entire State 


.-g$43,449,286 $2,203,831,028 


51 


2.0 



t Excludes assessment of distilled spirits. 

a Excludes $75,000 authorized but not yet issued. 

b Excludes $42,000 authorized but not yet issued. 

c Excludes $170,000 authorized, subject to referendum. 

d Excludes $850,000 authorized but not yet issued. 

e Excludes $165,000 authorized, but not yet issued. 

f Excludes $55,000 authorized, but not yet issued. 

fL Excludes $10,000,000, authorized, subject to referendum. 



242 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Allegany, Prince George's, and Calvert were the only counties 
which showed an increase from 1934 to 1935 in the amount of school 
bonds outstanding. The increase in Allegany was $75,000 and in 
Prince George's $936,500. Both of these latter counties, as well as 
Montgomery, have under way a construction program for which 
grants have been received from the Public Works Administration. 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate back of each dollar of 
school indebtedness was $55 in the counties and $48 in Baltimore 
City. In Prince George's, Montgomery, and Allegany, there was $29 
and $31 in assessable wealth back of each dollar of school indebted- 
ness. In Anne Arundel the corresponding figure was $41 and in Bal- 
timore County $47. These are the counties which must finance school 
construction to keep up with the needs of their growing population. 

The school bonded indebtedness represented 1.8 per cent of the 
assessable basis in the 23 counties as a group, but in Prince George's, 
Montgomery, and Allegany Counties it represented from 3.5 to 3.2 
per cent, while in Anne Arundel, Baltimore County, and Baltimore 
City it was 2.4 and 2.1 percent of the assessable basis. The school 
construction program in these localities will probably eventually 
enhance the general property values so that these percentages will 
be lower. Some localities are meeting the issue of high bonded in- 
debtedness either by postponing capital outlay or by financing it 
gradually on a pay-as-you-go policy from the levy. (See Table 160.) 

SCHOOL BONDS AUTHORIZED IN 1936 

The special session of the legislature held in March and April, 
1936, authorized the following issues of bonds for school purposes: 

First and Final 

County Chapter Amount Date of Payment of Rate of 

Authorized Issue Principal Interest 



Montgomery 156 $180,000 To be determined by Co. Com. Not over 6% 

Washington 150 130,000 July, 1936 1940-1957 Not over 3i^% 

Wicomico 54 450,000 June, 1936 1947-1957 Not over 4% 

The above authorization for Washington County provided for the 
repeal of the previous authorization of $55,000 by Chapter 9 of the 
laws of 1933. 

A referendum taken in May, 1936, on the $450,000 bond issue for 
Wicomico County was favorable. 

A referendum is to be taken in November, 1936, on a bond issue of 
$170,000 in Kent County authorized by Chapter 569 of the laws of 
1935. 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

The value of school property in the counties, $26,721,528, in 1935 
was greater than in 1934 by $1,220,225. In Baltimore City the in- 
crease of $529,010 from 1934 to 1935 brought the total value of 
school property to $47,269,354. (See TabLe 161.) 



School Bonds; Value of School Property 



243 



TABLE 161 
Value of School Property, 1922-1935 



1 EAR 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 
















Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 


' Mary- 


Counties 


Baltimore 






City I 


land 




City 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


1 

$10,439,008 1 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236,638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1 Q9fi 

J. V^\J 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 i 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30,764,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765,517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


73,990,882 


26,721,528 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 



The value of school property per county pupil enrolled was $156 
in 1935, an increase of $7 over 1934 and continued the consistent 
trend upward for the period reported since 1922. In Baltimore City 
the 1935 value per pupil enrolled was $384, the same amount as in 
1934. The figures for 1934 and 1935 include the value of buildings in 
process of erection. For the entire State the average value of school 
property per pupil enrolled was $251, an increase of $5 over 1934. 

In the counties, the school property used or to be used by white 
pupils in 1935 was valued at $25,090,943, an increase of $1,040,450 
over 1934. Montgomery, Prince George's, Baltimore, Howard, Cal- 
vert, Cecil, Garrett, and Wicomico were the only counties which 
showed increases from 1934 to 1935 in the value of school buildings 
used for white pupils. (See Table 162.) 

The value of school property per white pupil belonging was $184 
in 1935, an increase of $7 over the amount in 1934. The value of 
school property per white pupil belonging in 1935 ranged from less 
than $100 in Garrett, Carroll, Kent, and St. Mary's to over $200 in 
Allegany, Baltimore and Montgomery. The extremes were $63 
and $390. The largest increases from 1934 to 1935 in school property 
value per white pupil appeared in Montgomery, Prince George's, 
Wicomico, Charles, and Harford. (See Table 162 and Cliarl 39.) 

Garrett has the largest proportion of its teachers in small buildings 
of frame construction, which, of course, is less expensive than fire- 
proof or semi-fireproof construction of brick, stone, or concrete 
necessary because of fire hazard in the large school buildings. The 



244 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

small one-room buildings have no auditoriums, special rooms, cor- 
ridors, or central heating plants which are found in the large modern 
school buildings. 

TABLE 162 

Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1935 



COUNTY 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pi pil 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Total Counties 


$25,090,943 


136,019 


$184 


$1,630,575 


27,007 


$60 


Allegany 


3,273,548 


15,329 


214 


61,225 


336 


182 


Anne Arundel 


1,291,250 


7,887 


164 


154,200 


3,020 


51 


Baltimore 


5,466,400 


20,442 


267 


244,500 


1,908 


128 


Calvert 


127,500 


986 


129 


28,500 


1,119 


25 


Caroline 


355,700 


2,755 


129 


42,800 


881 


49 


Carroll 


472,475 


6,285 


75 


17,200 


416 


41 


Cecil 


583,795 


4,242 


138 


18,600 


424 


44 


Charles 


257,100 


1,936 


133 


79,700 


1,553 


51 


Dorchester 


549,800 


3,827 


144 


64,900 


1,544 


42 


Frederick 


1,367,625 


9,143 


150 


89,550 


952 


94 


Garrett 


304,400 


4,865 


63 








Harford 


714,500 


5,404 


132 


35,400 


879 


40 




323,900 


2,516 


129 


18,000 


564 


32 


Kent 


164,850 


1,897 


87 


18,000 


879 


20 


Montgomery .. 
Pr. George's ... 


3,617,250 


9,282 


390 


135,850 


1,674 


81 


1,834,900 


10,034 


183 


246,400 


2,949 


84 


Queen Anne's 


226,150 


2,016 


112 


20,800 


772 


27 


St. Mary's 


118,250 


1,317 


90 


24,300 


1,167 


21 


Somerset 


308,650 


2,832 


109 


44,650 


1,672 


27 


Talbot 


428,000 


2,372 


180 


49,500 


973 


51 


Washington .... 


1,973,050 


13,285 


149 


45,500 


298 


153 


Wicomico 


877,300 


4,500 


195 


147,700 


1,535 


96 


Worcester 


454,550 


2,867 


159 


43,300 


1,492 


29 


Baltimore City 


t40,008,969 


90,798 


441 


t7,260,385 


27,197 


267 


State 


$65,099,912 


226,817 


$287 


$8,890,960 


54,204 


$164 



t E.xcludes $759,891 for administration buildings, warehouses, and storage buildings. 



The value of school property per white pupil in Baltimore City, $441 , 
was greater than that found in any county. School sites cost more 
in the city than in the counties and the large city buildings have to 
meet many requirements not necessary in the counties. (See Table 
162 and Chart 39.) 

The value of school property used by county colored pupils totalled 
$1,630,575, an increase of $179,765 over 1934. The chief increases 
occurred in Anne Arundel, Frederick, Montgomery, Prince George's, 
St. Mary's, Somerset, and Wicomico. The average value of school 



Value of School Property, Total and Per Pupil 245 
CHART 39 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY»IN USE 
PER WHITE PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 



County 
Co. Average 




Baltimore City 386 437* 
State 281 281* 



property per county colored pupil belonging was $60, an increase of 
$7 over 1934. The range in value was from $20 and $21 in Kent and 
St. Mary's, which had a number of rented buildings in use, to over 
$100 in Baltimore, Washington, and Allegany Counties. (See Table 
162 and Cliarl 31, page 182.) 

The value of school property per Baltimore City colored pupil, 
$267, was greater than that for any county, again due to the fact that 
sites and type of construction required for large buildings in the City 
are much more costly than those necessary for the small frame build- 
ings which are available for the scattered colored population in many 
of the counties. (See Table 162 and Chart 31, page 182.) 



246 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

COUNTY PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOL OUTSIDE COUNTY 

There were approximately 1,235 Maryland county children who 
received their education in a county or State other than that of their 
residence. This was a reduction of 60 pupils under the corresponding 
number for 1933-34. Most of the counties had decreases or no change 
in the number of pupils who went outside of the county for their 
schooling, but Anne Arundel, Frederick, Garrett, and Somerset had 
at least 10 more who went outside the county. Baltimore County had 
196 attending school outside the county, of whom 116 went to Balti- 
more City, the colored pupils seeking a high school education paid for 
by the county to the extent of $95 for each junior high and $150 for 
each senior high school pupil. Frederick County sent 188 pupils 
to adjoining counties, while Garrett sent 102 to Allegany and 68 
to Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Howard had 123 county pupils 
in school in adjoining counties. (See Table 163.) 



TABLE 163 

Number of Pupils Attending Schools Outside Their Own County During School 

Year 1934-35 



County 
or State 
in which 
Pupils 
from 
Adjoining 
Counties 
Attended 
School 

Total 

Allegany 


County ok State from Which Pupils Came Who Attended 
School in Adjoining Counties 


O 

H 

1345 

144 
17 
21 
12 
76 

187 
5 
53 
3 
50 
31 
11 
92 
38 
23 

151 
82 
20 
5 
17 
48 
4 
46 

116 
29 
50 
14 


>. 
c 

ca 

< 
16 


c 

3 

< 

c 
c 

< 

95 


S Baltimore 
OS 1 


+j 

u 

0) 
> 

O 
7 


g 1 Caroline 


"o 
t- 

a 
U 

27 


'S 

o 

6 


09 

o 

35 


« 
o 
Q 

42 


00 Frederick 

00 1 


0) 

C 

170 
102 


T3 

C 

c; 
18 


•r 
ii 

o 
K 

123 


c 
2 


M 1 Montgomery 


g 1 Prince George's 


S 1 Queen Anne's 


jn 
33 


12 

a 

s 

o 
Ol 

42 


o 
51 


o 1 Washington 


o 
o 

£ 
c 

4 


S 1 Worcester | 


^ g 1 Pennsylvania | 


.3 
'c 

> 

0) 

17 
7 


i ^ 1 Delaware 1 


Anne Arundel 
Baltimore 
























17 






























10 












11 




























Calvert 




12 














































Caroline... 














42 
















8 


















26 


Carroll. _ 






7 












143 






31 




6 




















Cecil 


































5 






Charles 
































20 




33 












Dorchester 














































3 


Frederick 












9 


















6 












27 






8 
8 


-rj 


Garrett 


16 




































Harford 


22 


11 
62 










































Howard 






8 










































Kent 


3 




















34 


















1 


Montgomery ... 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. .. 
St. Mary's 


















16 






7 
68 


























61 




7 








15 




































29 














2 












51 


























20 


































Somerset 












































5 








Talbot 


































17 


















Washington 




















25 


























20 


3 




Wicomico..... 












































4 


Worcester 






































42 






4 








Baltimore City 
Pennsylvania... 
West Virginia.^. 
Delaware 






116 




















































4 


18 

50 


7 




















































































1 




3 






























10 























































School Attendants To & From Adjoining Counties; County Tax Levies 247 



Carroll, Prince George's, and Allegany Counties instructed the 
largest number of pupils whose residences were in other counties. 

According to by-law 11, any county sharing in the Equalization 
Fund may make no tuillon charge for a pupil who attends school in 
its county whose residence is in another Maryland county. A capital 
outlay charge of $20 per white high; $15 per white elementary; $10 
per colored high; and $7.50 per colored elementary pupil is, however, 
made for each pupil. In addition to the amount for capital outlay, 
counties not receiving the Equalization Fund, make a charge for 
tuition which is 60 per cent of the average current expense cost, ex- 
cluding general control and fixed charges, for the preceding year in the 
various types of school. 

1935-36 COUNTY TAX LEVIES 
County levies for 1935-36 in nineteen counties and for the calendar 
year 1936 in four counties totalled $12,728,400, an increase of 
$1,952,500 over those reported for the year preceding. All of the 
counties had increases in their levies, except Frederick and Carroll, 

TABLE 164 
County Tax Budgets 1935-36 



COUNTY 



Total Counties.. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundelf - 

Baltimoret... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederickt- 

Garrett 

Harfordt 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's ... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total 
County 
Levy 



$12,728,406 

1,264,030 
al, 153.315 
2,739,205 
80,493 
bl58,027 
444,195 
323,448 
113,141 
252,341 
690,987 
179,711 
c508,058 
240,572 
dl99,570 
61,743,585 
f752,542 
193,349 
85,507 
146,348 
186,735 
720,815 
330,975 
221,457 



COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR: 



SCHOOLS 



Current 
Expense 



$5,047,656 

571,730 
320,940 
878,843 
29,224 
72,100 
198,102 
168,051 
43,800 
102,000 
325,730 
82,954 
197,000 
83,157 
75,757 
605,691 
374,989 
78,164 
40,207 
60,156 
99,355 
400,524 
146,556 
92.626 



Debt 
Service 



$1,255,299 

°175,500 

98,805 
291,251 

°7,200 
°11,370 

46,336 
°10,000 

°8,415 
°23,970 
°68,845 



c°16,875 
°10,975 

°3,075 
°202,336 
f°94,038 

°5,950 



°2,618 
°13,350 
114,377 
°20,720 
°29.293 



Capital 
Outlay 



$106,565 



2,400 
16.276 



400 
28,254 
5,500 
9,200 



5,400 
3,000 



1.200 



25,000 



1,150 
2,300 
6.485 



Total 



$6,409,520 



747, 
422, 
1,186, 
36, 
83, 
272, 
183, 
61, 
125, 
399, 
85, 
c213, 
95, 
78, 



109 
40 
62, 
112 
516 
169, 
128! 



Roads, 
Bridges 

and 
Ferries 



$1,274,736 

126,125 
194,798 
554,945 
8,100 



6,000 
2,750 



39,240 



cl20,000 
44,855 



e98,521 
f67,802 
11,600 



Other 
County 
Purposes 



$5,044,150 

390,675 
a536,372 
997,890 
35,969 
b74,157 
165,503 
137,147 
51,726 
126,371 
251,772 
93,757 
cl74,183 
100,385 
dl20,738 
e837,037 
f215,713 
72,635 
45,300 
83,574 
74,030 
204,764 
161,399 
93.053 



° Paid directly by county commissioners. 

a Excludes $50,000 to be received from State Roads Commission. 

b Excludes $39,200 outstanding against which cash and uncollected taxes are available, 
c 1936 levy provides for 1936-37 school budget. 

d Excludes $42,778 outstanding against which cash and uncollected taxes are available, 
e Includes appropriations from general revenues and reserved receipts, 
f Includes amount to be soent from $106,872, additional available from special funds, 
t I^evy for calendar year 1936. 



248 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in which the total levies were reduced by $83,000 and $47,000, 
respectively. Counties having large increases in their county levies 
were Montgomery with $876,000, Baltimore with $422,000, Anne 
Arundel with $200,000, Prince George's with $125,000, Washington 
with $90,000, and Allegany with $75,000 over the amount for 1934-35. 
(See Table 164.) 

Baltimore County's levy of $2,739,000 was largest, Montgomery's 
of $1,743,585 came second, Allegany's of $1,264,030 third, and Anne 
Arundel's of $1,153,315 fourth. 

County Levies for School Current Expenses 
The county levies for school current expenses totalled $5,047,656, 
an increase of $675,520 over the total for the previous year. This 
means that school current expenses in the counties received nearly 
35 per cent of the total increase in county levies. The largest increase 
was found in Baltimore County which appropriated nearly $285,000 
or over two thirds of its total increase of $422,000 for school current 
expenses, including restoration of cuts in teachers' salaries which 
had been in effect during the calendar years 1933, 1934, and 1935. 
(See Table 164.) 

Montgomery County had an increase of $161,000 in school current 
expenses which represented over 18 per cent of the increase in the 
county levy. Salary restoration in Montgomery had occurred the 
preceding year after salaries had been cut one year. Allegany, Wash- 
ington, and Prince George's had increases of $62,000, $59,000, and 
$42,000, respectively, in their school current expense levies, which 
included 83, 66, and 34 per cent, respectively, of the total increase 
in county levy appropriated in these three counties. (See Table 164.) 

County Levies for School Debt Service and Capital Outlay 

For school debt service the total levy of $1,255,299 was an in- 
crease of more than $250,000 over the amount levied the year pre- 
ceding. The largest increase, $134,516, appeared for Montgomery 
County, which was due chiefly to the fact that in the preceding year 
$131,000 of the requirement for school debt service had been financed 
with funds from sources other than the county levy. The increase 
for school debt service in Prince George's was $33,500; in Carroll, 
$29,000; in Washington, $25,000; in Allegany, $17,000; and in 
Frederick, $10,500. School debt service required the largest appro- 
priations in Baltimore County, Montgomery, Allegany, Washington, 
Anne Arundel, and Prince George's. (See Table 164.) 

The total county levy for school capital outlay, $106,565, was 
$5,000 less than for the year preceding. In Baltimore County, which 
levied $56,000 in 1935, the decrease was $40,000 to $16,276 in 1936. 
Carroll made the largest levy for capital outlay, $28,254, while 
Queen Anne's was a close second with $25,000. Howard, Somerset, 
and Calvert which levied for school capital outlay in 1934-35, made no 
levy for this purpose in 1935-36, while Worcester, Garrett, Wicomico, 
and Washington made small levies for this purpose. 



County Levies for Schools and Other Purposes 249 



The total county levy for all school purposes, $6,409,500, in 1935- 
36, v^as an increase of $921,000 over the year preceding. The largest 
increase, $295,000, was found in Montgomery, the second largest, 
$244,000, in Baltimore County. 

County Levies for Roads and Other Purposes 

For operation, debt service, and construction of roads, bridges, 
and ferries, the total county levy of $1,274,700 was over $295,707 
more than for the year preceding. Baltimore County's levy of 
$555,000 was largest. Anne Arundel was second with $195,000, 
Allegany third with $126,000, Harford fourth with $120,000, and 
Montgomery fifth with $98,500. Eleven of the counties made no 
levy at all for roads, ferries, and bridges. The largest increases from 
1934-35 to 1935-36 occurred in the budgets for Montgomery, Balti- 
more County, and Anne Arundel. 

For other county purposes, the total levy of $5,044,150 was 
$736,000 more than for the preceding year. Baltimore County's 
budget of nearly $998,000 was largest, but Montgomery was a close 
second with $837,000, while Anne Arundel was third with $536,000. 
The largest increases were found in Montgomery, $482,000, Anne 
Arundel, $130,000, and Baltimore County $87,000. Frederick and 
Carroll showed decreases in the 1936 levy for ''other county pur- 
poses." (See Table 164..) 

Levy in Incorporated Cities, Towns, and Villages Within Counties 

When to the levy in the counties are added the amounts levied by 
incorporated cities, towns, villages, districts and commissions, the 
total levied for government in these areas, exclusive of levies by the 
State and federal governments, is obtained. The total reported 
levied by these units smaller than the counties for 1935-36 was 
$2,392,000, an increase of $160,000 over the amount shown for 

1934- 35. There were increases over 1934-35 for the levies in these 
smaller units within Allegany, Calvert, Carroll, Dorchester, Har- 
ford, Montgomery, Prince George's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, 
and Worcester Counties, while decreases appeared for Charles, 
Howard, Talbot, and Washington Counties. Baltimore and Howard, 
without incorporated towns, were the only counties which had no 
levies in addition to the county levy. (See second column, Tahie 165.) 

Per Cent Levied for School Current Expenses 
The percent which school current expenses were of the combined 
levies of counties and smaller units within the county borders for 

1935- 36 was 33.4 for the 23 counties, a decrease of .2 under the 
corresponding average for the preceding year. The extreme limits 
were 25.7 and 45.9 per cent. The lowest percentages, under 30, were 
found in Anne Arundel, Dorchester, and Montgomery, while the 
highest, over 40, were found in Cecil, St. Mary's, Garrett, Talbot, 
and Prince George's. 



250 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



s 



<S I 

is 

© ^ 



© © 



UTS 



qj O CO o 
es o o 

Pi uEh 



O 05 

o o 



OSS 



O in 

r: o o 
^P 



•1 c 



■^nooc^t- 50000 



C3 00 eO «D 00 ' 



t-^NNM t-(NT-lC50 inooo-^fo 
OiOO^OCCO •^■"3'WX'OO tHCsJIOi-IO 



-5j< IM CO 
0"5 (M 



its. 



p ^5 
WW 



g £ c 



irtt-^i-HCO i-i05t-kOeo «ococoa;o5 <oo5^Knt- ocsoo 



o o w o t- 
in CO (M t- 



C5 o »-< t- o t- 1~ t- CO CO ic 

VO lO CD 05 CO O 00 O CO OCTl 



00 O t- O 00 

CD CO If J o t- 



ooeo-^j<o 

CO CO o 

t-__O5^00_^C0^i-*^ 

^"o'oo'arco'" 

CO t- CO 

in CO 00 



CO ^ o o o 
o m o o CO 

i-H O 00 o t- 



lo o in in o> 

CO t> CO* in in 
ooa>oot-o 



05 -"K t- CO in 
oocoomm 

O5_^^__C0__i-<_O3_ 

■<j<"ooo"o"or 

t-t--*CDO> 



^ to CD 

CO in 
in in CD 



Of- 



S9 O *J 

o|-^ 



1-1 00 irt CD CO 

CO CO o t~- 

C0__CD_^CO »^_^05^ 

co't-'oToo't-" 

1— I CO 00 00 

00 CO t- .-H 



ooi-ieoocD 

0> ^ 00 CD O 

oo^-<*eo_^eo__co^ 
cd'cd'cd-cd*^'" 

O CD ^ CO 

in C0 1-1 CO 05 



in CD CO o CO 
o CO t- in 
CO t-^ in CD 

oTr-iO O CO 

05 05 CO CO 

,-1 in CO CO o_ 

CO 



CO 00 05 CO CD 

in ^ in -"t o 
CO* oToT in -rf 

CO O 00 X Tj" 
05 CO CO 



tH CO 

05 CO 

^ CO 



CO CO CO 05 05 
OCD-^i-ii-l 

t> os^coo^co 
co'co'eo-^'eo 

CD 05 CO 

CO 



'-^ 05 CO in rH 

.-I CD in 05 1> 
CO CO in o CO 



oo 
CO 00 

CO 



o in in CO t- 

CO ^ O OS CO 
O_C0^C0_^-<S"^O^ 

CD in CO 00 in 

CO rH t- ^ 



' CO CO CO o 

' cosmos 

' CO »-l CO CD 



^ooeooin 
1-1 in t- 1> 00 
t-^o in in__in__ 

05 00 O C5 CO 



coo5t-«in 
o f CO 
in eo^in eo^t> 
CO* co' in CD* CD* 
in OS 00 00 



in in t- 
1-1 1~ in 

00 Oi^-'T' 

o*o*^* 

CO CO CO 
t- CO CO 



SO'.. 

^= c cij rt ca 
<i3-<pqOU 



*a> 

^ O C OB 

t^S^i-S tt^^cg cS^g£ 
rtoi^og rtjSO*»5 ■CS+Jo'' 

UUUQpiH OffiWUlS d-CaiaiH 



c 

s 
sis 



Per Cent Levied for Schools; Assessable Basis 



251 



Changes in percentage from the preceding year which meant a 
considerably larger proportion of governmental funds devoted to 
school current expenses in 1935-36 than in 1934-35 were found in 
Baltimore and Frederick Counties. On the other hand much smaller 
proportions of the total levies were available for school current ex- 
penses in Calvert, Charles, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, and 
Queen Anne's. (See Tabte 165.) 

Per Cent Levied for All School Purposes 

When the levy for school debt service and school capital outlay 
is added to that for school current expense, the average for the 23 
counties levied for all school purposes is 42.4 per cent, an increase of 
.2 over the year preceding. The range was from 33.8 to 53.8 per cent. 
Anne Arundel, Somerset, and Kent used less than 35 per cent of the 
combined levy in the county and smaller units for all school purposes, 
while Carroll, Charles, Queen Anne's, Prince George's, and Cecil set 
aisde over 50 per cent of governmental funds for school purposes. 
(See Table 165.) 

CHANGES IN ASSESSABLE BASIS 

The total assessment taxable at the full rate for county purposes 
increased in the counties from 1934 to 1935 by nearly $10,000,000, 
bringing the 1935 total of $930,221,000 to the highest point ever 
reached. The county assessments increased steadily until 1932. After 

TABLE 166 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 
in Thousands of Dollars 



Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County 


*1923 


1925 


1927 


*1928 


1931 


1932 


1934 


tl935 


Total Counties 


$661,724 


$726,064 $781,971 


$883,508 


$923,203 


$923,705 


$920,397 


$930,221 


Allegany 


69,886 


75,718 


78,837 


80,715 


80,971 


78,856 


76,553 


76,790 


Anne Arundel 


30,692 


36,956 


44,565 


47,544 


48,553 


49,014 


48,560 


50,413 


Baltimore 


104,232 


124,971 


139,232 


157,654 


167,242 


170,164 


174,397 


175,657 


Calvert 


4,427 


4,623 


4,935 


5,305 


5,560 


5,665 


5,737 


5,795 


Caroline 


14,027 


14,616 


14,761 


15,283 


15,156 


14,830 


14,557 


14,604 


Carroll 


33,382 


34,183 


35,636 


39,875 


36.265 


36,198 


35,761 


36,258 


Cecil „. 


23,189 


24,700 


25,628 


30.408 


36,392 


36,819 


37,098 


37,913 


Charles 


8.394 


8,854 


9,315 


9,938 


10,103 


9.851 


9,801 


9,805 


Dorchester 


18,987 


19,628 


20,439 


21,918 


22,188 


21.944 


21,095 


21,664 


Frederick 


51,248 


54,941 


57,655 


65,234 


64,670 


63,928 


64,030 


64,183 


Garrett 


16,303 


19,556 


18,903 


21,653 


20,838 


20,242 


17,611 


17,630 


Harford 


28,580 


29,487 


29,561 


39,763 


51,149 


51,779 


51,804 


52,132 


Howard 


15,670 


15,682 


16,539 


18,063 


18,666 


18,714 


17,749 


17,846 


Kent 


14,519 


14,777 


14,956 


16,162 


16,138 


16,153 


16,195 


16.171 


Montgomery 


45,503 


50,676 


60,239 


77,889 


84,580 


86,155 


88,043 


88,529 


Prince George's.. . 


33,651 


37,776 


42,878 


59,312 


63,301 


61,331 


64,942 


68.197 


Queen Anne's 


14,793 


15,024 


14,803 


16,692 


16,247 


16.378 


16,145 


16,337 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,825 


7,809 


8,289 


8.590 


8,692 


8,566 


8.583 


Somerset 


10,609 


11,307 


11,972 


12,392 


12.055 


11,963 


11,618 


11,529 


Talbot 


16,927 


17,524 


18,048 


20,478 


21,534 


20.509 


20,576 


20.707 


Washington 


62,570 


68.281 


72,867 


72,908 


75,322 


73,569 


71.738 


72,036 


Wicomico 


20,394 


21,379 


24,109 


25,092 


26,487 


27,019 


27,788 


27,557 


Worcester 


16,579 


17,580 


18,284 


20,941 


21,196 


20,932 


20,033 


19,885 


Baltimore City 


.. 902,208 


1,083,959 


1,230,198 


1,255,978 


1,351.403 


1,307,756 


1,250,561 


1,273,610 



State „$1,563,932$1,810,023$2,012,169$2,139,486$2,274,606$2,231.461$2,170,958$2,203,831 



* Includes reassessment figures. 



tO.Tiits assessmant of distilled spirits. 



252 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



a drop in 1933 the assessments have been moving up again each year. 
Except in Carroll County the 1935 figure omits the 1935 assessment 
on distilled spirits which was not available in May 1936. Not all of 
the counties contributed to the increase, however. Kent, Somerset, 
Wicomico, and Worcester had a lower assessable basis in 1935 than in 
1P34. There are just six counties in which the 1935 assessable basis is 
higher than it has been in any previous year: Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Calvert, Cecil, Montgomery, and Prince George's. (See Table 
166.) 

In Baltimore City the assessable basis taxable at the full rate for 
city purposes was at its peak in 1931 when it reached $1,351,400,000. 
Thereafter it declined each year until it reached its lowest point in 
1934, $1,250,561,000, approximately $100,000,000 lower than in 1931. 
The increase of $23,000,000 from 1934 to 1935 marks the first upward 
movement since 1931. The 1935 total excludes taxation of distilled 
spirits which eventually will increase the figure even more. (See 
Table 166.) 

The State total which was at its peak in 1931 with $2,275,000,000 
has decreased each year until 1934, when the total was $2,171,000,000. 
The 1935 increase to $2,204,000,000 marks the first change away 
from the downward trend. (See Table 166.) 

All items, except railroad rolling stock, which are included in the 
total basis assessable at the full rate for county purposes show an in- 
crease from 1934 to 1935. As in previous years, real and tangible 
personal property assessed by the county commissioners and totalling 
$881,613,000 makes up 95 per cent of the total county assessment 
taxable at the full rate. The remainder is assessed by the State Tax 
Commission. There was an increase of nearly $9,500,000 in real and 
personal property, of $543,000 in the assessment of ordinary business 
corporations, and of $253,000 in domestic share corporations. The 
real and personal property and domestic share corporations increased 
by 1.1 per cent from 1934 to 1935, while ordinary business corpora- 
tions in the counties showed gains of 3 per cent. As noted before, ex- 
cept in Carroll and Allegany, the assessment of distilled spirits is not 
included in the totals shown. (See Table 167.) 

Baltimore City shows increases in all items except railroad rolling 
stock and distilled spirits, which latter are omitted for 1935 because 
not yet available. (See Table 167.) 

Frederick, Kent, Somerset, and Worcester are the only counties in 
which the 1935 assessment of real and personal property was below 
that in 1934. Calvert, Somerset, and Wicomico are the only counties 
in which the 1935 assessment of rolling stock is above that of 1934. 
In nine counties, Anne Arundel, Caroline, Charles, Garrett, Harford, 
Howard, Kent, Montgomery, and Wicomico, the 1935 assessment 
of ordinary business corporations is below that for 1934. In six 
counties — Allegany, Calvert, Charles, Harford, Somerset, and 
Wicomico — the 1935 assessment of domestic share corporations is 
below that for 1934. In six counties — Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Har- 
ford, Montgomery, Prince George's, and Washington — the assess- 
ment of personal property of non-stock corporations is less in 1935 
than it was in 1934. (See Table 167.) 



Assessable Basis 



253 



S^-^ e5.- 
a o -s 

o -tJ 00 a 

t-W CM 

0) C Q 



oM a 

o 



O O irt o 
CO C-J OS o 
05 05 O 



: in o o 
00 «o o 
: CO «0 'H 



:oo loooi 

; U5 o ; o O ^ 



: o o in 

O ^ 

:co t- CO 



X <X> -<t 'i' t> « Oi O (N <0 !N ^ irt eo oc ^ o — t~ 

—I oocooco-^t-ooot-io^oot^^aio — — o^S-TToo 
^'l "^1 CO 00 «o N iM_ co__ vrs 

"5 co'co'rf t^"o*c^^l^;"^f c^'-^'t- ■^*co"f- :c<Sn 

^ co^oi e<iuo-«<c»! '^•-c?o ^vj^tstfl 




j^S o 



00X>Q0'M-^^t~00'*'^'<!}'«O 
-HC0t-lO00(N2;CT><N-^r-<C0 

in_^ 00 o OJ CO ^.co CTi^'^^io CO 
-s-'c^foi fo'co lo J, irt"'-' 52 jTco' 
^ o ^ iM eo ^ 



CO 


: lO 00 
o t- 


: CJ C> 00 CT> CO 
t- CJl O T« irt 

: — 00 ci CO ■<i< 


00 
00 


t- 


132, 


. t-'"t-'" 
;o O 


' 274, 
104, 

1 ,438, 
101, 
200, 


CO 


7,124, 











Tangi 
Prope 

Purpoi 


613,02 




00 




00 


0)0) ° 





^ 00 eo ! 
^ 00 < 

— 00 — ! 



' (M CT> LO 
' CO 00 <N 

^ (N oj 00 in'-^eo'^o* 
I eo eo 



c; (M o ' 
cr. e<i rr 1 
' lO t- t~ < 



iTj<knif5-^Tj'uoiooTj<e<io«iftoo"505 
5eo-^cpt-coo>oict~-pju5mTto^t> 
< co_^in -.J" <» c^.eo_^--,t> ^.-^^t-,"*.oo__(N__<N co__ 
co' ic oT Lo' o" c^" o" M* Lo" •rt*" CO in cS o" c-" 

OOCDcOCl-^OoOOuOai UOOO(M-^iOO 

oo__ -^^^ o t-__ 50 o_ io_ oo_^ o_ co__ in 

oTo ■^"co'iO t~'"ic't--'"t>vo'"oo'"o o'er- eo'Oi" 03 

e^ir-HTf^.-iooco—t — 'c^coN'-i <?5 



N 00 



*^ ^ 2 I 
■2 o I 



C0__O 

o'co 



OoOOcOOClOO—iOO — — ' — J: — 00IN-3-W- 

t-iooooimc-oi-oooocMnco — w 

, ^ - " — . -SI ^ ^1 1^ 



t-co-rt-cgiot-co^t-iooooiinc-oi-oooocMnco — w 
'I oo^c~ <x co_(M_^in CO o t~_N x^^3^^-_^o o o^c^_ 
■S -r-" co" t— * (N -T^ im" o" — " CO* X* t-' cc' co' r-' co" c-' m' 
mosOirti-iocDxcoco-^t^c^c-.coxojocoicx 
CO t~ to_^c<i o:__x CO >-< x__— lo — coiomt-omx 

lO'iO TT co't- Os'^'t^ ^-*C<f ^-"co"x"x"cO x*-^"o"c<rt> 05 

t- ^eoeo c^co — ic — X CO ^cgt-cg_( 



CO IM 

co_ o_ 
o" 

—I CO 

CO 00 

eo" eo* 
o 

(N N 



3; 



£ o c 

■ e "ii = 



254 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



COUNTY TAX RATES FOR 1935-1936 

The county tax rates for school current expenses obtained by 
dividing the county levy for 1935-36 by the 1935 assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes averaged 54.3 cents 
for the 23 counties. Rates ranged from 38 cents in Harford to 74 
cents in Allegany. Eight of the Equalization Fund counties levied 
over 47 cents, two levied 47 cents, and the remaining four which ap- 
pear to be below are having the additional amount provided from 
sources such as tongers' licenses, federal funds, and surplus funds 
available to the county commissioners. (See Table 168.) 



TABLE 168 

County School Tax Rates and Total County Rates, 1935-1936 



County 



1 193 5-3 6 County School Tax Rate for 
School 



County Aver. 

fAllegany 

Montgomery 
fAnneArundel 

Washington.. 

Pr. George's 

tCarroll 

fWicomico 

fSomerset 

Frederick 

tCalvert 

Baltimore 

fCaroline 

Talbot 

tQueenAnne's 
tDorchester... 

fGarrett 

fKent 

tSt. Mary's.... 

Howard 

tWorcester ... 
tCharles 

Cecil 

Harford 



Current 
Expenses 



$ .548 

.744 
.684 

°.636 
.556 
.550 
.546 
.532 
.522 

°.508 
.504 

°.500 
.493 
.480 
.479 
.471 
.471 

-.468 

b.468 
.466 

r.466 

d.446 
.443 
°.378 



Debt 
Service 



$ .135 

*.229 
*.229 
°.196 

.159 
M38 

.128 
*.075 
*.023 
°*.107 
*.124 
°.166 
*.078 
*.064 
*.036 
Mil 



.019 



*.061 
*.147 
*.094 
*.026 
°*.032 



Capital 
Outlay 



$ .011 



°.005 
.001 



.078 
.008 



'.008 



.009 
.003 



.153 

;oi7 



.007 
.033 
.086 
.015 



Total 



$ .689 

.973 
.913 

°.837 
.716 
.688 
.752 
.615 
.545 

°.623 
.628 

°.675 
.574 
.544 
.668 
.582 
.488 
.487 
.468 
.534 
.646 
.626 
.484 

°.410 



Total 
Published 
County 
Tax Rate 
1935-36 



$ 1.37 

+1.42 
+1.50 
+°2.28 

+.97 
+1.00 
+1.10 
+1.06 
+1.20 
+°1.00 

1.35 
°1.45 
+1.08 

+.85 
+1.00 
+1.00 
+1.00 
+1.21 
+1.00 

1.00 

+.95 
+1.15 

+.78 
+°.95 



t Obtained by dividing figures in county levy 
county purposes. 

t Receives equalization fund in 1935-36. 
a Received in addition funds for repairs not 
included. 

b Excludes receipts from tongers' licenses. 
+ Excludes rate in incorporated towns and 
districts. 



■1935 assessable basis taxable as full rate for 
° Calendar year 1936. 

* Appronriated directly by county commissioners, 
c Additional funds to make up 47 cents made 
available-. 

d Excludes receipts from federal government for 
Indian Head. 



County Tax Rates 



255 



All of the counties except Anne Arundel, Carroll, Queen Anne's, 
Dorchester, Howard, Worcester, and Charles had higher rates for 
school current expenses in 1935-36 than for the preceding year. The 
largest increases are those of 18 and 16 cents in Montgomery and 
Baltimore Counties, respectively, both of which counties have re- 
stored all cuts in salaries. (See Table 168.) 

The average county levy for school debt service, 13.5 cents, is 2.6 
cents more than for 1934-35. The levy for school debt service found 
in all counties, except Garrett and St. Mary's, which have no school 
bonds outstanding, ranges between less than five cents in Kent, 
Somerset, Cecil, Harford, and Queen Anne's and 15 cents or more in 
Washington, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, and Allegany. 
Ten of the counties, Baltimore, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Dorchester, 
Garrett, Kent, Howard, Cecil, Talbot, and Harford, showed a 
reduction in tie levy for school debt service from the preceding year. 
(See Table 168.) 

Only 1.1 cents was the average county levy for school capital out- 
lay in 1935-36. Ten counties levied no tax for capital outlay as funds 
for this pirpose if needed are usually obtained from bond issues. In 
seven counties the rate of levy for capital outlay was less than 1 cent, 
while in three counties. Queen Anne's, Charles, and Carroll, it was 
over 7 cents. The rate of levy for school capital outlay was lower in 
eight counties in 1935-36 than in 1934-35. (See Table 168.) 

The county tax rate for all school purposes averaged 69 cents in the 
23 counties, an increase of 9.3 cents over 1934-35. Tax rates ranged 
between 41 cents in Harford and 97 cents in Allegany. Only five 
counties levied less than 50 cents for all school purposes — Harford, 
St. Mary's, Cecil, Kent, and Garrett. Five counties levied between 
50 and 60 cents — Howard, Talbot, Somerset, Caroline, and Dor- 
chester. Seven counties levied between 60 and 70 cents — Wicomico, 
Frederick, Charles, Calvert, Worcester, Queen Anne's, and Balti- 
more. Washington and Carroll levied between 70 and 80 cents, Anne 
Arundel between 80 and 90 cents, and Montgomery and Allegany 
over 90 cents. Only six counties, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Kent, 
Howard, Cecil, and Harford, levied less for all school purposes in 
1935-36 than in 1934-35. It must be remembered that these rates 
are obtained by dividing the amount in the levy by the total assess- 
able basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes. (See Table 
168.) 

The county tax rates as published which take into consideration 
funds received by the county from bases taxed at limited as well as 
full rates averaged $1.37 in 1935-36, an increase of 20 cents over 1934- 
35. This means that the schools are responsible for slightly less than 
one-half of the total increase in county tax rates. Taxpayers in in- 
corporated towns and taxed districts pay not only these rates but 
those levied by the municipalities in which they live. In Anne 
Arundel special road, sanitary, and fire taxes in the district are in- 
cluded in the total rate shown. Total county rates as published range 



256 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



between less than one dollar in Cecil, Talbot, Harford, Worcester, 
and Washington, and more than $1.25 in Anne Arundel, Mont- 
gomery, Baltimore, Allegany, and Calvert. (See Table 168.) 

A comparison of total published county tax rates shows the follow- 
ing changes from 1934-35 to 1935-36: 

No change — Harford, Worcester, Garrett, Dorchester, and Talbot. 
1- 9 cents more — Prince George's, Cecil, Howard, Frederick, St. 



Mary's, Washington. 
10-19 — Caroline, Carroll, Allegany, Wicomico, Balti- 

more. 

20-29 " — Queen Anne's, Somerset, Calvert, Charles. 

30-39 " —Kent. 

40-49 " " —Anne Arundel. 

60 " —Montgomery. 



PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Active parent-teacher associations were found in 1935 in 506 
white schools, 57.1 per cent of the total number. As a result chiefly 
of the elimination of one-teacher schools, the number of schools 
having parent-teacher associations decreased by 24 and the per- 
centage by 1.4. The maximum percentage of schools having P. T. 
A.'s was found in 1933 when the percentage was 59.1. In the two 
years since 1933, these has been a decHne of 2 in the per cent. (See 
Table 169.) 

TABLE 169 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1935 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 

Year Number Per Cent 



1924 490 30.8 

1925 623 40.6 

1926 638 42.8 

1927 649 45.1 

1928 617 45.4 

1929 588 45.8 

1930 576 47.7 

1931 613 54.7 

1932 571 56.2 

1933 556 59.1 

1934 530 58:5 

1935 506 57.1 



In 1935, Baltimore County had P. T. A.'s in 100 per cent of 'its 
schools, while in Anne Arundel, Kent, Talbot, and Caroline, 95 per 
cent or more of the schools had P. T. A.'s. On the other hand, only 
12.5 per cent of the Washington County schools, 13 per cent in St. 
Mary's, 17.3 in Garrett, between 38 and 47 per cent in Queen Anne's, 



County Tax Rates; Parent-Teacher Associations 



257 



Cecil, Carroll, and Dorchester had organized associations for par- 
ent-teacher cooperation and discussion for the benefit of the school's 
pupils. (See Chart 40.) 

CHART 40 



PIRENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTS WHITE SCHOOLS, 1954 AND 1936 



County 

Jotal and 
o. A 



Number Per Cent 
1934 1955 1954 1935 




Talbot increased the number of its P. T. A.'s by 9 from 1934 to 
1935, while Cecil added three to its number. In Caroline, Mont- 
gomery, Charles, Prince George's, Allegany, Dorchester, and St. 
Mary's, there was one more P. T. A. than was reported the preceding 
year. (See Chart 40.) 



258 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The number of P. T. A.'s decreased from 1934 to 1935 in Howard, 
Wicomico, Frederick, Worcester, Harford, Somerset, Queen Anne's, 
Garrett, and Washington. (See Chart 40.) 

It is interesting to find that the per cent of schools with one teacher 
having P. T. A.'s, 33.5, is lower than that of schools with two-teachers 
having P. T. A.'s, 59.0. The larger white schools had P. T. A.'s in 
84.8 per cent of their number in 1935 and the per cent of these schools 
having P. T. A.'s increased by 1.3 over 1934, whereas the per cent of 
one-teacher and two-teacher schools with organized parent-teacher 
groups dropped back slightly. (See Table 170.) 

TABLE 170 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 

School Year, 1934-35 



White Schools Having 

One Teacher 

Two Teachers 

Three or More Teachers. 

All Elementary 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
Number Per Cent 



122 
105 
263 

490 



33.5 
59.0 
84.8 

57.5 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY FUNDS 

Six counties sent in reports of the receipts and expenditures of 
their white schools from other than county funds on the blanks set 
up by the State Department of Education in 1929-30. Since the 
amount of money handled in these six counties totalled over $187,000, 
the advisability of a system of financial accounting if only for the 
protection of those responsible for these funds does not seem open to 
question. 

Gross receipts from school cafeterias accounted for over 44 per 
cent of the funds received in Baltimore, Caroline, and Dorchester 
Counties. P. T. A's were an important source of receipts in Baltimore 
County since every school has an organized parent-teacher associa- 
tion. In St. Mary's and Washington Counties, in which there are 
few P. T. A.'s little money was received from this source. Sales 
brought in relatively large amounts in Washington, Somerset, St. 
Mary's, and Dorchester Counties, and dues brought in over 12 per 
cent of the receipts in Washington and Caroline Counties. (See 
Table 171.) 

The expenses connected with taking in the receipts reduced the 
net receipts so that the latter represented anywhere from 35 per cent 
of the gross receipts in Dorchester to 78 per cent in Somerset. (See 
Table 172.) 

The largest proportion of the net receipts from other than county 
funds in the six counties was used for school libraries. St. Mary's 
used 26 per cent of its net receipts for libraries, Dorchester 17 per 



p. T. A.'s; Receipts from Other Than County Funds 



259 



O tn 



o (M* oi t-' cj o ?o o ai oi co t-' 

lO ^ UOCO lO ^ lO 1:0 >0 (M CO T-H 



t-HOCOCOOt-^i-HlOOCOOiCOOOlO 

00 oj o c^i ';c5 rH co" CO oi co' CO 

T-it:-<X>Of;iXiCOrH(MCOCO'— iLOfMOi 
CO rH tH C^] (M T-H 1—1 (M r-l 

66- 





T-H CO <>J 00 


Oi 


10 


OJ 


C\I t-^ 10 


Oi 




00' 


t-^ CO T-H* <;d 00* 


'^* 






UO -rf CO CO 


05 ^ 


CO 




CO CO CI 















uoT-Hoooitr-oooit-i-HC^iuoco'Oo:, 
ojcoooa5T-Hcoo'^OT-H»oot--cr) 

T-3c>^OT-HC0cic0OOC0CDO«D00* 
U5 CO CO CO -<:f CM CO <X> OS T-H CO Ci 
T-H O CO 05C01-HCOOO CO O CO 

T-Tco^" T-T 



COCTJiOC-OOT-Ht-iOOi 
T-Ht--^,-HiX)»OiOCM00 
CO 00 OS CO t-* O Tji CO T-l 
t-CO-^OOiO'-^OCOT-H 
CO '-^^t- CO O T-H CI CO 



00 O; 05 
t-^ t-- T-H CO 

uo ci CO CO* 

CO T-H 



T-Ha5ooiOt:-'»tt>-T— iT-HOt^osOico 
cot-^cDT-HLoai-^asococoT-HOico 

0'^'oO*t-HOUOo6oCt-Ht-Ht-HOOO*CO 

uoTj. oicooooocaT-HCD'^ooot- 

lO^OO^O^ Os^Tt CM t^- CO^CTi^T-H t-^t- t:- 
^"kO Cvfu5 CO CO"'-^ C0*"C0 OJ T-H oT 
T-H Tj< ,-H 



t^<JiOOCDt>COOt>-COt>;COOT-Ht- 
CO CO oi CO co" CO* CO* CO* i-H '-i T-H '10 

T-H CO tH 



lO-^OjCCOCOCOOOOOT-Ht-COtO 
00 00 T-H O CO CO 10 CM 05 CI ^ 10 0:1 

»0 O CM CO O CO T-H t- -^* '^* CO 
'"^iCicOOCCasOiOO-rfCOCDCOCilO 
■^T-HOlOt-->OOCOCOCaoOT-itri 



w» cv ( p 05 "if - 

00^"^^ T-H O 10 tr- >0 O CO CO^CO^OO t-i CO 
UOOl cM^ocT c^Tco 10 TjTcO CM T-T O 

CI CO CM T-t T-H T-H 



mo 



cJ o) 5 



o 



I I'll - mil 



6^ 

o 
o 
o 



CO 

00" ci 

00 CO 

OS T-H 



o 



o o 

o ^ 

c 

o 

O X 



CO t— 
Oi CO 


CO 
iO 


t-* T-l 

CO CO 
CO CO 


CO 




co'co 


CO 
d 


ir,) CO 
c: iO 


CO 


t— 00 
00 






co" 




05 QC 


CO 




cn* "*" 

CO CO 

00 T}< 


iO 





T-H 


0:. 

CO 00 


CM 


0: 

00 

CM 


oi 

00 
CO 


co^oo" 

6^ 


^ 


CM 

00 


CM 
CO 


CM* CO 


10 

CO 




CO 




00 


ci 

CO 

'^^^ 


T-H 


coco 

UO 





03 



260 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



o 

g 
IS 

CO 



00 <:d 00 CO o o «D 



ij liij I.— 1^ 1^ "iiJ U.J uj ';C' w 

-aiO'-Hcooiooo5aiooc<it>ooo 
oo<x>oocooot-«D(>iTti-HaiT-H(>io':dr-HO '^too'ci 

tH (M CO OO C<l 00 as CO Oi 05 <M t- ?0 05 Ol t- (M 
CO CO T-H CO <^ (^J t^- rH ,-1 (M y-i i-i 



t— OS 

«D OS 
OS 



I os'co 



OS CO 




00 tH c<i 




tJ CO 




lO o 


CO 







O (M 

O (M iO OS 



CO t- as o 
00 (M CO <>J oo 



O 00 

c^'as 

rH CO 



CO(M 



OS o 

CO CO 
kO CD 



lOU50002<^'^t>C<J 

t-.ast>;"^oosr-ioq 

rH kO T-H 12 Ui OS ^ ^* 
COCO'rt''^'rJ<(McO'«t 
(^J CO 1-H 



iO o 
O '"^ 



asioc<ir^<Masc^(Mt^oo(Mr-iooc<j 
Ti< 00 00 ic 00 CO c<j o as c<; 

OSiCOOOcOOs't^OrHOSiOaJT-HO 

t-c--».o^ascooou5t'T-ikOascooo 

lO CO (M CO ,-1 rl T-H 



COt-lO'^T-lOScoO^'^OlM"^'-' 
(M OO 00 GO »0 CO O CO <M T-t CO 

CO o ^ oi '<^" lo OS* c^' t-^ 
1— iioos'— 'co(Mc<jTtT}<oocou:>cor— 



t- CO 

OS to 
GO tH 
OS "Tt* 
09- 



OS t- 








CC CO 


,-H t-^ 


CO OS 


00 o 




CO CO 




CO rH 







o 


1— < 


CO OS 


OS 




CO 


CO 


1—1 


C£5os 


CO 




00 (M 






oo t- 















00 CO rH ^ O 00 00 CO ^ O CO O O ^ O Tj* THO,-i?0 

lOOCOCOcOCOooOSCJOCCJcOkOOC^-'^'t^ COCOOOOS 

osc<io<^^'--^0'«^'»d5■^'oou^asod■>5^^osoc■Ti^ c<jc^o-rjJ 

OS 00 (M CO OO 00 CO CO o t- CO rH(M00OS 

OS <^J^'-^^c<I^co N '-^ <^ o o CO c<i »-< 0(m 

■^CO C^ff^^ C^TrH rH i-rT-ri-r THrH 



cow 



tOC000^Os00u3OS00U5Tjj5grHt~OSt>TfC0Oa'-JCO00 

1-5 o tr-^ "5 CO c^i oi c<i c<i c<i 1-H * * <o' rn 



^5<j^OSoOOasiO'^t^'-<rH(>3kCOOoOCOCOlOkOcOCO 

u3»-irH'^(>aTi|co'--|C<it>;oqt-cocgc^]osu5oqocoosco 
odo»ocoosOcoc£5Ti<oc^idosasoso^ocot>ost^ 

COOCO'^'^COt^OOOSlOt^lOCOOJCOTtCOt-^'^'-ICO 
OCOC-OcoOSt-COCOlC-^COfMO^TtC^rHTH 



OCO 

co" 



U3 OS 
00 OS 
Os' tH 
CO 1-1 

rH OO' 



00 

o 

(M CO 



o c 



.2 2 



C5 J3 X 

>H ^ O 













CO 

O 










•S 




s 


'-Ij 
c« 




o 


a; 


"o 






o 


Ecc 






•S £ 







O cJ 



Expenditures from Other Than County Funds; 
County School Administration 



261 



cent, Washington 14 per cent, and Baltimore and Somerset 11 and 
10 per cent, respectively. Physical education and athletic activities 
were given 34 per cent of the net receipts in St. Mary's, 20 and 19 
per cent in Dorchester and Caroline, 17 per cent in Somerset and 10 
per cent in Baltimore County. Buildings and grounds were benefited 
by expenditures of 12 per cent or more of the net receipts in Somerset, 
Caroline, St. Mary's, and Washington Counties. (See Table 172.) 

These reports give indication that the county levy and State aid 
do not supply funds sufficient to give the schools many things they 
need. In consequence the patrons and parents of pupils contribute 
in various ways to supply additional funds so that the schools may 
have many things which enrich the lives of children while they are 
attending school. (See Table 172.) 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

The salary of a Maryland county superintendent as fixed in the 
State minimum schedule depends on size of teaching staff and years 
of experience. Since 1932-33 there has been no provision for salary 
increments due to experience, and reductions of 13 per cent on salaries 
from $2,500 to $2,999, of 14 per cent on salaries of $3,000 to $3,599, 
and of 15 per cent on salaries of $3,600 plus, have been used in cal- 
culating State aid, which is two-thirds of the minimum State salary 
schedule. Counties, however, may pay salaries above those in the 
minimum salary schedule, the range in salaries in 1934-35 being 
from $2,557.80 in four counties to $5,100 in Allegany and $7,200 in 
Baltimore County. (See Table XXIV, page 309.) 

There were ten counties with fewer than 150 teachers, four having 
from 150 to 199 teachers, and nine with more than 200 teachers. 
Several counties which would have had more than 200 teachers had 
they not carried forward a policy of school consolidation and trans- 
portation have replaced the additional problems of a large teaching 
staff with those of the transportation service. 

The changes in staff at the end of 1934-35 resulted from the sudden 
death of Mr. M. S. H. Unger, in April, 1935. Mr. Unger had been the 
forceful superintendent of Carroll County since 1916. He was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Raymond S. Hyson, whose education and early teach- 
ing service had been rendered in Carroll County before he became a 
high school principal in Baltimore County and later superintendent 
of Talbot County. Mr. Hyson's position as superintendent in Talbot 
County was filled by the appointment of Mr. J. Willard Davis, 
principal of the Easton High School. 

Conferences of Superintendents and State Department Staff 

The first conference of the school year 1934-35 of county super- 
intendents with the State Department staff was held on October 
25, 1934. "The Tentative Revised Standards for Maryland County 
High Schools," prepared in mimeographed form by the three State 
high school supervisors were presented with the idea of acquainting 



262 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



county superintendents with the points of departure from the stand- 
ards included in the earher bulletin published in November, 1927. 
The eight constants to be found in all curricula, changed requirements 
in the various courses, new subjects which may be offered with credit 
were discussed by the group preparatory to issuing a printed bulletin. 

In connection with preparation of the State Public School Budget 
for 1935, each county superintendent reported on the trend of senti- 
ment in his county toward the restoration of salary cuts, which had 
gone into effect after the temporary reduction in teachers' salary 
schedules voted by the 1933 legislature. 

A conference of county superintendents was held in February, 
1935, to discuss the Governor's recommendations regarding the State 
Public School Budget for 1936 and 1937. The superintendents pre- 
pared a statement setting forth their position on the questions of 
restoration of salary cuts for teachers, additional funds for the cost 
of high school transportation in Equalization Fund counties, the 
cut of one sixth in the $1,500,000 fund for reduction of taxation, the 
need of additional State-aid for high schools because of increased en- 
rollment and the reduction of over-large classes, and the need of mak- 
ing adequate appropriations for the State Teachers Colleges and 
Bowie Normal School. 

The last conference of the school year, 1934-35, was held on April 
18, 1935. Bills relating to education introduced at the 1935 legislative 
session which passed and which failed to pass were reviewed. The 
role of the P. T. A.'s in support of the State school program in helping 
bring about restoration of cuts in salaries and in high school trans- 
portation was brought out. Problems of school bus transportation 
involving safety of children were discussed. 

The certification committee presented recommendations regard- 
ing emergency renewal of certificates in 1935 and 1936 without sum- 
mer school attendance which were approved by the superintendents. 
The State Board of Education in May, 1935, passed the following 
regulations carrying out these recommendations: 

1. On account of the general salary reductions, teachers' certificates 
which expire in 1935 may, upon recommendation of the superintendent 
concerned, be extended for two years without summer school attendance. 
If, on the other hand, summer school credits are presented in 1935, the 
renewal will extend over six years. 

2. On account of the general salary reductions, teachers' certificates 
which expire in 1936 may, upon recommendation of the superintendent 
concerned, be extended for two years without summer school attendance. 
If, on the other hand, summer school credits are presented in 1936, the 
renewal will extend over six years. 

As Si result of the discussion by the superintendents of the name of 
certificate to be granted to graduates completing the four-year 
teachers college course, the State Board of Education in May, 1935, 
adopted By-law 56, which carried out the recommendation of the 
superintendents:: 



Conferences of County Sup'ts and State Dep't of Education 



263 



By-Law 56-Requirements for Bachelor of Science Certificate in 
Elementary Education 

A Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary Education, valid for elemen- 
tary school teaching throughout the State for three years and renewable on 
evidence of successful experience and professional spirit, may be granted to any 
person who has completed, in a college approved for the preparation of elementary 
school teachers, a four-year course of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science. 

As a result of questions arising for teachers on leave of absence 
regarding active membership in the Teachers' Retirement System 
at the time of death, the superintendents discussed the advisability 
of defining leave of absence in more definite terms. Their rec- 
ommendations were expressed in a ruling by the Board of Trustees 
of the Maryland Teachers Retirement System in July, 1935, which 
clarified the definition of ''member" included in Chapter 8-A, 
Section 92 (4) as follows: 

(4) " Member" shall mean any teacher included in the membership of 
the system as provided in Section 94 of this Article. 

"Member in service" as employed in Section 96, Subsections (1), (3) 
and (6), shall be construed to mean that the teacher (a) is a member of 
the retirement system insofar as the requirement for membership is met 
as stated in the Act; and (b) is under contract for teaching service in the 
State. A teacher on "leave of absence" for personal illness, maternity 
reasons, or formal study, shall be interpreted to be a "member in service" 
during the time, in no case to exceed eighteen months, definitely fixed by a 
Board of Education for the leave, with the provision that the Board of 
Trustees of the retirement system approves those leaves granted for 
a period exceeding three months. When a leave of absence is granted, the 
name of the teacher, the reason, and the period of the leave shall be re- 
ported promptly to the retirement system by the superintendent. Any 
change in the status of a teacher on leave of absence shall be reported 
to the retirement system by the superintendent within sixty days. 

The superintendents discussed the implications important to the 
cause of education of a decision of Chief Judge Carroll T. Bond of the 
Court of Appeals of Maryland, which was handed down on April 4, 
1935. It affirmed an order of the Baltimore City Court refusing to 
grant a writ of mandamus to Francis Olmstead Hewitt Metcalf to 
compel the State Superintendent to grant him a State teacher's 
certificate. The decision of the Court of Appeals of Maryland, No. 
64, January Term, 1935, is quoted in its entirety. The italics are 
ours. 

"The question here is one of statutory construction, raised by a de- 
mand of the appellant for a writ of mandamus to compel the Superin- 
tendent of Schools to grant him a certificate authorizing him to teach in 
a high school of the State, notwithstanding a by-law of the State 1 oard 
of Education limiting the issue of such certificates to those who have 
attained a higher rank in their own training. The appeal is from a denial 
of the writ upon an agreed statement of the facts supplemented by testi- 
mony. 

"The Code, Art. 77, sec. 27 and 28, provides generally for the issue of 
teachers' certificates by the State Superintendent, and section 83 limits 
employment as a teacher to a person holding a certificate. Section 85, 
subsection 5, of the article provides that a high school teacher's certificate 
"may be granted to persons who are graduates of a standard college or 
university, or who have had the equivalent in scholastic preparation." 



264 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Section 11 of the same article directs and empowers the State Board of 
Education to "determine the educational policies of the State," and 
"enact by-laws for the administration of the public school system, which 
when enacted and published, shall have the force of law. " And in pursu- 
ance of this authority, the Board, on September 19, 1930, enacted a by- 
law that "only such graduates as rank academically in the upper four- 
fifths of the class and who make a grade of "C" or better in practice 
teaching, shall be issued Maryland Teachers' Certificates. " The appellant 
ranked only in the lowest fifth of his class, and for that reason was denied 
the certificate which he now seeks through the courts. He contends that 
the passage of the by-law was not within the authority vested in the Board 
by the statutes. 

"In 1927 he was awarded a scholarship to Western Maryland College, 
under the provision in article 77, section 243, that the winner of such a 
scholarship should give a bond to the State "that he will teach school 
within this state for not less than two years after leaving college. " And 
having complied and attended the college, the appellant considers him- 
self assured a teaching position by that provision of the statute. But we are 
unable to see in the requirement of a bond anything more than a measure 
to assure the State that it may derive so much benefit in return for its 
grant to the student. It secures the benefit in case the State should 
want it. No assurance is given the student, and no obligation assumed 
by the State toward him. 

"The provision in section 85, sub-section 5, that a high school teacher's 
certificate "may be granted," to persons of the specified experience, is 
construed by the appellant as the equivalent of "shall be granted" and 
therefore as prohibiting a choice among such persons by the Board 
limiting eligibility to those in the upper four fifths of the classes. With 
this construction, too, the court is in disagreement. There seems to 
the court to he no intention manifested other than that of setting a minimum 
requirement for the Board's selection of teachers. That seems to he a reason- 
able construction, in accord with the evident plan of the whole statute that 
the Board shall be depended upon largely to make the educational system 
work properly. Discretion in selection from eligihles, whose fitness must 
differ greatly, would seem to he a very likely intention. And if the discretion 
is given, as we think it is, then when exercised it acquires by the express 
terms of the statute the force of law, not to he interfered with by the courts. 
Manger v. Board of Examiners, 90 Md. 659; Woods v. Simpson, 146 Md. 
547, 551. 

"It is suggested that enactment of a by-law for all cases is not an exer- 
cise of the discretion given, but an enactment of a new general rule 
qualifying the discretion. But the Board retains full power to modify 
and adapt its by-law as it may see fit, and therefore this one amounts to 
no more than a resolution or announcement of policy by the Board. And 
section 11 of the article 77, as stated, provides that the Board shall 
determine the educational policies of the State and enact by-laws for the 
administration of the system. 

"In the alternative, taking such a by-law to be within the authority 
given, the appellant urges that exercise of the authority retroactively 
could not be intended, so that after a student has started on his prepara- 
tion a higher test than that with which he was faced at the start could 
be imposed. The by-law makes no change in courses of study and prepara- 
tion; it concerns only the diligence and ability of the student in it, and 
the contention seems to be that the student had a right to take his work 
more easily. We see no vested rights in the standards of work which 
might restrict retroactive by-laws. Before the student is selected as a 
teacher he has no contract with the State, and no vested rights. He is 
only the recipient of the State's bounty, with the State left unrestrained 
in adopting requirements it might find desirable at any time. 



Judge Bond's Decision; Attendance Officers' Conference; 265 

Certification 

"A further objection, that no notice was given the appellant of the 
adoption of this by-law, is subject to the same criticisms. There is no 
requirement of notice to individuals. Publication of the by-law is re- 
quired by the statute, and it is not denied that there was publication; 
and in that the full measure of the statutory requirements was met. 
Upon publication the by-law acquired the force of law." 

Conference of School Attendance Officers 

A conference of county school attendance officers was held on 
April 15, 1935, under the chairmanship of Mr. R. C. Thompson, State 
Supervisor of Attendance. Chairmen of committees of attendance 
officers from adjacent counties who had been appointed to formulate 
reports for discussion at the meeting presented statements on the 
following problems: 

Cooperation with Relief and Welfare Agencies 

Coordination of Attendance and Child Labor Laws 

Cooperation with Health Departments 

In-Service Training of Attendance Officers 

The superintendents of the Rosewood Training School and of 
Montrose described the work at their institutions and their relation 
to problem cases in the counties. Miss White informed the group 
of the work of the Children's Council in attempting to formulate a 
statement of unmet needs of children in the counties. 

Mr. Thompson outlined a plan and presented a form for use in 
making a permanent record of all facts regarding a few of the most 
difficult problem cases in each county. 

THE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM IN THE COUNTIES* 
Number of Certificates 

The number of certificates of the various kinds which have been 
issued during the period from December 1 to November 30 in the 
years 1921-22, 1933-34, and 1934-35 are shown in Table 173. 

The administrative and supervisory staffs in the counties are now 
comparatively stable. The number of certificates issued in recent 
years to these officials is therefore small and the slight variations 
are not significant. In 1933-34 the number of high school teachers' 
certificates issued was abnormally small because the reduced budgets 
made it impossible for the counties to increase their high school 
teaching force in proportion to the increase in high school enroll- 
ment. Furthermore, replacements were avoided whenever possible. 
Such a policy, necessarily followed for several years, had brought 
the schools to such a point in 1934-35 that a considerable increase in 
the number of teachers was unavoidable. Sixty-two more high 
school teachers were certificated in 1934-35 than in the preceding 
year, and thirty-one more than in 1921-22, which was a normal 
year, but when the high school teaching staff was much smaller 
than in 1934-35. 

In 1934-35, the Bachelor of Science Certificate in Elementary 
Education was issued for the first time, chiefly to graduates of our 

* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 



266 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education . 



TABLE 173 



Grade of Certificate 


Number 
December 


of Certificates Issued 
1 to November 30 


1921-22 


1933-34 


1Q34-a5 


Administration and Supervision 








Administration and Supervision 


4 


2 


I 


Elementary Supervision 


9 


3 


Q 
o 


Supervision Special Subjects 





I 


1 

JL 


Helping Teacher 


10 





1 
X 


Attendance Officer 





2 





High School 






Principal 


7 


11 


5 


Academic 


157 


115 


163 


Special 


30 


61 


73 


Vocational 


24 


10 


18 


Non-Public 





35 


43 


Elementary 








Principal 


43 


7 


14 


Bachelor of Science in El. Ed 








32 


Advanced First Grade 





328 


341 


First 


370 


85 


61 


Second 


325 








Third 


214 








Non-Public First 





4 


2 



own State Teachers Colleges who had completed the new four-year 
course. There was nevertheless a slight increase in the numberjof 
advanced first grade certificates issued to graduates of the three-year 
courses and to other teachers with equivalent training. Practically 
all the first grade certificates issued in 1933-34 and in 1934-35 are 
held by colored teachers, since this grade of certificate is now issued 
to white applicants only when they are already in the teaching service 
in Maryland and have accumulated enough credits to qualify for the 
first grade certificate. Second grade certificates are issued to both 
white and colored teachers only under similar circumstances. 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional certificates issued during the last twelve 
years, including 1935-36 up to March 1, 1936, is given in Table 174. 
The steady decrease in these figures through 1933-34 will be noted 
except during certain years when a more complete check of the cer- 
tification than had previously been made resulted in a rise in the 
number of provisional certificates issued to teachers who had formerly 
taught without certificates. For the high schools the slight increase in 
1927-30 was due to the increases in the high school stafif necessary 
to care for the additional high school enrollment. The provisional 
certificates during the last few years for elementary school teaching 
are exclusively for elementary school principals. The requirements 



Certification Policies; Medical Examinations 



267 



for the principal's certificate have been gradually increased and it is 
difficult to find enough teachers who have the preparation required 
for the regular certificate and who at the same time possess the neces- 
sary personal qualities for the work of a principal. The provisional 
high school teachers' certificates are entirely in the special fields 
such as music and industrial arts. 

TABLE 174 



Provisional or Emergency Certificates 



Issued for 

YEAR Elementary High School 

School Teachingf Teachingf 



1923- 24 276 225 

1924- 25 316 184 

1925- 26 175 132 

1926- 27 214 104 

1927- 28 268 108 

1928- 29 72 110 

1929- 30 35 112 

1930- 31 25 92 

1931- 32 15 82 

1932- 33 7 56 

1933- 34 4 46 

1934- 35 10 35 

1935- 36* 20 23 



t Includes both white and colored teachers. 
* Up to March 1, 1936. 

MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS 

Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone medical examinations conducted by physi- 
cians especially appointed for this purpose. For the numbers ex- 
amined, accepted, and rejected during the seven years the regulation 
has been in force, see Table 175. 

TABLE 175 

Number of Teachers Accepted and Rejected on the Basis of Medical Examinations 



Year No. Examined No. Accepted No. Rejected 

1929- 30 917 910 7 

1930- 31 885 872 13 

1931- 32 772 754 18 

1932- 33 503 495 8 

1933- 34 392 383 9 

1934- 35 509 500 9 

1935- 36* 511 501 10 



Up to March 1, 1936. 



THE MARYLAND STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 
Graduates of 1935 

There were 174 county and 70 city graduates from the three State 
Teachers Colleges in 1935. With the exception of 20 county and 3 
city graduates, who after completing the three-year course were the 
first to return for a fourth year made possible by the action of the 
State Board of Education in 1934 in authorizing a four-year course 
for county students, most of the 1935 graduates, who had entered in 
the fall of 1932, completed the three-year course. During the period 
from 1923 to 1935 there was only one year, 1933, when the number of 
graduates was lower than in 1935. The total number of county 
graduates for the period from 1920 to 1935, excluding duplicates, 
totalled 3,751. (See Table 176.) 



TABLE 176 

White Graduates of Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1920 to 1935 







TOWSON 










Year 








Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 








Coun- 






Baltimore 




burg 


bury 


ties 




Total 


City 


Counties 








1920 


37 




37 


13 




50 


1921 


50 




50 


29 




79 


1922 


114 




114 


28 




142 


1923 


240 




240 


58 




298 


1924 


239 




239 


71 




310 


1925 


527 


234 


293 


59 




352 


1926 


428 


214 


214 


84 


27 


325 


1927 


353 


139 


214 


91 


72 


377 


1928 


286 


97 


189 


82 


75 


346 


1929 


268 


115 


153 


81 


82 


316 


1930 


262 


133 


129 


72 


70 


271 


1931 


248 


111 


137 


84 


78 


299 


1932 


215 


106 


109 


44 


74 


227 


1933 


;b49 


25 


b24 


tl5 


tl9 


158 


1934 


tl99 


till 


t88 


t45 


t52 


tl85 


1935 


CC158 


c70 


(88 


e55 


t31 


°174 


Total 












1920 to 1935 


*3,657 


n,346 


*2,311 


*890 


*551 


*3,751 



a Includes 22 who completed the three-year course d Includes 7 who completed the four-year course 
b Includes 9 who completed the three-year course e Includes 13 who completed the four-year course 
t Graduates of the three-year course % Includes 43 graduates of the three-year course 

c Includes 3 who completed the four-year course ° Includes 20 graduates of the four-year course 
* Excludes duplicates — who completed two, three and four year courses. 



From Towson in 1935 there were 88 county and 70 city graduates 
including 7 and 3, respectively, who received degrees after completing 
the four-year course. Frostburg graduated 55 of whom 13 had done 
four years of work, while there were 31 three-year graduates from 
Salisbury. (See Table 176.) 

268 



1935 Graduates of State Teachers Colleges 



269 



Placement of 1935 Graduates 
Of the 174 county graduates in 1935, there were 108 who accepted 
teaching positions, 39 who returned for the fourth year, and only 27 
who were without positions and one of these had married. Of the 
70 city graduates, 59 received appointments, 10 returned for the 
fourth year, and one went to Temple University for further study. 
(See Table 177.) 

TABLE 177 

Distribution of 1935 Graduates of State Teachers Colleges by Home County 

and Teaching County 



COUNTY 


TOWSON 

Graduates 


Frostburg 
Graduates 


Salisbury 
Graduates 


All 
Graduates 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Total Counties 

Teaching 


68 
klO 
*10 

hi 

4 

k34 


61 


24 
11 
*20 

18 


24 


16 
6 


16 


108 
27 
*39 

19 
4 

34 
5 
2 
3 
2 
1 
2 
6 

10 
2 
3 
4 
1 
6 
3 

18 
9 
1 


101 


Not Teaching 


Fourth Year 










Allegany 




e5 




e5 
4 

al9 
d6 
c4 


Anne Arundel 


4 

al9 
1 
c3 






Baltimore 










Caroline 






5 


d5 


Carroll 


2 
2 
2 
1 
1 




1 


Cecil 




1 




Charles 


2 








2 


Dorchester 










Frederick 


1 


6 






1 


3 


Garrett 




Harford 


10 
1 

3 
3 

1 
8 
2 
1 


r9 
bl 
b4 

9 


b3 






dl2 
bl 
c8 
19 


Howard 




1 




Montgomery 






b4 

5 


Prince George's 




5 


1 


Queen Anne's 




Somerset. 








5 
2 






Talbot 












Washington 


hi 


10 


d9 




fl6 
bl 


Wicomico 


7 


bl 


Worcester 








Out of State 


1 

66 










1 

66 


Baltimore City: 

Teaching 


59 
gl 
10 

127 
gkll 
20 










59 
gl 
10 

167 
28 
49 


Not Teaching 










Fourth Year 














Entire State: 

Teaching 


127 


24 
11 
20 


24 


16 
6 
9 


16 


167 


Not Teaching 


Fourth Year 





















* Not distributed by county. e Includes five in one-teacher schools, 

a Includes one at McDonogh School. f Includes four in one-teacher schools, 

b Includes one in a one-teacher school. ff Includes one at Temple University, 

c Includes two in one-teacher schools. h Moved to Baltimore City before 

d Includes three in one-teacher schools. graduation. 

k One married. 

Of the 88 county graduates at Towson, 68 obtained positions, 10 
chose to return for the fourth year, and only 10 were without positions 
and one of these 10 had married. Of the 68 who obtained positions, 
51 or 75 per cent returned to teach in their home counties. Since 
Baltimore City, Prince George's, Montgomery, Caroline, and Carroll 



270 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



did not have sufficient graduates from their own counties, it was 
necessary for them to employ graduates from other counties where 
there were no vacancies. (See Table 111.) 

Of the 55 graduates from Frostburg, 24 received appointments, 20 
returned for the fourth year, and 11 were without placement. Of 
the 24 who secured positions, 15 or 62.5 per cent returned to their 
home counties. Prince George's, Harford, and Carroll appointed 
Frostburg graduates whose homes were in other counties. (See Table 
177.) 

Of the 31 Salisbury graduates in 1935, there were 16 who found 
placement as teachers, 9 returned for the fourth year, and 6 did not 
find positions. Of the 16 who were appointed, 7 or 43.7 per cent were 
from their home counties. Montgomery, Prince George's, and 
Frederick appointed Salisbury graduates who came from other 
counties. (See Table 111.) 

Of those who received positions 21 went into one-teacher schools, 
7 from Towson, 9 from Frostburg, and 5 from Salisbury. (See Table 
111.) 

Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges 

In the fall of 1935 the county enrollment of 147 at Towson was 
lower than at any time since 1920, while the city enrollment of 193 
showed a gain over the preceding year. At Frostburg and Salisbury, 
which were permitted to offer two years of junior college work in 
addition to professional teacher training, the enrollment of 137 and 
185 respectively, was larger than it had been for a number of years 
previously. (See Table 178.) 

TABLE 178 

Enrollment at Maryland State Teachers Collegess 



Fall 




Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 




of 


City 


County 






County 


State 


1920 




184 


57 




241 


241 


1921 




397 


101 




498 


498 


1922 




506 


134 




640 


640 


1923 




569 


125 




694 


694 


1924 


518 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


411 


513 


197 


107 


817 


1,228 


1926 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


1934 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


1935 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 



Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges 



271 



The enrollment by classes indicates that there will be 45 county- 
graduates who have completed four years of work and 100 who 
entered in 1933 who will have completed three years of work. This 
is the last county group graduating who will have had the three- 
year course. From our previous turnover studies, see Table 28, page 
44, positions will be available for the entire group. Unless some of 
the 100 three-year graduates of 1936 return for the fourth year, there 
will be no senior class in 1937 from the counties. The sophomore class 
from the counties, which entered in 1934 and numbers 129, will not 
graduate until 1938. The freshman class of 194 will undoubtedly 
be considerably reduced in number before graduation in 1939. (See 
Table 179.) 

TABLE 179 

Distribution of Enrollment in Marylajid State Teachers Colleges 
by Clags, Fall of 1935 



Towson Frost- Salis- Total 

Class City County burg bury County State 

Freshmen 80 49 46 99 194 274 

Sophomores 68 48 33 48 129 197 

Seniors: 

3 year 34 40 32 28 100 134 

4 year 11 10 25 10 45 56 



Total Enrollment 193 147 137* 185 469* 662* 

Resident students 8 75 54 70 199 207 

Day students 185 72 83 115 270 455 

Elementary School 249 209 127 585 



* Includes one irregular student. 

The outlook for placement of the city graduates is very bright. 
There will be only 34 three-year and 11 four-year graduates in 1936. 
In 1937, many of the 68 sophomores will be three-year graduates, and 
in 1938 many of the 80 freshmen will be three-year graduates. (See 
Table 179.) 

The enrollment at the three colleges presents different conditions. 
At Towson the county enrollment in the freshman, sophomore, and 
senior classes is practically the same, between 48 and 50. At Frost- 
burg the freshman enrollment is 46, the sophomore 33, and the senior 
enrollment 57, divided between the three-and four-year gi'oups. At 
Salisbury there is a record breaking freshman class of 99, a sophomore 
class of 48, and a senior class of 38. Both Frostburg and Salisbury 
were permitted to offer junior college work, which was not the case 
at Towson. (See Table 179.) 

The residents include 83 students, 45 per cent of the county gi'oup 
at Towson, 54 students or 39 per cent of the enrollment at Frostburg, 
and 70 or 38 per cent of the enrollment at Salisbury. With the in- 



272 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



sjciuas 



sejouici{dos 



' N <N CO lO 

.o 



rH N 



USUIO^ 



^ ^ lO 



ueiuo^ I (N 



U8UIOjY\^ 



OJ O 
73 — 



uauio^ 



D O 



U9UIO^ 



o o 



a o 

r? S 



OJ o c . 



— X a, 0, o cs 



S C c3 c3 cs c3 i c c; IS re o aj^-;: 3 _j 5 rtj^jr ^ 3 rt o 



Enrollment at State Teachers Colleges; Status of Freshmen 273 



crease in the charge for boarding students from $5 to $6 per week, 
many students Hving at a distance have found it more economical 
to live at home and commute daily. (See Table 179.) 

The elementary school enrollment is 249 at Towson, 209 at Frost- 
burg, and 127 at Salisbury. (See Table 179.) 

The enrollment at the three State Teachers Colleges distributed by 
class, sex and county indicates the preponderance of the enrollment 
at each college from the county in which it is located and from 
adjacent counties. For example, 71 per cent of the county enrollment 
at Towson comes from Baltimore, Harford, and Frederick Counties; 
97 per cent of the Frostburg enrollment is resident in Allegany, Wash- 
ington, and Garrett Counties; while 72 per cent of the Salisbury 
students live in Wicomico, Worcester, Somerset, and Dorchester 
Counties. (See Table 180.) 

Counties having other colleges within their borders or nearby send 
a large proportion of their graduates to these institutions, e g., Carroll 
County has Western Maryland College; Kent, Washington College; 
Prince George's, the University of Maryland; Anne Arundel, St. 
John's. (See Table 57 which shows 1934 high school graduates at 
Maryland colleges, page 88.) 

County superintendents and high school principals will probably 
find it advantageous to check up the enrollment by classes from their 
county at the State Teachers Colleges with the tables in the annual 
report showing teacher turnover in white elementary schools for a 
number of years to ascertain whether it will not be advantageous 
to adopt measures to bring before high school graduates opportunities 
in the field of elementary education. (See Table 180.) 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Teachers Colleges in the Fall of 1935 



TABLE 181 
1935 Entrants at State Teachers Colleges 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


City 


County 


City 

90.0 
7.5 
2.5 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep. 
General , 


87.5 
3.7 
8.8 


87.8 
10.2 


71.7 
15.2 
2.2 


78.8 
10.1 
1.0 

5.1 

5.0 


Upper 

Middle 


55.1 
36.7 
8.2 


47.8 
39.1 
2.2 
10.9 


43.4 
36.4 
13.1 
7.1 


Commercial 


Lower 


Technical, 
Scientific, 
Vocational 

Unclassified 


2.0 


Unclassified. 


Total No. 








10.9 


Total No. 






80 


49 


46 


99 


80 


49 


46 


99 



Over 87 per cent of the 1935 freshmen who entered Towson were 
graduates of the academic or college preparatory course in high 
school. Of the City entrants nearly 4 per cent had pursued the general 



274 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

and nearly 9 per cent the commercial course. Ten per cent of the 
county students had taken the general and 2 per cent the technical 
or vocational course. (See Table 181.) 

At Frostburg, 72 per cent of the 1935 freshmen were graduates of 
the academic course, 15 per cent of the general, and 2 per cent of the 
commercial course. Of the Salisbury freshmen, 79 per cent had 
graduated from the academic course, 10 per cent from the general, 1 
per cent from the commercial, and 5 per cent from the vocational 
course. At Salisbury there was a decrease from the year preceding 
in the per cent who had taken the academic course. (See Table 181.) 

At Towson 90 per cent of the City and 55 per cent of the county 
entrants in 1935 were ranked in the upper third of their high school 
graduating class, while only 2.5 and 8 per cent of the City and county 
students, respectively, were from the lower third of their classes. 
Frostburg had 48 per cent of the 1935 freshman entrants from the 
upper third and 2 per cent from the lower third of the class, while 
corresponding figures at Salisbury were 43 per cent from the upper 
and 13 per cent from the lower third of the class. (See Table 181.) 

The same ability test given to 1935 freshmen who entered 285 
colleges over the entire country was used at the Towson and Frost- 
burg State Teachers Colleges. The median for the Towson students 
was 14 points higher than the median reported for 266 colleges 
enrolling 58,402 freshmen. There were but 59 of the 266 colleges 
which had a median higher than that for the Towson freshmen. 

Withdrawals of Freshmen Who Entered State Teachers Colleges in 1934 



TABLE 182 

Freshmen Who Entered Maryl'and Teachers Colleges in September, 1934, who 
Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily Before September, 1935 





Towson 


Frost- 


Salis- 




City 


County 


burg 


bury 


Freshman Enrollment Sept. 1934 


72 


55 


39 


58 


Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer and 










Death 


2 


2 






Withdrawals by Request 


1 


1 


" 1 




Voluntary Withdrawals 


2 


4 


5 


12 


Per Cent Withdrawn by Request 


1.4 


1.9 


2.6 




Per Cent of Voluntary Withdrawals 


2.9 


7.5 


12.8 


20.7 


Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 


4.3 


9.4 


15.4 


20.7 



The requested or voluntary withdrawal of freshmen who entered 
Towson in the fall of 1934 included but 3 of the City and 5 of the 
county group, 4.3 and 9.4 per cent, respectively. At Frostburg 6 
or 15.4 per cent withdrew, as was the case for 12 or 21 per cent of the 
freshmen who entered Salisbury as freshmen in 1934. There was a 



Status of Freshmen; Withdrawals; Faculty at State Teachers 275 

Colleges 

smaller percentage of withdrawal for City freshmen and a slightly 
higher percentage for county freshmen at Towson in 1935 than in 
1934. Frostburg had a higher and Salisbury a lower percentage of 
freshmen who withdrew in 1935 than for the year preceding. (See 
Table 182.) 

Faculty at the State Teachers Colleges 

At Towson, in the fall of 1935 the instructional staff of 30, ex- 
cluding nine in the campus elementary school, included one instructor 
less than the year before. Due to changes in requirements of re- 
arranged courses in the four-year curriculum and reduced resident 
enrollment, there were 8 fewer county training centers, a decrease 
of a half-time office worker, and one fewer on the dormitory staff. 
At Frostburg, the office staff was increased by a half-time worker in 
the fall of 1935. At Salisbury, the appointment of Dr. J. D. Blackwell 
as president in April 1935, and the additional freshman enrollment 
brought an increase of 2 in the college administrative and instruc- 
tional staff, but the campus elementary school was decreased by .7 
of a teacher and the county training centers were decreased by 2. 
(See Table 183.) 

TABLE 183 

Faculty at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, Fall of 1935 



Position Towson Frostburg Salisbury Total 



President 1113 

Instructors 26 c8 cf9 cf42 

Library 4 2 e3 (9 

Campus Elementary School 9 6 3.3 18.3 

Training Centers: 

Allegany 1 1 

Baltimore a3 a3 

Somerset 2 2 

Wicomico 1 i 

Baltimore City bl8 bl8 

Office Staff 6.5 2 g2 glO.5 

Dormitory 3 d2 cl c6 



a In one school. b In nine schools. 



c Excludes social director who gives instruction at Frostburg and at Salisbury, 
d Social director at Frostburg and at Salisbury also acts as instructor, 
e Librarian at Salisbury also acts as instructor. 

f Excludes librarian and registrar-business manager at Salisbury who also act as instructors. 
? Registrar-business roanager at Salisbury also acts as instructor. 

Total and Per Student Corts at State Teachers Colleges 

In the report of a year ago the statement was made that, because 
of the two factors, first, drastic budget cuts involving decreases in 
salary, staff, and other costs of instruction, and second, decrease 
in enrollment, resulting partly from unplaced graduates, increased 
fees, and general depressed conditions, especially at Towson, current 
expenditures at the State Teachers Colleges for 1933-34 were con- 
siderably below amounts spent for a number of years preceding. 



276 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



< 
© 



01 

B 

O) 

a 



PC 

o 



00 00 ^ Ci 



00 in t~- 
O lO t-' 
t- CO 00 



00 m CO o 

^ 00 O CO o 

av «o t-' o 

^ 00 M ^ 

TfCO rH 



CO IC 

00 ic 



no CO CO t> 
fl> Ol 00 

t> -r* (N 

lO* in TaT^'—T 







J 








c« 
















72 








C 


i c 




m 






c 






C 


o 


'C 


^ s 










C o 


2720 5 


c 2?^ 



"S Srt ? c 

^ tH O O 



t- o CO 
CO ^ o 
00 CO "5 



t- ^ in 
"5 o M 

00t> (M 



72 
O 

in M oi 
o ^in 
in Kt-^ 
in -H 



^ eo o 



Poo 



00 
in 


00 


co' 

m- 
w 


$215.' 




TO' 


$811 
$90.43 


00 

(£> 

* 

J 



oo' 



eo 




O 
<M 




CO 




$586. 
100.51 


% 

00 
00 
IM 


u 

J 


1 in 


CO I 
CO 


$209. 


$242, 






$857. 
).23 


$309. 
*$305.49 


o 


J 



M J; 

"o '5 
O c 



<* 



as 



CD » c 
CD C g 



CO CO 

C (M CO 

S; CO CO 
m '"' '"' 
= 1^ 

Mm. 
Ph to c 

OX'S 

.S D. 



X OS 0) 

O -w M 

X C 0) 

e s 

5 c c 

c c E 



3« S 
2 c 

* P K>, 



in o TJ 
in^a>^^ M 

„ O fc, o O 

||^S.So 



ir „ Qi (D " 
01 a> CO a> 

o-o c 



O 

o • 



CO 

in • 

eg IN 



0) 



o^ 
c 



ba " o 

C g 3 i3 Q)'" 

^ 8 g 

.SE^sg'^ 

oj u c« CO 'P ""-^ 

15 "5 ,^ M 



•rr to c C 



S o 

OX! 



x:^ V o u 
E •■c 3 
25 

.£f 2 H 2 H 
gx ^t-rt 

j6«-g O 
5 O 3 

o-o * o 



Total and Cost per Student at State Teachers Colleges 277 



For 1934-35, the expenditures decreased still further, especially at 
Towson and Salisbury, and for the dormitory at Frostburg, while 
enrollment at Towson for the day and resident group and at Salisbury 
for the resident group was much reduced. 

The tuition fees were continued at $100, and the resident fee at $6 
a week, or $216 for the year, a total of $316 for resident students. 

A comparison of 1934-35 expenditures, receipts, and cost to state 
per student at the three colleges with those for 1933-34 is shown 
below: 

Year Towson Frostburg Salisbury 

TOTAL CURRENT EXPENSES 



1933- 34 $210,135 $61,359 $66,144 

1934- 35 192,873 56,780 59,435 

Decrease $17,262 $14,579 $6,709 

FEES 

1933- 34 $79,108 $21,545 $23,851 

1934- 35 58,317 23,230 19,695 

Change —$25,791 +$1,685 —$4,156 

STATE AID 

1933- 34 $131,027 $39,814 $42,293 

1934- 35 134,556 33,746 39,741 

Change +$3,529 —$6,068 —$2,552 

COST TO STATE PER DAY COLLEGE STUDENT 

1933- 34 $230.86 $299.06 $293.81 

1934- 35 305.49 288.42 268.12 

Change +$74.63 —$10.64 —$25.69 

COST TO STATE PER RESIDENT STUDENT 

1933- 34 $398.40 $395.89 $399.61 

1934- 35 547.82 285.00 484.10 

Change +$149.42 —$110.89 +$84.49 



It will be noted that total current expenses decreased for 1934-35 
under those for 1933-34 at all of the colleges, the reduction being 
$17,262 at Towson, $14,579 at Frostburg, and $6,709 at Salisbury. 
Receipts from students' fees were lower for the later year at Towson 
by $25,791 and at Salisbury by $4,156, but at Frostburg they in- 
creased by $1,685. State aid increased at Towson bv $3,529, and 
decreased at Frostburg by $6,068 and at Salisbury bv $2,552. 

Between 1933-34 and 1934-35 the day college enrollment at Tow- 
son decreased by 96 from 450 to 354, while the resident enrollment 
decreased by 53 to 109. At Salisbury there was a decrease of 5 in day 
college enrollment, making the number in 1934-35 109, and the de- 
crease in resident enrollment was 37 bringing the residents in 1934-35 
to 44. At Frostburg there was little change, the day college enroll- 
ment in 1934-35 being 117 and the resident enrollment 57. 



278 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Leaving out of consideration the elementary training school en- 
rollment, which was 42 per cent at Towson, 55 per cent at Salisbury, 
and 63 per cent at Frostburg of the combined college and training 
school enrollment, the cost to the State in 1934-35 for tuition for a 
day college student was $305 at Towson, $288 at Frostburg, and $268 
at Salisbury. These figures showed an increase over 1933-34 of $75 
at Towson, and decreases of $11 at Frostburg and $26 at Salisbury. 
Per resident student, the 1934-35 cost was $548 at Towson, $484 at 
Salisbury, and $285 at Frostburg. At Towson and Salisbury, the 
increase over 1933-34 was $149 and $84 respectively, but at Frostburg 
there was a decrease of $111. 

If the 332 pupils in the elementary training schools for the State 
Teachers Colleges at Frostburg and Salisbury were not paid for by 
the State in the budgets for the teachers colleges, they would be part 
of the county school system and a charge against the State in the 
Equalization Fund for Allegany and Wicomico Counties. 

Inventories of Teachers Colleges 
There were slight increases from September, 1934 to 1935, in the 
inventories at the three State Teachers Colleges, at Towson the total 
being $1,477,059, an increase of $3,578 for equipment; at Frostburg 
the total being $16,742, an increase of $6,145 of which $5,344 was for 
land and $801 for equipment; and at Salisbury, the total being 
$799,057, an increase of $1,563, of which $768 was for buildings and 
$795 for equipment. (See Table 185.) 

TABLE 185 

Inventories of State Teachers Colleges, September, 1935 



Towson Frostburg Salisbury 

Land and Improvements $112,492 $38,682 $17,516 

Buildings 1,156,500 354,718 699,850 

Equipment 207,252 23,342 81,691 

Livestock 815 



Total $1,477,059 $416,742 $799,057 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

The value and importance of the Teachers' Retirement System 
to the school children of Maryland in making it possible to retire 
teachers too old and sick to give the type of efficient service expected 
cannot be overstated. The satisfactory atmosphere in the classroom 
usually evident if a teacher is not fearful about her future security is 
likely to be conducive to learning on the part of the children. 

Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its eighth year of 
operation received contributions from county teachers to the amount 
of $248,654, an increase of $3,071 over the amount contributed dur- 
ing 1933-34. In October, 1935, 4,891 county teachers, 94.6 per cent 
of the entire teaching staff, were active members of the system. (See 
Table 186.) 



Cost per Teachers College Student; Inventory; Teachers' Retirement 279 



TABLE 186 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1935, Number 
and Per Cent of October, 1935, County Teaching Staff Who are Members in 

Active Service 







Members 




Amount Contrib- 


in Active Service 


COUNTY OR institution 


uted Year Ending 


October, 1935 




July 31, 1935 


N^umb€*r 


Per Cent 


r^rkTTTVTTV • 
\_^UUiN 1 I . 










$ 26 879 14 


462 


97.9 


Anne Arundel 


14 fi.^o no 


296 


90.2 




.^fi 01 7 97 


554 


96.7 






58 


93.5 


C^a T*rv1 1 no 


^ .^44 91 


116 


94.3 




1 A AT OA 

10, bO < .54 


230 


96.6 


Cecil 


8 376 02 


153 


96.8 




4 61 Q 4*^ 


111 


96.5 


Dorchester 


7,232.53 


1 no 


yb.i 


Frederick 


15,358.71 


oUb 


AT 1 

97.1 


Garrett 


7,284.52 


14 ( 


CiA O 


Harford 


10,253.25 


205 


92.3 


Howard 


4,245.79 


96 


94.1 


Kent 


4,730.54 


100 


100.0 


Montgomery 


21,229.67 


396 


96.1 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


18,664.21 


398 


96.1 


4,429.56 


90 


95.7 


St. Mary's 


3,167.85 


82 


95.3 


Somerset 


6,264.67 


149 


98.0 


Talbot 


4,859.84 


110 


90.9 


Washington 


18,814.65 


361 


87.8 




17 nno 1 A 
I ,i I o.iU 


169 


86.7 






130 


92.2 






4,891 


94.6 


Teachers Colleges: 








Towson 


$4,934.62 


40 




Frostburg 


1,452.70 


16 




Salisbury 


1,482.51 


19 




Normal School: 








Bowie 


$ 744.68 


12 




Department : 








State Department of Education 


$2,987.59 


21 




Maryland Library Advisory Commission . 


265.79 


3 




Teachers' Retirement System 


213.91 


3 




Other Schools: 








Md. Training School for Boys 


$1,807.60 


22 




Montrose School for Girls 


446.70 


6 




Rosewood State Training School 


822.50 


12 




Md. School for the Deaf 


1,851.71 


25 




Total Schools and Departments 


$17,010.31 


179 




Grand Total 


$265,663.90 


5,070 





280 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in the 
Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 86.7 per 
cent in Wicomico, to 100 per cent in Kent. Thirteen counties had 
over 95 per cent of their teachers enrolled in the Retirement System. 
Contributions from 179 members in the State Department of Ed- 
ucation, the Teachers Colleges, and the four State schools for handi- 
capped and delinquent children brought the total contributions for 
1934-35 to $265,664. (See Table 186.) 

Benefits of the Retirement System in 1934-35 
During 1934-35, in addition to annuity payments of $9,616 from 
their own contributions, $165,639 was paid in the form of pensions 
from State funds to members retired under the Teachers' Retirement 
System of Maryland. On July 31, 1935, there were 285 members 
receiving this form of allowance, of whom 229 had been retired be- 
cause they were at least 60 years of age, and 56 had been retired on 
account of disability. Further payments of $68,377 were made to 
teachers retired in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 44Z^ 
theJjaws_oi_192Q on an annual pension of $400. At the end of the 
year~T934-35, there were 164 former teachers receiving the $400 
pension. 

The Retirement System during 1934-35 paid $7,765 for ordinary 
death benefits upon the deaths of members in active service and re- 
turned to the beneficiaries or estates of deceased members accumu- 
lated contributions amounting to $7,389. Benefits paid under the 
optional forms of retirement allowances totaled $4,192 provided by 
State funds and $719 provided by the retired teachers. Teachers 
who resigned from active service and terminated their membership 
in the system withdrew $74,061, which amount covered their con- 
tributions with accrued interest thereon. 

Investments of the Retirement System 

During the year 1934-35, the Board of Trustees increased the value 
of its investments for the Retirement System by $410,350. The total 
holdings in securities on July 31, 1935, had a par value of $3,330,552. 
An appraisal of the securities of the Teachers' Retirement System 
made by the State Auditor through the cooperation of the State 
Bank Commissioner showed that the bonds held on July 31, 1935, 
had a market value of $3,637,561. The amortized book value of these 
holdings was $3,397,016. The Board of Trustees considers the sound- 
ness of the investments indicated by this appraisal exceedingly 
gratifying. 

State Appropriations 

The State appropriation of $98,466 in 1935, in addition to the 
proceeds of a State bond issue of $380,000*, covered the normal con- 
tribution and the accrued liability contribution of the State of Mary- 
land on account of the county members of the Maryland State 



* See Section 6 of Chapter 311 of the laws of 1933. 



Report on Maryland Teachers Retirement System 



281 



Teachers' Retirement System. The bonds were received, but the 
appropriations of $98,466 due for 1935, of $76,838 for 1934. and of 
$229,529.40 for 1933 were not paid until October 31, 1935. The law 
provides that the State shall contribute to the City of Baltimore an 
amount equal to what would be required if the teachers of Baltimore 
City were members of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System 
instead of belonging to the Retirement System available to all of the 
employees of the City of Baltimore. This amount was $479,391 for 
1935. In addition, an appropriation of $10,000 was made to meet the 
expenses of administration of the State Retirement System. 

The total State allotment for the Teachers' Retirement System 
for 1936 is $991,901, which includes $497,945 for Baltimore City, 
$133,956 for county teachers, and $10,000 for expenses from general 
funds in the State Treasury for the 1936 budget, and $350,000 from 
a bond issue, f 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective Section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent the 
Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership physi- 
cally handicapped teachers, arrangements were made beginning in the 
fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the Teachers Colleges and Bowie 
Normal School give a thorough physical examination to all graduates 
who are planning to take positions in the Maryland counties. All 
entrants into the service who have not had such examinations are 
required to visit the physician in each county appointed to examine 
such teachers. The State Department of Education bears the ex- 
pense of such examinations. Reports of these examinations are for- 
warded to the Medical Board of the Teachers' Retirement System. 
Certificates are issued only to those teachers, reports of whose physi- 
cal examinations are approved by the Medical Board. The number 
examined, accepted, and rejected during the five years the regulation 
has been in force are shown in Tabie 175, page 267. 

Inventory of Value of Equipment 

The equipment in the office of the State Teachers' Retirement 
System was valued at $3,135 as of September 30, 1935, and the 
corresponding figure for the State Department of Education was 
$14,970. 

t See Chapter 89 of the laws of 1935. 



282 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1935 



Account 


State 
Appropriation 


Receipts 
from Fees, 
Federal 
Aid, and 
by Budget 
Amendment 


Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to State 
Treasury 


Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 


State Teachers Col- 
lege, Towson 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Frostburg ., .. 

otate 1 eacners vyoi- 
lege, Salisbury 

State Normal School, 
Bowie 


$138,558.00 

33,212.00 

35,182.00 

25,674.00 

54,724.00 

10,000.00 

6,000.00 

15,000.00 
9,000.00 

13,341.65 

800.00 
750.00 

2,000.00 

10,000.00 

530,155.00 

154,648.80 
28,500.00 

250,000.00 
353,346.00 

1,800,000,00 
1,500,000.00 


$63,904.83 
24,404.433 
26,598.13b 
18,364.55 
188.90 
1,919.90 

3,000.00 
7,281.01 

11,493.15 

32.04 


$1,437.08' 
1,289.62 ? 
2,344.89f 


$201,025.75 

56,326.81 

59,435.24 

44,038.55 

54,530.03 

11,844.03 

4,771.68 

18,000.00 
15,511.84 

24,815.23 

832.04 
750.00 

1,947.99 

10,000.00 

525,922.95 

154,648.80 
27,000.00 

250,000.00 
353,325.00 

1,800,000.00 
1,500,000.00 


State Department of 

HiCiucai-ion 

Bureau of Educational 

Measurements 

Bureau of Publications 

and Printing 

Phyvsical and Health 

Education 


75.87 
1,228.32 


Vocational Education 
Vocational 

Rehabilitation 

oLare r>oarQ oi 

Education 


769.17 
19.57 


Consultant Architect 
Medical Examination 

of Teachers 

State Aid for Handi- 
capped Children 


52.01 


State Aid to Approved 
High Schools 

Part Payment oi sal- 
aries of School 
Officials 




4,232.05 


State Aid to Colored 
Industrial Schools. .. 

Free Textbooks and 
Materials of In- 
struction 




1,500.00 


Equalization Fund 
Fund Distributed on 
Basis of Census and 
Attendance 




21.00 


Fund Distributed to 
Reduce Taxes 






Totals 

Teachers' Retirement 
System: 

County Teachers .... 
Baltimore City 
Teachers 






$4,970,891.45 

98,466.00 

479,391.00 
10,000.00 


$157,186.94 


$13,352.45 
98,466.00* 


$5,114,725.94 

* 

479,391.00 
10,000.00 


Expense Fund 






Totals 






$5,558,748.45 


$157,186.94 


$111,818.45 


$5,604,116.94 



a Includes $1,598.00 from Reserve Fund. d Includes refunds amounting to $435 40 
b Includes $2,794.70 from Reserve Fund. e Includes refunds amounting to |;^!;'-^"- 
c Includes $6,265.05 from Reserve Fund. f Includes refunds amounting to $^,.J19.58, 
* A balance of $98,466 still due at the close of year was paid on Oct. 31, 1935. 



Financial Statements— State Dep't, Teachers Colleges 



283 



c c 0) 
tn o & 



t~ Oi 



o o w 

O »rt 



o oi 
o Ci 
CO d 
— 

CO N --I 
IN 



'5 S 

a. 
a 



t> 00 <N N m to a; t~ X 
i-H «5 CO 00 00 c; ic — ' oo' o lO 
.-iirt,-,~50(Nt^o-^cocr:i;0!0 
«05-H(M^^ xoo ^ 



<?5 00 c~ 

o ^ f- 

CO O 



t-;«>00 

osoom 
in 00 

CDOOr-T 



CO CO 

CO 00 



ko 00 
00 CO 
CO CO 



eg 00 ;o 
in OS CO 05 c<i 
co-H^^rco 



50 in 

C5 CJ 

CO c^ 



com 
in OS 



^ 55 t> o 00 in 00 CO in c; CO o t- o 
^rfl — ' CO <7i o o t-^ co' o m' co' as o 
(vi o CO OS — CO in CO --I CO m 
"=^60 como^ co-h 



00 
o 


00 o 


teo 


!0' 
Oi 


do 


; 35 
; in 


eo 


:co 




in 





•^■*COC^^eoo■^®^^^P^^C>COC5■^t~TJ< 

t~cooomt~oco^_'^^, Oinoot>cot~<oco 
CT! 00 oo' d OS c^' 2? ^ d d oo" d oo' co' d co 
t>inco^a5co'>^2?^'*J^'''t^s^®'5^oo«o 
^ ^ ^ cc o CO m CO CO CO CO m c~ 



CO 

co'-H-w 

T CJ 



CO 



I in CO 



;t>co ; o o CO in CO 00 
;cDo ;-^co-^cooot> 
; c- 05 I CO o cj o 



CO 

CO 


eo 
o 


; t> ; 
:oo : 


o 


in 

00 


d 
eo 
in 


ico' ; 
;oo ; 
:co ; 


co' 




in 




in 









I 

"O;: 

c eg. 



Q. a> 
D. C 

, 3 O 

■^^ S 

. QJ OQ 



73 



a o. 

3C 



_ >-J - 



o a 



> CO 

£ „ o g 



OS o 3 c*t 



0— c.x 

cj a. 03 

2 = 



i Oh a t: o 

= cii; -5 r 

^u^st -lag 



;<!)£•- 'O 

6 c: -tJ : ^ 

c.r g o c 



3 a, 



a c 



_ C CD I- ^ 

ca 3 c 3 ca 
o o 2 o o 



284 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1935 



Receipts 



Purpose 


State 
Appropriations 


Other 
Receipts 


Total 
Receipts 


Physical and Health Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 


$15,000.00 
13,341.65 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
9,000.00 
6,000.00 
2,000.00 
800.00 
750.00 


$3,000.00a 
11,493.15c 
1,919.90a 

7,28i.dib 


$18,000.00 
24,834.80 
11,919.90 
10,000.00 
16,281.01 
6,000.00 
2,000.00 
832.04 
750.00 
4,745.51 


Educational Measurements 

Aid to Physically Handicapped Children. 
Vocational Education . 


Publications and Printing 


Medical Examination of Teachers 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 


32.04a 


Supervision of Colored Schools 


4,745.51d 







Disbursements 



Purpose 



Salaries 



Traveling 
Expenses 



Miscel- 
laneous 



Budget 
Amendment 
or Returned 
to Treasury 



Physical and Health Ed 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

Educational Measurements. 

Aid to Physically Handi- 
capped Children 

Vocational Education. .. 

Publications and Printing 

Medical Examination of 

Teachers 

State Board of Education 

Consultant Architect 

Supervision of Colored 

Schools 



$7,763.82 
6,959.37 
5.954.80 



$2,906.14 
1,879.89 
43.17 



11,109.34 



2,241.03 



$7,330.04 
15,975.97 
5,846.06 

10.000.00 
2,161.46 
4,771.68 

1.947.99 



$19.57 
75.87 



769.17 
1,228.32 



52.01 



832.04 



750.00 
3,750.00 



995.51 



a Transferred by Budget Amendment. 

b From Federal Government. 

c Includes $10,600 from Federal Government. 

d From General Education Board. 



Construction Accounts at Normal Schools 

Purpose Frostburg Salisbury Bowie 

Balance, October 1, 1934 $24,631.15 $1,716.65 $2,490.63 

Receipts 269.00 

Total, September 30, 1935 $24,900.15 $1,716.65 $2,490.63 

Disbursements : 

Purchase of Land $5,343.70 

Architects' Fees 

Labor and Material qcfao 

Equipment 355.82 



Total Disbursements $5,343.70 $1,293 94 

Balance. October 1, 1935 $19,556.45 $422.71 $2,490.63 



Financial Statements; Number of Schools 



285 



Schools 
Newly Or- 
ganized or 
Reopened 












































pajoio3 






































eg 
























































Schools 
Closed by 
Consolidation 


IBCJOX 


CO 




eg -"t 






eg "5 .-H CY5 eO «-H M 






eg 


m eg 




eo 
eo 


pajopo 


«D 




















—1 eg 




















<X1 














eg ,-1 eg ^ ^ 1-1 






eg 


eo eg 




t> 
eg 



P9J0103 i^^ox 



stooqDS 


00 r-ir-t ; ^ ^ ,-1 ,-1 t-( ;cg ; »-4 -I eo eg eg .-H eg eo 




CO 


eg : ; ; 




eo 


qSiH Joiuas 








-joiunf puB 








joiuiif 'jBinSa'Ji 









UOpBZlUBSJO 

looqo's papBJQ 



UOp'BZlU'B3jO 

jaqDB9X-OMX 



uo^bziubSjo 
jailDBax-auo 



o i-H'^'i'^eo :egcgeo 



t- :t>;Deg :eg-^<x>eo»rt 



00 .-I a> '3' t> «o t- «o eo o eo 
^ ^^^^ cgeorH 
eo 



i-Hi— *i-Hcgcoi-H leorHrneoeo 



eo eo eg o —I eg o> 05 eo i-^to 



joiuag 
puB jBinSa'a 



joiuas-Joiunf 



ooko-'i" ; (3> lo eg «o ;d c- lo 



jotunf 



eg eocg>o 



I«^ox 



t~ eo 

00 
.A 



UOpBZtUB3jO 

looijas papBJO 



UOpBZlUB3jO 

jaqoBax-OMX 



UOpBZlUB3jO 

jaqbsax-aao 



00 OS i-i o> eo 00 «o t- «o <?> 00 eg «o «o 00 1- 1-1 <e c- eg 
o eg eg CO eg ^ <-! eg eg ^ 

eo * * * 



o eg "5 "5 eo oi CO eo «o eg t- eg <fi t- eo o irt >-i «£> u5 Tj< 



u5 eg eg «o CO t- 1-1 o a> OS <o u5 ^ eg CO ^ -^t 00 eg OS < 
CO eg — ' eg lo eg i-i ii eg i-i i-"^ i-i 
eo 



2 



s c (« rt ■ 



U IL. 



_ B O T-1 

5 t 



01 O C as ; ■ o 
rt O ~ O * • ^ 



X 

SCO 

lis 
n 



>5 



286 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



go 



DO) t~ O CO CO c<J i-H OS tr- Oi to t> «D 00 tH CO CO 00 to Oi in ■<*< fO 

lOO ^ lo o c£> 00 lo -r*< a> ;d -^s* o <r> CO lo (N CD (M CO irt --I 

O °° C- «C lO '"1'^ COOlQOi-iOHOWiOi-HDt^ 

-t- -H ,-1 M ^ ^ tS 



tOOO-^CDCOOJCOiCtOiO 

oo«5;£)asookna500-^co 
oiocjc-ooooooiooioo 



•^OO-^i-HCDt-CD-^lOr-IOOCD 
05 U5 a> 00_i-H 00 C^J 00 O CO «3 ?d 



(NCOTfC-INOCOi-UDCO 
iOCOIM-<#OOTl<CC>05-^0 
COC^OCOOS-rf-^Ji^DtOO 



05 00 



tDCOt^iOiOiOtCCOtDCD 
OO^Oo'cvTlN CO Co'tHt-T 

(N (N <N 



.2 =^ 



CO eo" 



W CO 
00 «o 



00 lO 

00 00 

IM IN 



loecOiiOeoi-KNOieOrH 
r-iMt-^r-i(Mw-^eooo 

r-( tH tH rH CO i-l 



y-( CO 

in CO 

(£> CO 



cooooom 

CO --H —I rH 

«D O O O 



T^no to CO 
t> CD in in 
CO CO CO CO 



C.2 w 

Del' 

S o 



in 00 
o o 

co'in 



t~t--*Wi-ICOOOO(MrJ' 
tDCO(NinO5t-00O5C<100 

N oi^o^i-H^o eo CO ^^"^^00 



t-T}<(Mt-ini-(co05cot-coo 
TfoococooocDini-HcocDinoo 
ooinoocDooc-T-icDascocoTf 



CD<-Hr-<a5t~(M00O 

(NO(NinT-i^oo*o 
a>c~t-ininmcDco 
ininNCJ cfiN 
eg (M IN 



00 IN 

o CO 

(N IN 

etlt 



O00e000'-i«CDT)<(NlN 

cot-iNooij>a5oooo-^ 
i-itoinco.-i»Hoot--^i< 



ococot>t>cooTi<oa5co»n 
(Ncoost-ooci'TfooO'-iooa-j 
■^c<icot-eocoint~inrHcocD 



OOOIC-IN'-IO^'^I 
OiOO-^C-CJIN'-iOO 

(Mr-iTj<coNC<icom 



< ^O00(NCDO<N 

> to O t- O 00 N 

> lO rH t- O 



c-oocooooincomcooooin 
Ni-icoinaico^coco-^t-oo 
•teo-^oo-^cocooo-^'-icDc- 



cDT-iiNiNini-iasoo 

CO(Nt-00O5<?5CD-^ 
^ "5,IN '-',IN N O O 



incoc»o>OT-icDcococo-^cO(N^i-iOit>iNCDT}"a5in(N 
cO'^NinoO'^incoocrscoocviiNCOoo-^oooiNi-icoin 
Tj< in rH o^o CD in o o^vc th oo_^tr-__o o^a>_^H -^^^oi^io^oo^^oi^o^ 
CO cc (N th (n co" IN oT in m" im" in o" o" in rn m' in co' co' 
1-1 (N I-l --I e6 



oiincot-toooorHC<it- 
t-<-H-^cocD-^ajt~c~cc 
eo^t- I's^iN CO CO ^ oj^c^i-* 
CD T3rc<r^'"^''^ai'ooco''co'" 
cno^cDcD ,_i,-i,-i,-i 



co-^ooa3CDcD.-icoooiJi^iN-*ini>co-^cDt--^ino 
'*t~ooint-oooocoa5— ioo^oocoin-^co-*ocD05ino5 
in o_ in IN t> in ,-i_in oo <^jx> m oo co^m co t> 
eo'iNt" i-Ti-r IN i-T -Tin (Nt-T 



O IN 

CO CO 

00 t- 



(N-^Oi-(t-(Na500^'*''^mNCDincoina5i-(ooc-c~o 
Oiin-^incoin^oooo(N-^T}<ooooin^oo5t>iN'^ooo 

t^^COi-l-^OOCDlN'^Oint-iNINC3C<ICOr-4eOTJ<<NCD-^ 



oo_oo_^ 
oo'oo" 



r-(Ooa5C^J'^t-«oin'^tincooooOTj<xinino5C~ooo 
incq'*05'*eocD-<a<i-ioiT)<cooT}<oocg->*<eoco'*cDCft 
t-OiC^i eo t- in w o Tj< CD eo w i-H (N rH CO eo '-I in eo 



t- 5D 

eo 'M' 
00 t> 
oTaT 



inos ^, CD 
inin^ CO 



in o t- ^ CO 
00 in o CO 

t- t- T-i o in 

choice' CD* m 



CM o in CO 

CD O 

CO CO ^ rH 



T3 00 

O) c * 




OOOCOt-CDOrHrH 

inin-<^cocD-^-<rfx 
cD^inc^icocot-in 



o in 
in in 



soorHcoO'-i^eoasocO'-HiNint-OT-it-iooco-toi 
ocD-«tT-iini-icocoocgi-iOcoc-cooooincDiN<?3inc^i 
^JO•^■^o•^cDt-lncoorHOcDa5»-lt~TtlOoo i^t~ o 
o'eo'oo' fHiNi-T .-Tco-fNiNT-r eo*'*' i-h* ini-Trn* 



oicoasoooico^vn 
co-^cgoominooo 

CD* CD* oTaT CO* CD* 
CO CO eg c<i 



c<it~ eg M CO CD eg 00 in eg 00 CO us CO CO T-H in t- CO CD CO 
o CO OS o in-^eoo OS in CO <?5 1> i-H eg CO CO o ^ CO CO in CO 
cat^ CO CO ^ CD t> oom 05 ^ C3 o 00 eg in oocd eg 03 00 Oi eg 



CD* CO Ol 



*cg*i-H* .-rco*cg*cg* 



T-Hcg'^oit-c-oco 

O0.-|^^OOOCDC- 
CO__Oi_00 i-H 05 00 0"-^00 

0*05* eg" eg* cd*co* 




Enrollment, Public Schools; Non Public Schools 



287 



TABLE III 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1935 





WHITE 








county 




Enrollment 






COLORED 




No. 
of 

Schools 


Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mercial 
and 
Secondary 


No. 

of 

Teachers 


No. of 

Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. of 
Teachers 


tCATHOLic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall of 1934 


Allegany 


9 


2,143 
299 


417 


76 








Anne Arundel . .. 


1 




8 


1 


69 


2 


Paltimore 


17 


3,003 
25 


367 


120 




Calvert. 


4 


3 








Caroline 


1 


19 


12 


6 








Carroll... 


2 


211 


43 


9 








Charles.... 


2 


989 


57 


13 


1 


103 


2 


Frederick 


7 


528 


253 


55 


2 


26 


2 


Garrett 


1 


75 


4 






Harford.. 


1 


117 




3 








Howard 


4 


254 


35 


20 


1 


33 




Montgomery 


3 


299 


76 


22 






Prince George's 
St. Mary's 
Washington 


5 
9 

1 


799 
1,098 
350 


95 
138 
75 


32 
44 
11 


1 
2 


100 
212 


2 

6 










Total Countie? 
Baltimore Cily 


64 
66 


9,509 
31,135 


1,572 
4,023 


426 
836 


8 
7 


543 
al,003 


15 
40 


Total State 


130 


40.644 


5,595 


1.262 


15 


al,546 


55 



*Non-Catholic Private Schools 



Anne Arundel .... 
Baltimore 


5 
8 
7 
1 
1 
1 
8 
2 
1 
2 


69 
390 
421 
41 
9 
26 
263 
41 
13 
17 


198 
613 
314 
4 


22 
139.5 
50 

2 

1 

2 
59 

6 

1 

13.7 














Cecil 








Frederick 
Garrett ... 








Kent ... 


1 

152 








Montgomery 

Prince Georp'e's 
Queen Anne's .... 
St. Mary's. 






















115 








Somerset 


1 


b34 


9 


Washington 


2 
1 


24 
40 


48 


15 
4 


Wicomico 








Total Counties . 
Baltimore City 

Total State 










39 
19 


1,351 
1,639 


1,445 
759 


315.2 
249.4 


1 
1 


b34 
cl45 


9 
6 


58 


2,993 


2,204 


564.6 


2 


179 


15 



^Schools For Exceptional Children 



Md. Tr. School for Boys 


280 


20 


6 








Md. School for the Deaf 


149 


22 


19 








Montrose School for Girls .. 


79 


25 


5 








Reinhardt School for Deaf 
Children, Inc. 


12 


4 








Md. School for the Blind .... 


65 


12 


19 




d70 


11 


Md. Training School for 
Colored Girls 




88 


3.7 















t Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools. 

a Includes 11 high school pupils. c Includes 24 high school pupils, 

b High school pupils only. d Includes 14 who are deaf. 



288 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fall of 1934 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 



Allegany 



SS. Peter's and Paul's, 








Cumberland 


512 


98 


15 


St. Mary's, Cumberland. . 


353 


75 


16 


St. Patrick's, Cumberland 


373 


51 


10 


St. Peter's, Westernport. ... 
St. Michael's, Frostburg .. 


220 


56 


8 


239 


20 


6 


St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage.. 


180 




5 


La Salle Institute, 








Cumberland 


48 


117 


10 


St. Joseph's, Midland 


135 


4 


St. Michael's, Eckhardt. .. 


83 




2 


Total 


2,143 


417 


~76 



Anne Arundel 

St. Marv's, Annapolis. 
St. Mary's (Colored), 
Annapolis 



Baltimore 

St. Mark's, Catonsville 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 

St. Michael's, Overlea.. 

School of the Immaculate, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, FuUerton 

St. Stephen's, Bradshaw .. 

St. Charles', Pikesville 

St. Clement's, Rosedale ... 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 

St. Clement's, Lansdowne 

Ascension, Halethorpe 

St. Charles College H. S., 

Catonsville 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 

St. Joseph's, Texas 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon 



299 
69 

404 

363 
356 

234 
250 
189 
180 
176 
167 
166 
163 



115 

91 
79 



109 



61 



145 



52 



Total 3,003 367 



120 



Calvert 

Our Lady Star of the Sea, 
Solomon's 

Caroline 

St. Gertrude's Academy, 
Ridgely 



Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster.. 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown 

Total.. 



Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata 
St. Mary's, Bryantown.. 

Total 



St. Mary's (Colored) 
Bryantown 



Frederick 

St. John's, Frederick 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Joseph's College High, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick 

St. Francis', Brunswick .... 
St. Peter's, Libertytown ... 



Total. 



St. Peter's, (Colored) 
Libertytown 

St. Euphemia's, (Colored) 
Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland 



Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. 



18 
8 

75 
117 



25 


4 


3 


19 


12 


6 


172 
39 


43 


7 
2 


211 


~43 




197 
92 


35 
22 


7 
6 


289 


~57 


~13 


103 




2 


152 


58 


10 


188 




5 


119 
24 
28 
17 


141 

"54 


16 
4 
18 


528 


253 


~55 



Enrollment Catholic Schools 



289 



TABLE IV— (Continued) 
Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fa'J of 1934 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 



County and School 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary Com- ers 
mercial 



Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City . . 106 
St. Augustine's, Elkridge . 94 

St. Louis', Clarksville 54 

Trinity Preparatory, 

Ilchester 

Total 254 

St. Augustine's, (Colored) 

Ellicott City 33 

Montgomery 

St. Michael's, Silver Spring 170 
St. Martin's, Gaithersburg 129 
Georgetown Prep., 
Garrett Park . 



Total 299 



Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier . . 
Holy Redeemer, Berwyn 

St. Mildred's, Laurel 

St. Mary's, Marlboro 

La Salle Hall, Ammendale 



Total. 



St. Mary's, (Colored) 
Upper Marlboro . 



St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonard town 

St. Michael's, Ridge 
Little Flower, Great Mills 

St. John's, Hollywood 

Holy Angel's, Abell 

St. Joseph's, Morganza ... 
Sacred Heart, Bushwood 
Our Lady, Medley's Neck 
Leonard Hall, 

Leonard town 



Total. 



35 



76 



76 



4 
3 
3 

10 

20 

1 

6 
4 

12 
22 



404 




8 


165 




4 


118 


24 


8 


112 


20 


6 




51 


6 


799 


~95 


~32 


100 




2 


128 


93 


8 


142 


45 


6 


164 




4 


156 




4 


145 




4 


134 




4 


97 




3 


77 




2 


55 




9 


L,098 


138 


44 



St. Mary's — Continued 
St. Peter Clavers, 

(Colored) Ridge 144 4 

St. Joseph's, (Colored) 

Morganza 68 2 

Washington 

St. Mary's, Hagerstown ... 350 75 11 

Total County White 

Catholic Schools .. 9,509 1,572 426 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 543 16 

Baltimore City 

Seton 1,216 43 

Institute of Notre Dame 267 397 22 

Mt. St. Joseph's 47 467 22 

Loyola 456 20 

Calvert Hall 383 19 

Notre Dame of Maryland 141 198 21 

Mt. St. Agnes' 80 161 17 

Calvert Hall 

Country School 23 2 

Visitation 5 3 4 

Total 563 3,281 170 

White Parish Schools 29,760 585 606 

Institutions for White 

Children 812 157 60 

Total 31,135 4,023 836 

St. Francis' Academy 

rColored) 20 11 8 

Colored Parish Schools 693 14 

Institutions for Colored 

Children , 279 18 

Total 992 11 40 

Total State 

White 40,644 5,595 1,262 

Colored 1,535 11 55 



290 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1935 



Fnrollmert Number of 
Ele- Sec- Teachers 
County and men- ond- Full Part 

School tary ary Time Time 



Fnrollment Number of 
Ele- Sec- Teachers 
County and men- ond- Full Part 

School tary ary Time Time 



White Schools 

Anne Arundel 

Cochran Bryan 84 

Severn 69 

Holladay 59 

U. S. Naval Acade- 
my Prep 45 

The Thomas School 10 .. ... 



Total. 



198 22 



Baltimore 

McDonogh 299 260 48 

Greenwood 17 75 20 1 

St. Timothy's 83 24 

Hannah More 9 70 9 3 

Garrison Forest t44 t35 t3.5 fl 

Oldfield's 59 10 5 

Roberts-Beach 7 31 7 6 

Sylvanside 14 1 1 



Prince Georgre's 
Avondale Country. 
Longfellow School 
for Boys 



Total 

Queen Anne's 
Seventh Day 
Adventist ... 



30 



41 



13 



St. Mary's 

Charlotte Hall 

St. Mary's Seminary 



Total. 



Washington 

St. James' 11 

Seventh Day 

Adventist tl3 



5.2 



17 115 13.2 



48 12 
tl 



Total 390 613 122.5 17 



Cecil 

Tome Town 228 

Parish 113 

Tome Institute 

Blythedale Church .. 28 

West Nottingham, 3 
Seventh Day 

Adventist 29 

Reynold's 20 



Total. 



Frederick 

Buckingham School 

for Boys... 



Garrett 

Zion Lutheran. 

Kent 

Seventh Day 
Adventist 



Montgomery 

Washington Mis- 
sionary College .... 

Landon School for 
Boys... 

Countryside 

Chevy Chase Country 

Chevy Chase 

Washington Country 
School 

National Park 

Seminary 

Bullis School 



128 

33 
43 
36 



23 



98 15 
3 

107 17 
41 2 
47 8 

21 3 



24 



24 



421 314 49 



41 



t26 fl t2 



9.1 
1.7 



16 5 

1 2 

5 4 

6 1 

4 .7 



Total. 



Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's.. 



24 48 13 



40 



Colored School 

Somerset 

Princess Anne 

Academy 34 



9 



Baltimore City White Schools 

Friends'... 195 120 27 5 

Pryn Mawr. ._. 206 86 24 4 

Calvert 251 17 6 

Gilman 108 136 24 2 

Roland Park 167 66 16 13 

Park._ 141 52 22 13 

Girls' Latin 56 68 12 3 

Boys' Latin 34 72 10 .4 

Immanuel Lutheran 96 3 

Mt. Washington 

Country 93 ...... 8 3 

St. Paul's for Boys 46 43 2 2 

Franklin Day School 21 66 6 2 

Samuel Ready 35 40 4 

Seventh Day Adventist 62 10 3 

Miss Crater's Country 

School 40 4 2 

Little School in Guilford 29 3 2 

Frey's School, Inc. 27 3 -— - 

Cathedral Kindergarten 20 2 1 

Morven 12 1 



Total 263 152 45.8 13.2 



Total... 1,639 759 191 58.4 

Baltimore City Colored School 

Seventh Day Adventist 121 24 4 2 

Total State „^ , 

White Schools .....2,993 2,204 468.5 96.1 

Colored Schools 121 58 13 2 



t Figures as of 1933-34. 



Enrollment Non Catholic Private Schools; 
Average Number Belonging, Public Schools 



291 



2 c 



to «£! 00 00 o ^ o CC ( 

to CO lO o ^ 00 ^ CO irt -"I" I 
o ccoo; ^oo-cf-^ioioc 



:a5'-oi'^oiMt-co«ocifico t-c^5 — o-r 
: t- 'X t~ t~ <£> o <r. C; O: C: <r. w 
lOOifiOOtCClC^'-tCOilM'C-r* 



^ (is 



ecctcc^coMOiirtccoo 

OtCiftOOlC-. OtTOiO 



o 




o ; 


It- 











eo i« 00 o CO 00 o (N 00 ^. — . w. 
CO c^joocT, oococo-* * 



to — CI ir; c; 

to 

C- i^t c- 



t> CO 



^ ^ ^ r— t^. w. 

t> o^-r- oc CO c>^_^~: I't^'T 



c^t^potcinicc^itot-oTic — «rt~c^-^cct-cocomot^ 
c^^ooa5ooii^x^c^^J■^iDO^c^oocc^ — c^t-ocr-tc 
ift oo__ ;c c; CO c 00 00 irt c>i_^ oo_^ c^__ «c 

irtc-'o' co'i^o'^^'r^co oT-^* in CO* f—cTo" CO* i-Tco'co" CO CO* ooo^«*co 
r-i CO ^ ^ ciia 



OC — 00 ' 

cr. o I- ! 
-vC CO ; 



^cooioct-oicicoot-too-^mooift— 'Wko<-5^co t— 
"-aic-Mt-ioo-foot-c-.tOLOiftoxi^coccc-i. — m 




'Eh H 



O'*'^OOt-->*«000t-lOI>C0Tfl/5l0.-iO(75ifit-U5O 

in— i«£>ot--coocoooo:«ot-oooo?Deoo5-^-!«eoeoco 
i-'5«oxirtma50cooo;Dt-co05com»-ii-imrrt~«£!t- 



X lo eo 
ca —I 



1 CO CO — 1 eo «c -I CO - 



.5 o 



oto-H«c-^c-<X);c-<cocox'X)irt>-iccc;'«-^^«cir5t- 
coxc-'-it-c-ot-coostcccdiocoo-^iftt-Trtr. mio 

XCO— iC0C0-^-<S"^CCt~ir:«5C0CJ-^XC0iCC0 ococo 



xio-^cot-— t-cr. — ococoiX!^-Hcoc-. — t-C5X 
x-^occoixeccotCTCOccoicccoxcciC's-t-^-^-'j' 
ift CO — icct- m CO c- «5 CO CO ic CO —I CO eo ^ ^ ic 



0) 








c 














0) 









O O J, 



o£irt?5C<:;C--5_^C- 



S o c 0) : 
E 



1- be M 

|lo££ 
W > t: 



292 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Colored 
Day Schools 


qSiH JOiuas 


92.5 

92.1 
94.2 


t- ?0 «5 O OS CO 05 

Ol O 03 o o 
X Oi 05 00 C5 Ol <3i 


90.8 


CO 00 C5 (N 5£> (M 00 in in 
■rr CO Oi (N o CO CO CO sO n 

03C^00C30^C3030^O0^ C3 




91.6 
93.1 

92.5 


t{3iH Joiunf 
puB 'XJB:>u3uiaia 


in o> ^ ^ c- N o> 00 00 

rH rj< in CO 00 00 T-ltO 

00 o^oooot-oooooC't-00 00 


rr «D t- TJ" t- i-H O in C<I «D N t- CO C- 00 !£> o 

00 CO Tf oeo c- o OS OS (N t-;ot-^ in 
MC-OOOOOOOOOOOOIWXOO oowooo; oo 



o 

H O 

1^ 



qSiH JOIU9S 
puB jBjnSa'jj 



<X> O 05 -<3' w CO ■ 



I o (N ^ in ■ 



(6) JO (8) I 
qSiH joiunf I ^ 



(8 ^ L) JO (i) 

qSiH joiunf m 



AjB::>uauiaia 



oooTroojrf^ocoi-ii-iinocrxNOJiocicootoinoo 




CO (NOJ O (N 

t- o 00 00 f-i 

■^__cc_^!C -^__ca ;d 
crT^'^-o-co* 

O t~ CO ^ lO 



a3rHt-t£>r-iin->*;cc<i^ 
Oi-icDCOtoirtt-eoooco 

COtCtDOOt-COCCCOiMOO 



t-cot>ooo5ooinc5coi?3-^in 
T*-^-<*'C<ioaa3t-«Dootoooin 

t>r}<t>-rrin«)ij3Tl<00C0COC0 



q3iH Joiuag 
puB jBin3aH 



CO coos 

O t- CO 

in CO 



I ;£> ;D CO t> CO 00 05 «£> O — I ;0 

I t~ CO 00 CD rr O OJ »H ?o o> CO 

qSiHJOtunr co.co^t- co « ^.o.t^ 

puB 'XjB:tuatu9ia co c9 



in CO t-i Oi CO 
t> CO 00^ 
00 CD -"i" CO in 



t-cooincovncocjknco 
03incoooot-OT)<oo»« 

^CO ^rH CO.-H 



,-icooinoieocJ-^ot>aico 
t-'^int-oiooioioocooio 

CD-^COCOCOCDOOCOt-COOrH 



ICO CO o CD CO in t> CO 00 o Oi CO in 1-1 1> TT ^ ^ CO 00 05 

o> CO CD c~ in T)< CO CO CO CO o CD 05 00 -H o> o in o ^ o> 00 00 CO 

o -^coooooirtt-oo t> lo -^^^co 00 co t> co^co__oc^co^cd^^ "-"^^co co^ 

iB^^ojj in -r^t-^oo" co'in co*i-<co"oo Tj<'Tf co'i-Too'oi i-H*i-rco'"co*co'".^''co'' 

(M 1-1 i-i 



oo-^ooicoini-itr-TT' 



q3iH JOiuag 
puB jBinaaH 



03'-icooo>^coinc-Mt>co-<a'COt-— iinoooc-oocoo 
oco-«j'CoinoocoocD-<s<co^k0^oot~05co«Dt-n"o 
ooomcoco-'S'OTroocooocoinTj'Ot-TrcocDcocoi-it- 



(6) JO ^8) I ^> ®. 
q3iH jotunf j " 



(8 ^ A) JO (L) 
i{3iH joiunf 



XjB^juamaia 
IIV 



'"-I CO (M ^ CO CO m 00 t- t- c- in >-i CO o CO CO ^ 00 CD OS 

S S OS ro 00 CO CD r-i 05 — I lO t- CD CTl »0 « O 00 CO 1-1 TT CO 

22 12 5 CD 00 CO « '^^'^,'=l^^'^. 

Tin CO i-Trr co*.-^ CO co'co'co^'-H^'-ric t-'r-T i-T^oscoi-i 



05 00 

ocot- 

05 C- 1-1 



papBJO 



jaqsBax omj, 



1^ ^-«^coo^oooo5ino^i-iocoinoincoincococD 
S Sw^Nioinoojcocooi^cococDcocot-^NcD^t-- 
eorHiS^t-ttinooo os^in ^^in .-i^oo i> o_o_^ ^."l 
co" t-'inco" i-H-eo'^''i-r'-H'"in^'"co"i-r Tfco'i-T i-n-it-co^ 



t-comoo^oocokococo 
m CO CO 00 ifi CO t- 

C- CO O CO t CO 



incccDO5C-cD00C0O5C0t>co 

^ . ,00CDC0t>COC0O5iOCOt>C0C0 
CO t- "3 1^ CO CO CO t~ CO Tl< CO 0> CO CO 



jai{3B3j, auQ 



^cocococococoiniooicD^-Hin-HOOt-cot-o^t-o 

i-H'?00C0 00-^CDC0O5^i-iCDin^"5'^'-iCOi-iCD00O5C0 
rS S ScoS rl<CO'niOCOCO^COi-ilNC0^05-^-H 




Average Daily and Per Cent of Attendance; Average Days in Session; 293 
Aggregate Days Attended 




O O : O O O O O ifl o 

lO «D : — ' ift ci t-' t-' X oi 

irt lo c- If; ^ « 1!^ ic 

.... c-j'irT 



:OOOOiftOOOOO 
'. to* t~-* t-* — * c^. c-l ir: C% c<J O 

: Ti" TT X ^^ — X X t~ 



cc 

KC 
CO 

o 
o 



(6) q3}H 
joiunf puB 



qSijj Jotunf 
puB kaB)uauj3[a 



;oo 
'«c o 



ooif:oif;oooin< 



_ _ : m O O O O O ir: O O o o 

00 1-' o to o « o t--' c<i c~-' o ^ T* ^ ^ o c~ od 

' ^ cr. ^ 



? — ^ io_ih jr. ^ c-^ c£ 



o o o o 
d d T-' 

C; o-i J-3 

X-^i"— *-r 
t> X 1/5 



lo in o o o o o o lo lo o o o o o o o o o o in o 
oi uc" d d d t-* d x' d c4 d d (n d — .' d d d d ^' d 

'-'C<lC;-^C^;£>OX>-HrtOC<IiO>-'5-<TOxmait>C; Oo 

ci^ o_ x_^ — ^ c-__ in w o_ x__ o_ x__ t-_^ x__ x_^ in 
■Q"' (M t> c<r c^" d' d" x* d" in x" d ^ d" t-" x* d d 'S"' f,* 
CjiNomt-cc— «(NinroiM(NC<i'-i'3'"«-^t-Ot-t-t, 
CO cc_c£>^^ Tj>oc-cccDinx(35'3'coint~cocj'>5''^ c^__c- ij. 



ocooo 
d d d d d 
t> — o 

d'x'd'dd' 
^ o r: 
«c o_c<i ^J 
do" d'c^* 



ininoincoinoinooinooinooooomoin 

I d d d d t~' d t> d t-' d •-< d d x' 
'inin-«j'cvjoa;«5^0(Nc^C5C-o-^!0<r. 
'OON—nr^incKj-. ff5Tr~70xc-C;x 



puB jBinSa'^ 



55 O X X in ; 
in o CO — ' 

C<1 X . _ , 

- ^"o ddt- dd"dd"T« ddd'c-'d-^'TT d"ddd" 
t-cox-^iMinxx-^o«cr:c!XXcgxin-«(N — oc<i 



(6) JO (8) 
qSjH jotunf 



(8-i) JO (i) 
qSijj JOiunf 



XjB^uamaia 



in o 
odd 



NX 

x'oo' 

•TIN 



o o o in o o m o o o o in o o in o o o o o c o o 




O O 



(6)q3!HJOiunf 
^ q3iH JOIU3S 
puB jBinSa^ 



qSiH ioiunf 
puB XjB:)uauiaia 



I o> —iin >-i 



oinxincoccoj^oxx 



! X ! 



xm i-H in o NX Ci C5 to oooo 



puB JBjnSa'^ 



(6) JO (8) 
qSiji joiunf 



(9-1) JO (i) 
q3iH JOiunf 



o;inoooo5t:-oxNcocr:oc-XNOinoinO! 



^iB:)uaaiai3 g 



OS «5 o m t- CO r- t- o «i X o m ct CD t- ?c ooo 




I 



294 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



OH 



sjosiAjadng 



SpOllOg P9J0I03 

JO sjosiAJadng 



puB siBdpuuj 



5 ^ c« L. o 

.5 Oj <D Hi 



uauio^ 



^ P 



-.2 



sjosiAJadng a.ssy 
puB sjosiAjadns 



siBdpuUjj-eoiA. 

puB SIBdlOUU J 
3uiqDBax-uo|sj 



sjeqDBax l^^ox 



-a; cos 
^ 3 u 



[BiOX 



uaj^ 



O M q 



I^^ox 



00 00 00 00 -«i< 



(NTfOOO 



05 M< lo in c<i lo u5 Tj- c~ ift 

t>«Doo«DrHeoeoo«5^ooa>oiooooo5(N<35oO'-<ooifii 
ini-iinioc<icom^t---'*ooa5i^io>oooo'#'Hooocc 

■<*eOiO ^ c<l »-i tH ,-1 CO >-l IM ^ TOCO ^^,:).^rH 



00« If? CD 00 
(N t- 00 to O 00 



00 w 



00 

eo Oi 



N,oecco"5cDeo 



^cor-i(N^eo. 



CJ ^ CO N 



looo ;c^C5cD 



lO o 



CD CD O t> CO 
CD CD (N CD 
t- to 1-1 



00 00 

•^■^c^eoNt-inwo-^ 



O 00 

NNoO'-i^eoeO'-icD- 



(MC<l'*(M^^iM^'*CO 



c<i (M txNCDCD ir> in 

00 CO CO T^- 1> a> 05 CD c~ cocDOt- 

N ^ t- IM CO coco OCDN-H 



ooooOTf ^t-oininooo^ oomo>Tf 
<-i T-H t- ^ CO Tf CO eoeo as t- 

lO ^ 



COCOCO-t-^W^-HCDCD 



in ^ ,-1 CO 

(N t> rH -2 



T)<c<iin»-i,-(CO,H^Ncopjcoi 



I ^ CO -H ^ ^ Tj« ^ , 



(N CO CO 



in CO « o 
inco^co^ 



inCDCOOC^OsCD^CDOOOO 

•^c<i'-<eoa5»-<cocDc<ic--^„ 

■^COm CO—l ,-(C<IrHi-l 



in X in cc CD 

^^N,v«^t>oincDmcoa5-Hco 
ooxcdoocdti<o50ooO'S<oi 



CD CD T-i CD CO 
O 00 CD CO CO 

t- in CD 



CD CO 00 in CO 



uauio^ 



uaj^ 



t>a5coocDooa50ina50inoo-^t--^eoininococot> 
comoocoincooo-^oooi'-icoin-'jicO'rH-^eocDinocjm 
coi-tm T-i ^i-ii-t coco eo 



CO ^ ^ CD 
C~ 00 CD CO 
CO "5 CO 



^ 00 o in 
.-I CO CO m 
eo ^ CO 



't-oooot-'-Ht^Ti'TtT-icoifiTtococoin 
<ooeot-t-a5Coin^^'^-^cocD'*cDo>in 

A ,-1 1-1 COCO CO 



^ O CO OS 

in CO ^ 
o_in in 

co*r-r 



M«l t'il'T:'^'^^^^ 



0) r- in 

■go £5 ^ s^. 



CO --1 



5 S-^-c 



I 



No. OF Teaching Positions; Certification, White Elementary Teachers 295 



TABLE X 

White Elementary Teachers Holding Various Grades of Certificates, October, 1935 



County 



Total _ 

Allegany 

Anne.\rundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard. 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Pr. George's 
QueenAnne's 
St. Mary's.... 
Somerset _ .. 

Talbot..._ 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS HOLDING 
certificates of THE FOLLOWING GRADES 



NUMBER 



PER CENT 



To- 
tal 



2,735 

265 
155 
351 
19 
55 
133 
90 
40 
85 
192 
111 
128 
56 
44 
188 
214 
43 
34 
64 
48 
270 
93 
57 



Element- 
ary 
Principal 



b211 

20 
17 
b31 
2 
4 
16 
5 
1 
6 
20 
5 
3 
2 
3 
15 
16 
7 



B.S. 



d41 

alO 
*1 
*6 



***3 



acll 

*4 



***4 



Adv- 
anced 
First 



666 

131 
14 
91 

2 
15 
30 
23 
11 
10 
38 
38 
27 
17 

8 
22 
52 
12 
13 

8 
10 
t68 
20 

6 



First 



1,760 

102 
121 
223 
15 
36 
81 
54 
26 
65 
132 
68 
94 
36 
33 
137 
140 
24 
20 
46 
36 
166 
62 
43 



Sec- 
ond 


Third 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 


35 

1 
1 


14 


8 
1 


1 
















3 
3 
2 
2 


2 
2 


1 










1 




3 
1 


1 










1 




2 
1 


1 






1 
2 




5 






6 
4 
2 


3 


2 


1 







Elementary 
Principal, 
B. S., Ad- 
vanced 
First, and 
First 



97.9 

99.2 
98.8 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 
95.5 
94.5 
95.0 
97.6 
99.0 

100.0 
96.9 
98.2 

100.0 
98.4 
99.0 

100.0 
97.1 
89.1 

100.0 
95.9 
95.7 
94.7 



Sec- 
ond 


Third 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 


1.3 

.4 
.6 


.5 


.3 

.4 
.6 


















2.3 
3.3 
5.0 
2.4 
.5 


1.5 
2.2 


.7 










.5 




2.3 
1.8 


.8 










.5 




1.1 

.5 


.5 






2.9 
3.1 




7.8 






2.2 
4.3 
3.5 


1.1 


.8 


1.8 







* Each asterisk (*) represents a teacher holding a high school certificate, 
a Includes 5 teachers holding high school certificates, 
b Includes two principals holding certificates in elementary supervision, 
c Includes one teacher holding a high school principal's certificate, 
t Includes one rejected by medical board. 

d Includes 20 holding high school teachers' or principals' certificates. 



296 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



2 

So 

pa w 



si 



O 

Oh 

!:2: 



US 
wo 



^"5 



IflOOOOOlOt-OWOOOOOONOOOONOO 



73 O 



(M iM : M ^ 



C 



CO c- 



000«COOOOONOOOSOt-eC©«£>00 



'-I ■<«' t> 00 



o c cfl rt 

Eh <<CCU 



8 1 



C t, 
03 C« 



= !3 ^-o fct; ^' c c £ 



o « 



25 



be a 

.s 

J3 C 

, a) 

m c 
m o 

0) J= 



w -a 



Certification of Teachers in White One- and Two-Teacher and 

High Schools 



297 



Si 

ii 



'|BUOlSlAOJ(J 



puB siBdpuud 



X to 

ill 

S Z X 

2qs 
z z o 
^ <c, 



sa^mpsqns 

pUB IBUOISIAOJJ 



8:>ub:>sissv aBinSan 

pUB SlBdlDUtJJ 



Oi OS CO 

3 ci H O 



pUB IBUOISIAOJJ 



s^uB^sissy JBinSa'a 
puB siBdpuuj 



« 2 

IS 
zc« 



*S "a P"^ ap^-^O '^^^^'i 
'^sji^ paauBApv 



pUB IBUOISIAOJJ 



jBinSa-a 



siBdpuuj 



•g -a puB ^sji^ 
'^SJij paouBApv 



sa^mpsqns 

pUB jBUOlSlAOJJ 



jBin3aH 



siBdpuUjj 



s^^mI:^sqns 

pUB IBUo'lSIAOJJ 



jBinSa-a 



siBdpuuj 



OO 

oio 



OO 

00 d 
cnoo 



ooc^a>o<xiooecioo 



t-OOCOO(NOS-^ 



^ CO(N' 



t- 1-1 ID in 



cvjioooo"5«o«>cDooinTr 



:n c cs 



^ -f i o o ca ^- 



73 

I 

ii 

c| 
S-2 



ll 



„ „ C c o: 1^ u 



O 

00 C 

ea d) o 

s| s s 

3 



298 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



3 tx O 



oooooooo 



CO 



OOf0t-t>t-t-OOO 



00 OOCOOCCt^CtCLCOOt-OOOOt^OO^-'o 

ci oocoooocr. ocr.ciooc; <r. occ; oociO 



CC t> CC CC IC ' 



c ^2 



I ;£) O — I 00 ^ 



Tj'ooooccoo-^ecTtN'-icoccooxNoo 
— I CO « IN N T}" t> N CO -^t w eoec 



c £ c5 



- -f; 0/ C ca _^ 
Co rt H ^ C 



Qi O C 03 



M a;- 



'a? c 



I III 

o £ o CIS 

W OQ > ^ 



OS K ^ o 

C " " c 



Certification Colored Teachers; Teacher Turnover, Public Schools 299 



oc ^ 



CO CO O CO 



CO CO CO (M -H 

CO eg (N CO ooa> 



O Ti< OJ 

eg O 



;eoot-t- 



lO -H CO ci ^ CO 01 o o ri 000 

eg ^ « o 00 TT N (N <o o CO oi eg 
„ ^egcg-H^rtco r-i 



c C C r/: 
3 3 <U 



K g 



O CC 00 fO 



ot^irtcomtDOJOoioooeo 



t- C- O 10 U5 



) in CO o to 
1 oi in tc t- to m t- 



00 eo 
(Neo 



CO eg CO cc t- i-H CO in eg —1 ^ 00 1- 05 CO o -"f t- t-os 
' — cgc^egom^ oios 



nt--<r-<r'^5ocoooina5occo 



3 bfl 



iiil 



i-H in CO CO CO »-< ! 
o ^ o c- c; 1 
eg — 1 r-i 



coegegmcc; 



eg t- X eg 
t- o in o 



cgoscocgcocD^ioco-^eg 



CO in oi m t- c: 10 

Tj" t~ 1-1 

0? eg i-H ir-l 1-H 



CO eg CO IN 



0) n 



CO CO 



eg CO ^ 
CO CO CO 

O C5 05 



0) 

§2 



II 



a> o C od 



CO 



300 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



02 



o i-H m o ^ t- t- -rj" lo c<i 

O 00 00 so O CO lO 00 'i' 

«o »-i ^ o lo lo in t- u5 



'-too ; o »c i-H (;d 
1-1 ic : CO in 05 cj — 1 1- 00 
eooi ; t- t~ <o 05 00 «o 00 



■rt'^in^t^i-i-^CD-^-^i-iOO 
«00<NCOt-^^OOO^C<!Oi 



«Dkn)O00OO»-i(MtCO 
t-00 00«5t-«Ot>©«DC- 



13 to 
ns o 



« O 



ij2 O 

c o o 
E-n/5 



eoOeoeO'-iONNOoec;Dt-t>oc<ic<ieo-<*'»firtoeco> 

00'CO>T-ia500t>C<100COC<J<000'^«Di-ii000050?ONOO 

T-Hi-Hcoooosi-ioasooooiOcoTHOososoooo 



T»<NNOOOa5(MOt-mt-OOClN^O»-iOOCOM(NCOeO 

aiioa50050>'-i«ooeoa5t^oo'^«c»-it-ioo'-it:~cooo 
t-i^ecoo505C<ioo>ooiOo>oco^©aiooooo> 



^,-itDtDOior-iooooo5-^ooeot-«5eoooo5TfOa5ccoo 
cOi-i,-ieooo(N<cc-OrHeo;Doo»oa>'-iNoo-^o»-i-<s»<^ 



oo>-ii/5c<io>a>eOTHt-ecN-^t-Tj<t-iN-^iceoo50oO' 

iC050>Tj<«5OO^00 00'^00 00IM'-iC00>00^t~M' 

OrH(NOo;o;T-ioo5000050-^^ — 



; w; gu T— ( t^i ^ ^ 
^ 05 O) O OS O O O 



t-eoootoecOrHTt^D^knt-iAOi-iO^oc^KNoot-cooi 
ooooit-eooioot-oct-co-'tooot-eoNooooosoi-'S't- 



"5 r-i 00 00 «0 W t> 



oseot-oowoscDOCDTfNu:) 



"5 0> «D eO 00 VO 00 00 --H «0 00 N 



--5 C« O 



«3 o 



o. 

Eh OJ « 
Eh 73 



O QJ O 
Eh W 



1-1 o OS oi in ec o t- ifl t- 5£) o «£> N t- T-i >n 5Ci CO «3 OS eo m 



rj< CT> t> N in eo 00 05 in lo in 00 a; o c<i lo ic o -rj" 00 'i' 1-1 

00 ;Dt>eqooo«DC5t-oot>co'»C5«c-rfooo5t~t-inooo5 05 
CO eo eo •<*" CO T)< eo CO eo CO CO CO eo CO CO CO CO eo CO CO CO CO 



i«ot-a5i-iooooeoooocgoocoa50oOi-it-i-iineoini-i 



in t> r}< Tj< 1-1 00 eo eo O CO Tf i» (M (N M 00 OS Ol CO CD C5 00 

<o CO N eo CO 00 eo t~ 00 00 1- 05 CD i-H in th <M Tf ,-1 to 00 
CO CO CO CO eo CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO eg CO CO CO CO CO cq CO 



t-Tj'-^Xt-t-^CDOOOOi 

ooooeocooioocoooco- 



I in CO o CO rH o CO th CO CO in CO co 




Average Number Belonging and Average Salary per Teacher; 
Badge Tests, White Schools 



301 



u 
C 





1 




O 00 (75 ■'f 00 N IC W to t> C^ — '*00 T ^ C "t? oootc^ -s- o « 

1^. 2e3-- g-s- H^S^ ^S;: 






oSg?^ SS^?;gi S??2S ?5Sc^3 




00 

>. 




§S SoiS SigSS oSS^ 
^^S^ SSgj; S2^s 




o 
C3 




SS ^SSS SS^S SSSf^^l SS^JGS: 
S§§S SSSS 




2 
"o 
C 




II ^g^^JS 5j;2s '^I^SS S^J'-S SS"" 




a; 




ii SgSS ^^-5 ""22 "^"^ ^^2" 




2 




II 5^:::?^ S^^S S;322 ^^S*^' 




"o 

O 




n| 2S^2 '^^sS §"^S 


o 






|S gggS ?22?2;; S^^S ^SgS ^""S 








^^t:^^ ^'SiZ^-. 
S^SS S^:^^:^ S^^?^ S^S^ 




c 

1 




m SiF iWi s^ii ^^s^ ig^ 




K 


II |gp mi 




1 

O 


J> 
!> 








1 




II 2S?;=^ ^-^^Si^ ^-^2^ ^"^S^J SS" 




1 




S| 125:!:" j^s^^ 






^1 ^S?gS S?S§ SgH^g 2i2?;^ S§S 


o 
n 






li ^S^s ^ssg oS?? 




> 




ig s§i- 2S2^ SiSS S^s^S 






? 


II 5g|s s^i^. ^£.1 i^ii is;. 




1 


* 


12433 
11027 

1,180 
726 

1,650 
107 

292 
793 
354 
192 

410 
951 
319 
549 

352 
201 
866 
1,0 M 

183 
136 
290 
210 

955 
519 
181 


>- 
z 

o 

u 


Totals, 1935 

1934 

Anno Arundel .. 
Baltimore . ... 
Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frodorick 

C.arrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery .... 
Prince George's 

Queen Anne's .. 
St. Mary's ... 


li 



302 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Ho 



I i-Ht-t--^ tCOsOlO t-C:i-i-^ OiO:<Mkfl irtiO(Nt- •i-ilO-^ 
.1 C-iOt>(N O". i-KMCD t>tDt~0 lOt-jTrH T-iaiO;(M NOSi-i 
pq -^^^-^t lOCO 00<CCOt~ 00 00C-. OOt- ^<W, GC^t-^^ '"1,'^ 



rHOO-^-«t (MCCCOtC (N00t>O 0(Nt-iO t-eCtDO 05<NO 

t- Ci »-i «D ai irt ;d N 1-1 c£> ifi irt «o in-rfiooo oioo^o 

Eh (N ^ ^ ^ ^,-1 



(M IN 

00 Ti< 
00 o_ 
(N CO* 



O .-I 
,-1 o 
C<1 (N 



1-1 ; :«D 



CO «0 CO CO 



c<nc cc CO 1-1 1-- CO CO 



CD CO CO 
1-1 CO 

t- t- CO 



O CO 

c o 

t- CD 



CD CO 1-1 O 00 00 

cot- • O5C0 

CO CO CD 1-1 CO CO 

C0"C0' * * 



00 lO UO C- CD 00 



'COOO ICC0'<S<«D inCDlft 



t> in 

CD i-( 

C_l-H 

co'co" 



CO t- CD 00 



-5}- rH CD 



in CO ■'S' CD in CD lo 



in CO -<3< lo 



cocDi-ico moocin inTi-*t- 



-*t-cq incoTtcD 



CO 
oi o 

t- CD 



t- CO CD rH 



CO t~ t- 00 eo in t- 



in CO in 



1-1 1-1 05 



C- » rc 



CD CO 00 CD 



-*ori<eo coco-^co eococot- 



o ^ CO 00 



CD O lO 

CO o 1-1 00 
CO in CO 1-1 



00 1-* in 

O W CD ^ 
CO ^ COCO 



CSOOCDCO 

in a> o t- 
co T-i in CD 



O 05 t- 05 
CO CD CO OS 
COiHrHi-l 



CD CD in 

C5 CD 
CO CO rH 



00 o 
CD eo 
00 o 



COtNCO'* 



CO 05 

CO CO 

00 t- 



coco eccocc 




VI CS Oj 

'^T kH 



CO in CO 00 

00 CO CO CO 
rH in CO tH 



CD CO 1— 
CO OC CD 00 

CO Tf CO 1-1 



CO 00 00 CO 

CO TJ- CO 00 

eo CD CO in 



in CO CO 1-1 
^ CO CO Ti< 
cocoooo 



00 -rf CD 

t— Tf in m 

rH CO CO CO 



05 CO 

m t- 1- 
in CO i-i 



•^y-i 00 in t— 

m CD . in 

in c^]_ cq eo CO iH 



ot- 
in eo 



~ C 03 c« 



t, O 

CS c« O) 



J-ojr-i: ^cg^ a;^p£ 

i2;cjrt oa^^t! 3^crt 

ifeote KUjSph awc^H 



-a. 

o 



° o §3 



coo ^ 



c in 0) 
.5 CO coo 

05 OS 



Teams and Entrants White Schools in State-Wide Athletics 



303 



oi to a> 

05 lO 05 C~ 



(N'TIMOO (Nt-iOOi iC(M-tira (NCCtCtO ->#t~-^ 

o-^oi rH ooi-H-^t- riooi-i ■^•(N'S'to eO'-iTr 
ioo<Dio loi^'^us mcoioco •^coco-^ oo^Ott 



in 55 ^ (N 'T oc 
eg in -H cc "-I o 



05 ^ ^ CO r-l 

m -<f o t- 



icm 00 

Tj<,-I . 

in in in 



t~ C£> 05 O 
CO to «D 

CO (N in 



o w (» ^ CD 00 «£> o i-H o 05 o: to 
inmt--^ 05t>in(N oo-^i-i (n«co5 



in in 05 in 00 00 
t- o> • 05 in • 

00 «£> m P5 



00 o 00 N N 

05 . C<I W • 

00 CO t- 



in o 05 cc CO o 
00 CO • in 

CO CO CD 



ooo^o oo^coos coocoo oooo5 
eoinccin -<3< n co oo tt m co in cc 

CO 



in oco 

CO CO • 
^ CO CO 



t- CO in CD rj< in CD in in co o os in in co cDcom 



Tj< in Tj- CO 
t- in CO CD 
coco-<a< 



O O CD <-! 
O O -"r 05 
rH CO T-H 



t>oo5t- oooinco oot-ocD oot>05 
rHinooeo osooocD comoooo coi-hc- 

T-H r-( TH CO i-H CO »-l 



inooeo 

,-iCD • 



CO CO CO 
««« 



CD 1-1 1- 00 CO C5 

eo 05 eo mo • 
usee i-H ^ T?. 



CO o e« 

CD CO • 
005 t- 



00 00 t- 05 05 t> 



;co 05Trooc^ cooo 



— 

ooo • 
CO .-ct- 



eo 00 CO o 
CO t> o> t- 
in CO in 



05^05- 

CO CO t~ ■ 

i-H CO >-H ' 



oi^oi^ •^ino5co oooooco cot-co 
inincoco cocicoo rncooooo o o 

I-H CO 1-1 1-1 T-l coco rH COrHi-l 



C0O5-H i-iCOOO 

05 c- • CO rH in 

OO rH 



<<3CQU 



2fc 



• • ■ .-0)0 — iH.' o..- — 

= ^ jlsT ^ ;|<f -fJI^ III a 

ill 1111 m sii III I 



CO 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 





CO 




2,352 
2,938 


<N in eg 00 
in 00 1> CO 


o in in o 
eg CD eg CD 


^ o o 
rH OS eg t- 


00 Ot- 00 
CD OS t- t> 


CO C~ t> CO r- 

-<tinoocgrH 
rH eg 


TOTAL 


'6 




7,827 
7,093 


t- c- (M in 
t~ 00 eg 
t-eoco 


rj< CO in 

rH in CO 


CD -"t 00 —1 

rH 00 05 t~ 

CO eg iH 


t- eg rH CO 

rl in CO 

eg in t- eg 


t~ eg in as eg 
oooooo 
Tf -^ai CO in 






1,499 
1,768 


o i-H CO t- 

00 CO 


CO CO CD in 
in in CO 


as 05 in t- 
ai-<toocg 


CO CO 00 eg 
t- eg in 


eg t- in in CO 
in CO CO o 0> 




Bo 




6,693 
5,929 


Tl< t- CO CD 
t- CD t- CD 

in CO (M 


eg 00 CD as 
o eg CO CD 
CO ^ i-H CO 


a> t- .-1 ^ 

00 

CO CO eg 


as in CD o 
eg t- o rH 
eg in CD eg 


in -<J< rH CO 

in eg CO CD CO 
CO CO eg I* CO 




Gold 


1 


o> §0 


i i ; 


eg : 
eg ; ; 


rH CO t- ; 


CO CO eg 


: : : W 




Super 




o t- 
(N 1-1 


; : ; (M 
', ', 


o : 1-1 CO 
CO : 


w in eg 


rH eg CO o 


eg t- m rH OS 




"o 


^' 


r " 


: CD 05 

; <M — 1 rH 


in CO ^ oi 

CO 


C- Tt O 1-1 

^ eg 


CO -n< CO t- 


eg t- o Ti< 00 




O 


w 


S CO 
05 tr- 


; CD t- r-^ 

: oo eg Tj< 


in in c~ 00 
X ^ ^ 


CO o 1-1 

CD 


O CD CO 
CO CD 00 CO 


CO 00 CO ^ in 
CO CO 1— < 


GIRLS 


b. 

0) 

> 


^* 


io 

CO o 

CD 05 


: in CO C I 
■ CO in 


-r - O 

co eg 


in O O 

CO eg eg 


eg c~ CO a: 

rH U5 Tf 


in o rH in o 
1-1 eg CO c- 


m 


w 


CO Ift 
'I' (M 

CD_^Tf_ 


: o t- in 
;oo eg i-H 


CD CO 00 05 
CO CO 


OS 

t> i-t 05 rj" 


Tl< t- CO r- 
00 CD CD rH 
r^ eg rH 


in t- o t> t- 
-rf rH CO CO eg 




nze 


w. 


IC OS 
CO__CD_ 


C-l >.s. 

in eg in 


&. (A, UJ w 

eg CO ^ oi 


CD in in 


o r.' o. in 

in rH rH CO 


CD o CO c in 
CO CO in CO rH 




Bro 




I Ou 

(M in 
o 

Tji-co* 


.. — OO L- 

t> in eg 
eg ^ 


1.^ irj OC; ir. 

in CD oc 
^ eg 


i. . w u^, u. 

— eg 1-1 ^ 


OU t v CC CM 
rH t~ as rH 
rH eg CO rH 


C- O C- O rH 

eg CO CO o rH 
eg eg ^ eg eg 




Gold 












; ; ;cg 


: eg eg in ; 




Super 




CO IM 




eg — 1 : 




:eo 


; CO CO o rH 








c, « 

in in 


T" 


C*j ; ; 


CN CO 


rH CO eg 


; in CO t- ; 




'o 
O 




in Ti< 
Ti" CO 


: Oi CO CO 
; CO eg —1 


eg CO 05 CO 


ost-cocg cooocgt- 
cg eg Tj< eg rH 


O OS O 00 rH 

eg eg rH CD CO 


BO^ 






CO c<i 


; in 00 05 
: eg eg 


CD C- Ol 

eg 1-1 


in CO in in t> oo 

CO rH CO rH CO eg rH 


in 1-1 00 OS OS 
1-1 eg CO eg 








1,850 
1,459 


: in o o 
; o o 00 
; cgi-H 


CD CD t> eg 

1-1 CO CO CD 


oooo^ cDcgrHco 


in CO CD in o 

O O CO rH 






? 


1,001 

1 0'7'7 

I, J / r 


O CO 00 t- 

T)< in oi eg 


O CO 05 CD 

eg CO eg C4 


rHcocseg oococorf 
cDcoTfeg cgeoosco 


t> OS eg 1* 1* 
CO CO eg in CO 




Broi 




4,355 


CO o eg 
t- eg in t- 
co eg 


eg as T»> 
->t t> w o 

rH CO 


in in OS in -r*" m o co 
corHcoeg inost-cg 
egegrHrH rnCO-^rn 


o OS in 00 rH 
CO 00 in CO eg 
eg rH rH eg 




COUNTY 




Total Co., 1935 
1934 


Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 


Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 


Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 


Kent 

Montgomery . .. 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's ... 


St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Badge Tests, Teams and Entrants, Colored Schools 305 



m 



OOOl MOOOi'T 0-^t>t> (Nt-QOt- MCOirt(N MOOirtOOCO t- 

00^ txMOirt o?ecc<i-^ cot-"<t(N CiOco^ tt ^nfi n 

fN--"^ -vj-eo Wi-Hi-c-^ ■^recNcoffO co 
to in 



«P2 



00 00 



t> 00 Oi <x> : in 



00 1- in -"S* 00 o> 00 



« 00 o eo in ^ <d 1 



m CO in 00 05 OS CD 



t- CO 00 «D 00 

00 (M ^ ^ 



«D ^ a> ^ oot£)0«o-^ 
o ai t- eo in o 00 00 1- 



CO Ol t- Oi 

o cc ^ ^ 
cc CO 



63 

"^1 



.-H 1-^ in w 



ooei.<o 



«o 03 in to 



t-t-^ro oooto 
cocoooc^ cooooc^ 

COi-HrH-^J" -^NCOr-l 



05 «o C5 1- Ntoint-^ 

i-iiD^-^ OOOOt-t-C^ 

N-*t-M eo CO CO ■<}• 



50 c<i CO t- 
00 in 1-1 ^ c<> 
in in 



00 OJ 

00 a 

00 IN 



^^^^ .-HT-KM 



I N (N <M CO 



P-i CO 
72^ 



(NINWCO 



CO t~ 



'NOoo CO t~ t> CO Ti- in coNcoiN c<i oo -<j" oo m 

I o Tj< Tji .-I in c~ CT> M CO t> c<i in CO o or o 



CO CO 

CO CO 
CO CO 



T-H^oo t~ CO o CO oot-ineo so 05 o co oeocoeoeo oo 
cocooo oco-^co oocoootJ" cocooin co^i'cooc- oo 



CO "-I t- 00 cft CO CO CO t~ in t~- CO eO' 



CO CO CO 00 CO 



coooincD t--^int- cot-moo coococo oc;-^coco o 
-^oot-co oeoin^j oo m t- co -^-^coco in tt m t> t- o 



'ocoin ooco-^o t-Tj<coco -^-^t-co co-^mcoco t- 



oin-^T}< CO CO rr w ^ cjs co o co co co co t- cs 
co-^coio cococcoo oocoinin —icocoo c-ioit-coo co 
■^eoco CO r-i ,-1 CO CO CO CO rH co m m co -^s-coco-^co co 



3^ 
S-c'H'2 



2 = 1: 



sccsea cac<<DJ= =fc:j5° 
<<CU CUOU CfeKK 



L t- CD 

0) O C 

c a> c 
50< 



8^ 



1935 Report 



OF Maryland State Department of Education 



spunj 
puB a^t'QS 



cooiOi-^o-^ooc-ooot-ocDc^ioiOLO^iMOoo^eo 
CO CO 00 CO in a: oo y-^ oo o in oq o (m_ oo co (n 
in cr 05 c^' Oi* CO Ti'* d in c^' d t-' of in d co d i-h oi co co' od 
Ttii-ioo-^-<*c<ioooo-^t>inrj<t~i-ic^(?-'Ooair^c^i05a5 
o-^cmerincD^ininOi— iincDo^ociinoCi— loicO'— I 
t- t~ t-*-^*«5 co'-ri-'in oo*co'oo"in <T'^-'co"o^^^*lo■^'"ln oo'c^f 
'5*<T*<oot>cooic<ic<'cDcoc<!inoocDc<'oot-t:~coa5in-r*t-i 

COCOrf T-H 1-H ^ i-H C^ CJ »-i C^CJ 1-1 COi-H^ 



■ i^japa^ 



»-i o o in CO 

CT> C> CO 05 C<I 

CO oo' in in co 

o t~ t> in 00 

CO__ CO CO 00 

o t-^T-^m* CO* 

CO -K-f--»- +- 

ae- 4f- * * 



; CO o o '-H -r* t~ 
; a> CO CO 0" t- CD 
; d t-' in d d cd 

. 00 T-i 00 CO t- CD 

; o^cD^^-rf co^^-^^^^^ 
: CO* i-T co' CO* 



CO CO OJ 
Cft 

tr- vn a> 
in* CO* CO* 



"rt< inOi-iccoocs^o-^coc^'OT} 

CO oooocooininin-<^-r*o 

■r^ 1— I o o t- CD c^'' c^'' cj> c^i m 00 

CD i-H 00 c- in 1-1 CO CO CO CO -rf o CO 

y-< oino5 CO coin ,-ic^i 

d" CO* ^* 



spunj 

puB uejpjii^Q 
peddBDipuBji 



o -r* CO 


o OT in o 




o 


o CO CO CD 


C^i CD 00 00 


CD 


o 


in CO* t-' CO* 


co' in oo' 






CO CD -rt" 00 


•<t in X t- 


CO 


OS 


CO .-1 rH 


'-l t- Tf 


ai_ 


o_ 






00* 


Oi 






CT5 


o 






in 


CO 






£> 





JO ucponpa'jj 



ooinc-oini-^inot^oc^ioOrHOincnrocftOi-iooo 
^oo-^in,-iOcD0020ooinoooooCTioo>oc>incD 
00 cd' d d t-' in CO c^i 00 in c^' d ■^' r-' cd' d r-I co' d co' i-<' i> 

■d<00Ot-O00f-C0CD-<#'*C;c0'^CD— iCOCOCO'*-^ — 

t-^t--^,j 00 c^^^cD cot-C<'^cro'oo,-ic^''T^inT* eo_^in__r-'_^t- 
r-*cD CO dco'm -r^'-^^co'in'o-'ccr-* in T*"t—*cD*t~-* 0-1*01 as co in 

CD'-iCDcOCOCDincOin^'^COCOCOOC.1COCO'*CO'-^«^rti 

1-1 1-1 c^JH--i- ^_^-^-,-(^-^-^— ^,-1 



punj 
uoi^jBziiBnbg 



OS O 

Oi in 
d d 
cr> o 
in ^ 

00* CO* 



00 CO 
CO 

^ CO 



pun^ 
IBu:isnpui 

P9J0103 


$27,000.00 

750.00 
1,500.00 


0000000 

CD 
d d S S S S d 
in 
in in in t> in in in 


00000000c 
00000000c 

oinoooinoinc 
•-nc^inmint-int-m 


750.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 


27,000.00 


JO sauBiBg 


a>ocoa50005MCMooooooooa5050^c^ci 

c- 05 CD CD 00 CD -rt 00 -rf Tt< crj 05 -rj* CO in CO 00 

00 (ri 00 00 05' co' of 00' d T-4 d d CD d '*' d d t-* i-<' d d 

corHOcD-rfinoit-oo>int~ooo5coocDCDO-^ot> in 00 
CO coco>— loii— It— 'C0050CD.— i-^cococDincooi05coino-r* co 
CD* 05 CO CO co*T)<*cD CO cot- CO co*Tr*-^ t- t~ ■^*co co*-^ 00 CD*"** 00 
2 ^ in 


uoi:)onJ5suj 

JO S[BU3^B]/\I 


$29,112.27 

2,787.56 
1,932.46 
4,012.12 
369.63 
670.65 
1,199.43 
846.38 
6V4.27 
961.85 
1,808.24 
870.61 
1,112.11 
531.99 
500.09 
1,893.60 
2,277.48 
499.55 
434.15 
821.95 
615.22 
2,426.30 
1,112.45 
784.18 

20,887.73 

50,000.00 


pun^ 
j^oog aaj^ 


CT5 •r*coo5CMOCO'^oc<icococ^coinoincocDt-(05COCMO —1 
cooo-*incot:~in,-i-^05Tf-.#05COTj<o>coinoooocooot- 05 
d d d 00 00' co' t-' in t-' t-' co' co' 00 c-' d d 00 co' t-' d in d co' d d 
in CO t- 00 05 00 t- Tt" CO 00 ^ CO 05 CO « CO eo m 
■r*< ,-1 CO CO in 00 c<: T»< -r* .-1 o^in i-'^^os t-- co__-<:* t-^-r* in 

CD* ^-^^-*cD*T-^co*Tr*co*co*co t>*co*-**co*co*t>*orrH*,-rco cooT co* d" 
.-1 ^ t-i 00 

1-1 CO 


PIV 
lOoqDg qSiH 


O) COOOO'^inocOt>t~rf<C-^000000"*0 0:«0 05 

CO inoinincooin-rt<a5incoT«i>inincoinoo<-icooJt~ co 
CO coc-iooc^it-cococococo^co^oomcoi-it^-rfOcO'-ico co 

y-i C000a:00 00C~.r1<-^00"^t>«OO5incOCDt:~COC-'-iC0t-in ^ 

o>oocDco-rf05in'^'-ios05-f}"05^»-Joooocoino^t~Tfco^ in ai 
00 in* in* 05* CO* CO* <^*T-r 00* CO* CO* 00* CO* in* CO* in* CD* CO* CO* 't* CO CO* t-* CO of d' 
t> CO CO -i- CO CO CO CO CO 1-1 CO ^ CO th i-i CO CO CO CO in co 

in H-H — 1— H— H — 1 — I--)— H — +- -l--t- H— CO 


aouBpuB'^^jY 

pUB 

uopBindoj 

looqos 


cc t-cooot-icococoi-it-iin-fooocoeoc^cot-aicocoinco 
00 i-it--<i"cocoint-coooincocDTt;inot:^t>o-rfo>ot~co y-> 
cd' c- d in co' co' d co' d d in t-' d 10 in d t-' d od ^ d d c-^ co' d 

CO CD 05 t~ 05 CO 00 CO CO T-i CO t> 00 CO 00 « CO CD CO .-1 05 

c^,"^^'-' 05 in CD "'^in in 1-1 1~ '"1'^ 1-1 1> ^ t> O) t~ C5 c^i_ o_ 
,_r d'T)<*t~*co*d'oo*oo*co*T-rco*d'cD*d"cD"VTt<*oo*d"t-*a5*i-rcD in* 00* d" 
^ CO rH CO CO CO CO CO CD CO CO CO 1-1 CO 00 1-1 CO CO --1 00 CO CO 00 
--I 

6*9- 



S|'c^-- 

.c ^ <D o rt _^ 



Q> O C ^ . 



cJS "-g-p E S 



=:ccecsi3caa>.co2cscaoa;0-C3jSc3(^^r:(^ 



Receipts from State and Total Receipts 



307 



in oi N -rf o CO i> 00 o ec t> CO OS -^^ k« C<i oo t-_ o-- o lO 

in t-' C-i (N «5 t-' 00* CO -4 O t~' CO -4 (N >C oo' 'T (M* t-' CT> 

c^i (N >o t~- cc CO iM >— irt oi t— ov lo ic ^ t- t- 00 

>C VT' C^l 00 CO t~ C- O' to O Cr lO C CO CO X 01 c~ 



CO 00 CO 



c — ro i~ cc n o ^ t- c 01 c^ "I* t"- t~ CO 
ooooi^^<^^oo-rcoa-. oocooi^t-oja-. O'-'Oco 
o-t-oo^(NincoNcocococo^^coo — '-^OJi-M^j 



poAvojjog 



JO aiBS 



i-iOi-iOt-occ^oc^ 
CO t> to 00 CO 



i:~(_JC~-^Xut'CD(M00O 

00 t> o CO (N o-i 

^' 00 ^ 



t- if5(M<Tco»oicr. T---j-^moo^oc 
t-cooot~c;c^ic^vo-^iot^oo*ooo?t^ 

O'^^CC^C^-' 0-1^1^5 -^JC C<J^IM t:~ 03 t~ 

CO c'-'co" icc^r-rf o'c^r c<r -^o" 

* ^ CO i-H T-l O CO 



CD Oi O f*- CTS 

CO o c^w o 00 

00 ir- ^ <y: CD CT5 

CD cc ».o »n o 
ift o CO c^ CO 



OOOOC<100OOOOOOOO 



' W (w,^ ^w* W >^ W W 

o o o o rH o o c:5 o q 

— ' O 00 Co' O O (N 00 

oino'Oaitr^oco 
(N c^ a; (N 



^ O CO S o 
CO 



iqcoicqqqqco 
' (N oj ic 1/3 o cr> 
, 00 -.i* Tt ^ m 01 
o o ^00 



pa b 



s^isodeQ 
uo 5saje:)U] 



sjidnj 



-unt 3 SuiuiofpY 
uioaj sa3.iBq3 
XBnno I«5tdt?3 
puB eaaj^ uopinx 



puB sasuaoiq; 



I O U5 

t- ^ CD 



00 o o> 

lO CO 

CO CO 



O Ol iC o o 
o CO c- q lo 

lo o o cr: o t-' o t-' ^ t— ' : CD t-' ifi (N 

(N O CO ^ 00 ift 00 O — 1 t- -rf OJ ;cOO-r»<CO'# 

Tf-rfioin oi— icocDcooococo ; ^^^^ 
T-Tc^ co" IN oTi-T ; th 



? o i 
Ice 



.§1 

O 0) . 



ESI 

b c « 

O rt a, 



WT3 

O 



spaaoojj 
puog uo anQ 

spuog JO sa[BS 



pue sjooqos 
aoj A4uno3 



spunj 
IBjapa^ puB e^jB^s 



>£6T 'T '^"V 

UOUBIBg 



T-< 00 

CO CO CO 

o o't-' 

(N in 



O CO IC 
CD (N O 

CO in 



;oo© 
: q q 
;t-^o6(N 

lOOOCD 

; t- t> in 



)OinooooooooooococDOcoooincoeo>->a5 
>ot>ina;t-ooinoo-^t>o;ma2CO'*oocDoccD 
5 CT5 CO oj <n' ^' d <J:' o o ^ oi o* <n" oi m' 00 co' x oo" 

SCOt^'MOOini-Oc-'-i'^OCOO-^iMCC'OCoOt:-^-^ 

^ <n CO t>_c- CO o oJ 00 'n__-<s. co t^i -^r oj oj cc_^M^cn^T-<^-^^t~__ 
>" o" ^ t— " t-' cT TT c-* oT oJ" '^'^ t-" CO* in t-" lo" o' ^ m' x* 
5cocoooincoio(M^a: — oioocciMx-^^'-'coin^ 



cocTic-.'-j'O-ttxt-xot-ocot-in 
■^i-Hcocoxco^inoiX^-^^'-jooo 
in co' c: oi o^' CD -r* o" tt" m" co' c; t- co m' ^ w i.-. v*j 

^^X'«<^<NXX-r«t-m-^c-^jicocr:0<j^^OJC5a; 
C-. ^ o m c? m CO ^ ic i.o o — I 



rcL-coinOcoO'-OKNcox 
■^c- — jicocr:0(j^^OJC5 
uo_^ co_^ q^ cn in x^ .-H q^ (N 

t~'"t-'"t-"~-^'"co"cc"->T lo x"co x'ln ^"oTt-'co o^m in — "m" x'c^ 
<xc~coa2iMC<i!0?oc^iinxcDOJXc--t~coo5>nTj<-H 



CO 



CO CO CO X t- '-I oi t- o". X 'O m o; oi X 



.J , , V . lo 117 a; CO X CO !M ( 

- m CO cr. o CO CO ^ m CO c; q ^ CO q ( 
' m" ct: c: -rf' d ci d co' co' t-' in c^. d co' t-' i 
o:i:-u.-(^40cO'rox^aiCOTOTi>->*a5'-iin 
X 05 cD__co__co_cD_^q_x__^__q_eo t- q^ co co co ■ - 
i-T CO ijrco'"r-''co'orin d"'^*! 

I .-( T3< CO 



r" CO* 05* 05* i-T •^* d" T-T ^jT 




0/ ■»J 
S Oi CS 



3 05 " 3 
05^03;^'"' 
r3 CO Q. . C 

I =.£ S 

Mc4-d^ 

o<xxd'w 
^ ^* o — 

eo!5--nxo'^ 



ililli 



308 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



>^ 

be 

.s 

05 



ic ^''^^c^oo^cc -^^^t- CD 0_05 icc^cocoooc<it>eoeo 

0* o* i-T t-* t-" CO e<r (nT co" t-" t-" lo" «D 
eg OS o '-H o eo 
N t- eo M 



ooOc<ii-iT-io»-iooTi<eci05ootDc<i^t- 
eot-oOTHCJiceONOo«ccoooi-Hr-ic£50^ 



d" t-* 



S86I '18 ^inf 



HC<I'-HC<ia50500«OOOOOiCTj<Tj<<Nt-i-(OiO'*;C)0 

eo c)d o M -rf CO 00 1-' t-^ CD o to rH o c^J T)< 00 o o 
oOi-iooaieoeoa5c<i<5it~in>ocD05iot:^iC'-iaicDkrt05 

00 05 CD CD CO CD IC o CO Tji 00 i-i O 00 CO CD CO 



t- CO 1-1 
CO 



H W IN ' 



co^^-"* « o_oo_^co «5.cg 
1-1 lo ,-1 eg i-H —I eg 



s^uaiuasjnqsiQ 



(Mt>cocgcocDi«cgcjot-ooooc-t-ot-Oi(Mcocooocg 
o 00 CO eg CO eg CO CO CD t- u5 t> CO 05 -"t o 00 1-_ OS kc 
eg oj rH OS i-H CO o CO CD t-' as eg' r-I co oi cd' eo' ai 
Tj<ot>t-i-i-^M<eocD-<j<co-r»«egiM-^oooa>a5'-Hegcooo 
co^cD^^io^t- ^- 05^,-<^co^o_05_cD^rH .-H KO 00 1- ^,00 '^.t-"^^"^. 
w5* t-* fo* eg* o* eg* 05* co* o* t-* t-* t-* 00* c^i* co* t-* m* co* ■^* ^ m* co co' 
_:cDoo^ooooooooia5i-icDCDcD,-^oicoegoiOoooco 
^coiO'-'cg-^cg^cgiccocorH^coc^'-tT-i'-iegcDeoeg 




sasuadxg 



eg 1-1 lo o t- 1- 10 o eg eg eg CO t> 
o CO CO -^t o o 05 1- 00 00 CO 
eg CO eg C5 u: r-! eg 06 00' t>' 06 co' o 



VJ VJV iJW yu 'w' 

iococoiccoegcgeg^iot--^->*< 
10 eg_^cD_^cD t- t> o t~ CO 00 CO 



;t-cgicoooo"50oot- 
icooinioooegooco'^ 
■ — ooeg'-i'-KO 
:ict-*-5jr cg*cD"i-H 
; CO oi 
: t- eg 



■ 

ic o eg t~ CD CO o o o 1-1 eg 05 o o o c~ eg o oi o (35 o o ift 

rH OcOCDoOCDOOOOcO-^COOOCDOOWOoqOOO 

10 X eg* ^ 10 1-! o o t--^ 05 1-* co' •^' 10 cd' t-' o o co' eg' o o eo 



xeg^ioi-ioot-ojt-co-^io^cDt-oocoego 
oo-^cgt^-coiomoo^t-ocDioaiOoorHoicooo 
cDegcDcDt-^cgt~ ^^00 00 co ^ -rf c- ^ eg co '^,c~ 
00* t-* CO* o* .-T t-* o* t-* 01* 10* ■^** t-* — T CD* OS* oT C-* co* eg* 00 ctT 
10 o OS i-H i-H .-H r-i eo 00 eo ^ »-i i-H Oi OS egoo 



CO o 00 



^i-iTj<cDO>j50eocDCDCDir5i-ic-egoocDeoegt-oegirt 
t-TtrHt>C5oo^eg'i'iococDegt>mc3t~cot>-_<35^-rj<t- 

i-I eg' co' eo' ^' 00 -<#' co 00' oi rt ^* c-* Tt o o eg' co' co 10 06 
oooo-ft-^t-coc^iegooocococoo^t-incoi-iiccDoocD 
■^^cgTj'coooaicD^'^tr-^coco cg__t~ o_o> 
o* eg* •^* »ft* CD* CD* ■^* CO* o* 10* t-* rf* o* 10* ^* o* ■>** 05* i-h* CD CO* eg* eg* 
<-ieooa50ooocDt>iftot>'-iiort<oooLCi-Ha2t-a5C~o 
' -HeoegTHeg"5egeO'-H»-<cocD.-n-Hi-i^uoegcg 



^ 0010 



sai:>uno3 
SuiuiotpY 
6% uoi^inx 



Suipniouj 

Paxi^ 



sapuaSy 




sapniax[j) 
aouBua:^uiBj^ 



uo[:^Bjado 



uoi^^onj^suj 



[Bjauaf) 



00 rj< CO irt Irt O CO O 10 O CO 05 Tj< 05 

10 00 1- CO u5 o CO o 10 eg 00 
05 1-H •-!< .-I co' eg' ^ o 10 10 o t-^ t-' CO 
eg <-i o CD CO in 03 irt 05 1- 00 ^ Tt< 

eg co^^i-^^cg in --I oo^co__-<i> 
00* in t-* co*oo eo* 



in 

co oo ; 


o> 
in 00 






eo'oi ; 
eg ^ : 
in in 


542. 
805. 
3,713. 


d 




< in 00 CO CD in in 00 o o 00 in oi in CO 05 o ^ 

icDosTf-^-^ai-^oo^-jegegoq-^eg o 00 

t> -r).' CD co' 00 d c>' d 06 00 ^-' d d eo' r4 CO 00 co' d 00 in CD -rt^ co -rf 

t- CD CD eg o eg ^ CO 00 o 00 CD CD 03 CO m a> 00 ^ in CD 00 00 co 

^^o^in^^t- -^^eg o 00 oo^^cg^co^oo t-^co in ^o^-^^o^o^oo -^^^ o t- 

■**co*t-* i-TaTcg* ^*co*eo*i-r^* ctT TH*rH*,-reg*rt<* ^ co" eg* 



CD00^C-CDt:~a;O0500C0t~C0inO-^C0T-Hrti^CDr-.t- 

00 1-_ in t- t-- CO 03 in CD eg o CD CO in .-H cn eg 05 00 -<3; 
<-< d t>-' CO CD CO -^' in 00 d CO CO t>^ d d t--' d eg c--' d oi o 
oeg^cDcooscgc-^oocot-ooo^ooco-^-^oooiinoo 
t-oieocDooin-^t-cococooiegosO'-icgcot-oi^oieg 



coegoa5CDoO'-io<-H^cgcgcgeot>t-oooO'-iot>OrH 
Oi-HOcooint-coooooc-Oi-(i-iTj<t-^oino3t>t~ 
06 CO in d 1-* 00' t-' d in CD in oc' in d d 00 co' co' t-" t-' t-' eg' 
^oicoTf^o-^oicg-^mt-ot-coosoi^-^cgt-ioco 
oi^i-H -^^^cg^^oo^^-"* ''^^cg co ^ ^eg co 00 c~ 00 o; eo^'-i 00 m co 
in co*din*cg .4"t>-*co*cD*co*^"i--rCTrd^t-*oo"dTj<*co*-^'~cg*d~t--* 
cDTfoo i-H eg i-i I-H --H CO --H eg co m ^-h rn tj< eg r-i 




t>oocgooooococD.-i^o-rt<oincDOcD^o>cot~cgoo 
^- CD in o o eg CD 00 in in ^ ,-1 CD in 00 in T-H o o t>- 

T-H ■^' 05 eg d in 06 in* t~' d CO 00 d eg d d >-! d 00 1- t- c--' 
coooc^inoint~a3egt-t-0505CgcgoocDOinc-Tf<i-(0 
co_^oo^cg__a>_in t- co_^eg_^cD_^eo^oo in__o eg_eo__-;i< >— t> 00 
00 doo inodoi t> in*dcg*d'oo*co*t>-*orin*t-*c--*t--*03*eg*d't-* 




^ 01 '2 



Disbursements, Total and for General Control 



309 



loj;uo3 

IBJ9UaJ[) 



Ioj;uoo 
JO b;so3 



JO sasuadxg 



9 



J301JJO 

aouBpua^^V 
JO Ajbibs 



(s)3ijai3 
JO Xjbibs 



■;u9pua:>uuadns 

JO sasuadxg 
3ui[aABJX 



^uapua^uuadng 

JO Xjbibs 



^uapua^juuadns 
JO sasiiadxg 
3unaABJjL 



t-oo<MOoooo<x>«C'-i.-<OM'OioiDO«0'^a-. cct^caoo 
rH o; cv) cr lo 00 ^ t-' t~' oi cc od O e^' o o* ^ oo t~ 
ec <N a>_ lo t> t> IN to co_ « lo eo -^^ ec c~__ « 
00 «o 00 ko 00 OS t-'kc Ol c^"o'oo'^;o't-''oi*io't-''t-'"t-*arc<) o t- 



OOtDOJiXli-iiOOtDCliftt-OOOcOWt-ajCvlCCMOOCJ 

cDCJcct~c<iN<xi-^coc>cnt~c^Moo^-^irteooo<£i«oo 

CO CO « i-H M (N (NOliC^ r-i Ol IN <N N (N t- 



O«£!00OO«5O 

lo -"i; CO o N rH o 

O 00 (N O 00 o o 

o; 00 OS o 
CO ^ CO w eo 



oool o o 00 00 00 

1-1 CD 00 i« to CD t£> 

c<i in OS to o o o 



coinoioiiooooo 
ooiO'-H.-iTrONt^ 
co»-icc^^k«cot 



o o o to CO in 
^ o in -rf >-i o 
cgmNiNco w 



oto-^ooooooooooooo-rr-rf^io 
o-^oooot~too<Ntocotocooo^co 
cocoinorHOC^toooOr-iinoico 



O'-iooooo-^ooooooooooooinoo 
-cfCDomoinoooooocJocoinoooooocooo 
in 00 •-<' o* co' o 05 o (>■' o 00 o oo' in o ^ ^ in co' c<i in 
t-ot-oincDintO'^ootoc^inaiaiOTj'-rr^int-co 
Ti' CO c<i o^eo 00 c-__c^_^c<i oo cj cc m '^i,'^ c<i oo oo__co 
TTco'in r-^'i-T IN i-T y-^coc^'^y^r^nmr^T^'^'^ (N i-Ti-T 



t^oooooaso-^eocoint-ootooooaMjicooo 
a:ot-inoinooTtooin«ooococ4NOO-^'»i'aj 
inooiN-<*Ti<<Ncoin,-icocoiN'-iincocor)<T^in'S"iNiNc<i 



i^uapua^utjadng 

JO Ajbibs 



saoiAjag i^Saq 



saeuadxa 
.sjaquiaj^ 

pjBog 



Suisi^jaApv 
puB Sutcjuuj 



sasuadxg 



OINOOinrfOOOOOOOOOOOOOO-^OO 
O 05 O 00 00 CTi O O O O 00 00 O O 00 00 O O o 

o eo' o t-' o> 05 00 o o in 00 c-' t-' to' t-' t-' (n o oi o Tj< 
oincoin'^'*OTfc<iooinint~c<i'-iininoT*oo-f 
to to in t~ o c<i o o 



i-H ai_ (N in c<i^ i> t> co_^ 
in co" t- eo" co* (N co' 



I 00 in in in • 

'co'co'lN <N^ CO w IN ■ 



o o o 

O O (N O 

d o CO o 
t- o in in 

CO OS 05 



in 

05 00 

00 l-H 



o o o in o in 

O O O CO O (N 

in d in d in t> 
00 1> CO t> N in 

<-Hrt (M(N(N 



oooooooooooooootoooooooo 
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o to o o o o o c o 

oinooooomooooooootooomoooo 
co'^cococoint^cotDcococococvioO'-icocoincocococo 



00 00 (N 

CO o t-H 

Tl< CO (N 



coi-io5NiNeoooooot-OQOinincococo>-i 
C5 00 (N (N Oi (N 00 o> o to CO o in (N CO 00 t> in rH 
i cj c^" d d eo' to' Tj< t-' ^ t-' oc m' co* -"t d d oo' co 
;coo~. ^ocNoi^^cN'i'Oiocooocotooocco 
rH (N IN .-I CO in CO (N 00 CO i-H ,-1 CO in <N IN 



O00e000C0-^t-OOO(NIN-^(N00C000t-t~inc0COCO 

N 00 a; IN in eg IN Ol IN to <3i_ o CO 00 N 05 IN in CD 00 
(N ■*' in d d co' d (n in oo ^' d co' m' ^ (n d d oo" co d 
t^incr.'-icoc'aocinoi^cotocoocinint-t-ooin-^co^ 
Ojt>-s'cgin.-icoin^oot~oocOTto:coinincocoooO'^ 



(N ' 



I (N 



C 

S c ca 



00 

a> o C n 



? c § c t- g 

° ^ u 3 ^- S CS ^ 



illil 



m Eh 



.S 2 



in 

o o o 
E 

u O , 

« am; 

03 



01 . 
C in 

O CO 



et^tJ s s « 

U i; 03 03 <J CJ 05 



;t> CO 
'i-<'t> 



°co% 



i> oq< 
oo' in < 
CO Oi ' 

00 < 



CO 



> 05 05 • - CO ^ 05 
■ CO CO t> ^ Oi CO 'I* 

CO 00 ^^-^^t-^Oi, 
> o dd'in CO •—I in 
e uco CO ^ et.tocco 



cO'-iTft-eorHocoooocoeo 
coot><-it-i-ic0r-in05t-co 
»-H d co' CO 00 co' d CO in t~ t~ 05 
cooioot-ooincoto^coccoj 

COCOOOO W— ICO MCfttCCO.-^ 

■^•inco*'^ MM t.-M 
« c9 m M 



CO ■ 



: CO to CO in ^ ' 



' t> CO CO 



OO! 

CO 

CO c- 



;eo 

;t-eo 

;e0O5 



CO coco- 
; CO CO 1 
; o ^ o ( 



• CO 



CO 

t> to 

CO in 



ojtom 
leo-H^ 
:ocdtD 

I^T«00 

iniNr; 



ooot-c^eooooo 
o o; --^ in o? o 00 o 
t>' d ^ oi or 00 ^' d 
mooojccooococo 

P3_CC__C0__^ °c 
Co'-^-'^r x-co'co'c: CO* 



5 a-t/: 



a. 



"O cj c ca-r 
W = « c ? 



O 3 

c = c s 

<a 3 g 

> c-r 7^ • 
■x: 3 

cS 7: b3 _ 



ctf c.i: - t: ~ 



£.2 Z 

^ 0"' ■ 
03 

<< 



■8 








nee 
tatif 


ion 


1 c 


a 

CJ 






)ol A 
•arrli 





" '"^ > < 



310 1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



JO ^SOQ IB^OX ] 



uoI:^BJ^do 
JO s%so^ J3H^0 



5Ct-«50C — ■^OOOO'-'-rrCDCr. CCCDC-— 'OOOt^-n- — « 

CD — CD X CO 's; q co cc rr cc lo t- oq co x cd in q q q 

— — " '3' d t--' in Tt cc" in -rr co' m' co* o> d — ' d od t-* m' — cc 
ocDC-Lnc^-rrcccccomcDxcicocct-xc^coin — c^i — 

— x_^— CO c^. CO co_^cc in CD o x — q^ci^cc q^c^i^ 
cTTt CO* -H*cc*c<r'* com* — 'co* d-cc* r-rco*cc*cc*— * 



xcDc^ocDcccr. cDincot^int-c^jinc^ — t^-rrcD — c^co 
xcs^xt^-^ocooi — — cc — t^ — incosr:cDinco-^ 
t-__cD c-cDcoc^-rrocmcDxincc — in-romx-^cDccoi 
ec* d'd' CO* CD* dl - - - - ----- - 



saiiddns 

,SJO^IUBf 



CD — -rfXCD'S'CCcOCCCC-XCr. t-gn-^CDCDTfOCDCC — X 

"*^-t-a5 — cDOi;£Oo — cDO-»*xxt-a3t>'-<coincD 
c^'occ -*C5Coxrt'CccDincoect~ajecec-«i<C5XOcD 



,sjo:tiUBf 



O O O CO w ^- 

inx — oinot-oot> 
— <" cc d d d d d X* ' 



inot^in-^mcoxo — — oooo 
c X q q q q q CO in q q 



— icciooocDOx — int> — Trinc35-^cDcco5CD->rf — X 
xcDcDco^inocDOt-inciCicocoxcccoTfXx — o 
t-_^in — ^3 X m — rr o; x m co ^ q t- x q t-_ q — in 

t-*t-*CD''cO* 



J li. ^- VAJ ^ »^ VA^ ' — ■ 

^ TT (q_ x__ in co_^ q^ -^^ t- x__ q t-__ q_ — in 
* CD* cc* in* cc* CD* t>* •»i<* ■^* — * c^]* cc* '-<* cc* cc* d" c-* cd* 

1-H CO CO CO 



uoiiDnj:}sui 
JO \soj iB^^ox 



CO C5 < 

d d ( 



ccwxox— t-co — cocDec^3inxect-ini 
t- in cc CO q CO in q q X CO « t-. t-. f^. co - 
-r x' CO d t-" cc" d d t-' d d x' d co < 

-X'^-^'-XC;Xt-CCt>XOXC0< 

1 '-'v "-v '"^ " 

t> cc" co" -rr* t~* m* X* CO* X* t-* o-r t-* X* -^* — * co* od' t-* ' 
cocDO — t-cDt>inoc:Oincr. tr-Tfcot-c^! 
— coco — — ICC — CO— inTj. _,_i.ct — ' 



; CO CD X 

- O — 

CO X o 



uoi:jonj:isui 
JO siso3 jaq:>0 


CO X — CD a; — X CD cc CO in X CO m CD X — 03 m o co m 

cc C-Cim— CO — — — COXO-^COCCCirrCOCCDOJCOXCC CD o 

— cc cc — — d cc d ic — — ■ d cc — cc -<s' d d d — od cc d — ' t-' od 
t- oocDcc. ccc^rttDc-ix-^mcct-aj — CO — — cDccoico cc o 
cri_ cc t- X cc o c — ic in o: o: CD o X o cr. cc m — cc — c- q_ ai_ 
in — *cc*d' — "cj"—' — "cc'cc"*" — *cD*-^"'*~ — — 'id— t-" cc* 
CD — 4_ —-i- CD cc 
€«- H- a; — 

99- 


uopDTijrjsui 
JO S{Bua:^Bj^ 


$81,932.35 

13,927.03 
4,927.03 
10,018.96 
463.10 
2,022.02 
6,560.74 
4,799.96 
889.S7 
1,870.89 
3,980.82 
1,003.23 
2,616.17 
571.98 
535.07 
8,591.00 
7,001.96 
1,332.25 
437.03 
896.33 
1,912.99 
4,464.28 
1,760.50 
1,286.04 

dll4,060.43 

$195,992.78 


siiooqaxax 


$198,896.05 

22,342.01 
18,371.92 
15,145.04 

3,378.12 
12,553.58 
8,829.17 
8,718.91 
4,865.87 
16,871.69 

8!22l\88 
5,624.11 
31.40 
11,907.20 
19,750.32 
3,822.34 
3,590.81 
5,602.79 
3,168.76 
8,253.52 
7,338.88 
4,801.98 

cl02,948.77 

$301,844.82 


siooqDg i^^a 


$5,519,766.75 

575,727.06 
338,168.25 
793,157.99 
48,178.20 

1 1 t),f5Z 1 .4o 

239,902.55 
182,566.06 
100,220.42 
162,195.21 
332,930.78 
164,083.90 
234,098.72 
97,619.98 
92,244.57 
469.733.76 
417,247.14 
89,399.84 
66,370.89 
130,455.26 
111,723.07 
450,638,34 
181,419.52 
124,563.81 

b6,506,559.67 

$12,026,326.42 


uoisiAjadns jo 
sasuadxg jaqiQ 


$7,710.25 

1,171.02 
1,100.07 
1,921.66 

235.67 
134.08 
9.30 

19.85 
571.10 

82.50 
425.72 


in cc 
q — 

X — 


CD 


CD CO 

q 
d CO 

CD CO 




678.55 
614.98 

4,101.40 

$11,811.65 


sja^o'Eax 
SuidpH P"^ 
SuisiAjadns 
JO sasuadxg 
SuiiaAEJX 


$17,623.20 

720.34 
1,300.00 
775.43 
720.00 
650.00 
326.13 
961.95 
908.34 
908.63 
650.18 
483.51 
948.42 


xc;coc — ooocv 
lomccxxomo'e 
m X m CO X o m c 
t- m m t- c^i m o c~ c 
coxminmcccDin — 


488.75 
365.86 

4,064.37 

$21,687.57 


sjaqoBax 
Suid^ajj puB 
3uisiAjadng 

JO SaUBIBg 


$118,680.90 

10,188.00 
5,745.69 

12,852.00 
2,695.20 
3,059.20 
5,016.30 
3,396.80 
3,051.60 
5,156.00 
7,341.40 
4,118.40 
5,246.00 
2,883.39 
3,136.80 

10,400.00 
7,488.00 
2,728.80 
2,830.20 
2,695.20 
3,456.00 
8,206.52 
3,940.20 
3,049.20 

al07,348.15 

$226,029.05 



QJ S t-" •-I 

O) O C3 



C ?r <i> I 



o 



„• • or' J-" t- C- «* OC t-' Ol O C-: C'. OO 5£ O 00 lO t£ -r 
5^ ^ C l-t C 



.-I ^ .-1 N ■ 



pax I J 
aamO 



saiouaSupuo^ 
suoi^nqu^uoQ 



O :0 ; :-^g2 
o :o : ;-*oo 
d id '; ; <N ift d : ; t- o in 



o o o o 
o in o o 



•ccoooooooooo 
: CO o o o o o o o o o o 



;ooo 
; 'R ®. 



in 



^ S S S o o 00 5C en 'r. cr. ic 
dNd--^K'5^dinc^ido;cin;^c^ 

52SJetocO«n«205£>tr-^^-JOOeC 

cc S ^ x_oo__t- t-.-^q^c-^^in in o_ 

(^"irtt-" i-TcO*'-' t-H 00 N r- "-I 



, 00 00 o — in 00 
: in 00 00 c- m in 
: T- in C<1 CO O 00 ?^ 



g ~« ^ CT, m eg c « c. m, s^. CJ c^. x - 

^ d ^-■ d cc r:^ in 00 CO ot c- o c: t- ci eg o c; o 



AjBiiixny 



05 O? o t- 

eg d ^' 

00 00 00 

m eg 05 



:eo 00 



; eg 00 in 
,-1 CO ■■ 



siooqos 

Suipnpuj 
sai^iAijDV 
xViuniuuioo 


$9,219.62 

*5,895.39 
109.50 
204.55 
tTO.OO . 

427.25 
1.85 , 

361.59 
31.20 

i5b!6o 

151.88 


76.50 
366.02 
♦1,100.00 
201.89 
72.00 

tl07,929.49 

117,149.11 


siidnti JO 
uoi:>B:}jodsu'BJj, 


$892,422.42 

60,644.50 
71,887.07 
84,574.98 
28,535.53 
30,785.76 
67,230.98 
25,830.56 
30,169.38 
» 34,972.04 
71,130.19 
57,612.00 
15,003.52 
) 18,946.43 
) 23,567.58 
5 41,744.17 
I 31,492.69 
) 31,186.59 
26,537.38 
21,380.40 
23,170.74 
1 40,524.63 
24,600.83 
30,894.47 

3 23,907.50 

9 916,829.92 



aoiAjag 



sauBjqtq 



f-H ^ eg o 00 • ® ® 

a* cc oo CO d i d d 

t_ t- ^ t> t- . O 00 

o 00—' CO icgi-i 



CO ■ 



: O O <35 «5 p 

; d in d cC d 
: in c^ c- o 
;,-H CO t- o eo 



o o o o o in cc 

,-;_!^ir^f-b-j«n-ri<ccint-t-05Ci'^t~TC3Ti<.-iwcg'^ 



00 p_eo_ 
r-Tcg' 



aouBua:juiBi\[ 
JO :>so3'ib:iox 



5 §g5?^?f^^?^Sg§«Si2::£^:?.SS.g 

X S^^?oor?Sc?-So in in eg p_in in oo_-sc x_o_- q_ 
d" oo"d"ci --<'in d't> t> s:^"-s-*d'co*— 'in d-^'T-'Tr tt co o c~ cr. 



311 



If 

9. ^ 



ecu 



Suipnpui 
aouBua:>uiBi^ 
jo sieo3 'jaq^o 



^uauidmbg jo 
c(uauiaoEiaa'}j 
puB sjiBda'^ 



spunojQ JO 
daa>idfi puB 
sauipimg 
JO sjiBda'^ 



o 

C5 eg 
00 eg 



cgTt-incgt>CT!50coooeoco05-5Ct-OiC2C5-2:S?2-§ 
t- ^ ■rj< ;d eg eg in eg in CT! o 00 p t-_ eg CO eg «c 

^ ^ _j • _^ ^ d d 00 d eg' ^ d d in eg d 00 eg in 

o®S?SSSSSSin«oc50o«£ino;co^eoinco 

o?S^co«Sooegeg <n - « =^^.'^.'H<^.«'.^.'-.°° ^. 

nm^ 00* eg- eg" co' CO eg -I ^-r^ — cgegco-^ 




a; c. 
= c cu 



c9 cs o) j= c S:; 



s 



e n 

a . . c 

^ ^ s ? 

< a to C 



3-C Cm 

" 3 C ... 



" K_ w >, > JO 

c ^ > J, u 5 
> ^ T ■ " 

c c > C ^ eg 
C C o m T 



312 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



o3oO(M05in^c^oooot-oocoo 



t>c<iioooooicooot~ 
coomirtoo(Mooco-<i< 
00-^ in oo IN '-,'-1 to 

CO a> 



^uatudmbg 



<x>i>i<simiatDOin 
O 05 05 ?o <N o 
w CO r-' o <N o in 
c-a5005C~QONO 

1-1 t- O t-^-^ 1-1 ^ 



O O irt 00 05 
05 ^ C- Iff C- 



spunojQ puB 
PIO JO 



.-ilN''i"C-050t~OcO 
t- IN t- O O 05 


o : 
o ■ 


t- 


IN 

CO 


O O CO 

o o 


CD t-' -H* CO 00 00 

CCO500CCt-iNO5(N'-' 
(N O_00 00 CO C0_tO CO lO 


488. 


05 

CO 


in 
in 

00 


in in o 

05 


m in tcin 




to 




(N 



coco ^ 
^(Ncoin 
^' d c-' t-' 
to o 00 00 
^00 CO to 



O 05 

m o to 
05 uo ;0 



0> t> CO 
1-1 to (N 
Mi-i to 



CO IN 

1-1 CO 
m to 



:>uauiaAOjduii 
s\i puB puBq 



to IN 00 
O CO to 
05 to to 



•»t o -^t CO CO 

N O t- 05 00 
cot- IN to 00 



O CO 00 

o in lO 

O to CO 



8DIAJ3S 

IBc^oJ, 



in ociNtcini-iOoc~o-. t^co-^m^co't-oocoiNOOco 

c~ x-ri<(Mt^co»-oiooo — t~occmo;oOO'^o>co«i-it^ 

in to (N to to t> — t> in 00 00 to ^ t- 1— to to CO o 

o* Qot-'"co'"o'^''t-'"d t--*orin*rr't^*rJ'co"a5'af t^co'iN oo'win <N 

,-1 in o 05 -H rH ,-, ^ CO « CO ^ ^ 1- 05 05 iNOONco 

CO 1-1 ^ IN .-I 



spunja^ puB 
pun J 3uiiiuis 

O:^ 6J8JSUBJJ, 



O 05 

o m 
dt-' 



[pa:^qapui 
papuog 
uo :^saja:^uj 



00 in o CO (N 
00 to to t- eg 

tO^^t- 05 ^^«> 

co'c-'-^'co'iN 
05 in t> * * 
* 1-1 



o t- o t- 
in 00 t- 00 

IN M CO 



o m o t- CO o 
o m in ^ (M o 

int- co'to'iN 

•X- (N to* 



CO o o o in 
o> m X ^ 05 
^_^-^__t> oo__co__ 
i-<'^""in x'co* 
* ^ in 1-1 ^ 
* * * * 



(N CO 

rl 05 

1-1 t- 



OOOOOO^OOOOO 

o o o o o o to o o o o o 
<6 'Z3 d d d CO d d dS d 
ooooooc^ooooo 
in c^o o_o_o_o;__in o^o o,"^ 

eg -rf d" "5 m" IN i-T <N -rf C^i" 00 



ssaupa:>qapui 
papuog 
uo s:>uauiXBj 



O !0 to O o 
O t- to o o 
O rr to o o 



o o O o 
O O O o 

in -^o'ln" 



CO to 
t- 

1-1 to 



SUBOq 

uo :;saja)ui 



sjBax snoiAajj 
uiojj suBoq 
maax ^Joijs 



i-Ji-jO 
(NOsd 



05 t- 1-1 
CO CO 
(M (N 



0003 

o 05 '<r 

d 00 (N 

o o o 
o^t-^oo_^ 
in (N* 

1-1 IN CO 



St 

m (M 



sa^B^s pus 
sapuno^ Suiutotpv 

o^ saa uopmj, 



05 1-1 -rr CO 1-1 o in in o t- t- CO 
C3 1-1 o to t- CO in 05 m 05 1- 00 1— 
T}< (N CO 1-1 IN m t- rH -^i" 00 CO 00 



(Noq 
co' 05 

(N 

in m 



cgmco 

O 1— I 

in 00 t- 



£ o c 



S C rt CS 03 



_ ^ b£ 4) r- to 



O 



^ C ^ C g; 



s r: 

15 o 
P2 E-" 



Disbursements, Debt Service, Capital Outlay; White Elementary Schools 313 





$688,741.52 

1,015.00 
14,270.18 
97,404.18 


1,-589.46 
42,061.33 
3,084.55 
970,98 
943.92 
3,626.75 
5,005.52 
16,9 40.25 
2,729.11 


375,408.08 
114,58 4.29 
1,565.70 

48.60 


2,180.6? 
4,900.88 
412.11 

389,117.36 
8265,237.58 
hi 13,84 1.23 
10,038.55 

$1,077,858.88 


:juajjn3 


$4,800,618.33 

550,128.11 
290,621.75 
710.708.50 
42.130.39 
88,005.64 
220,887.52 
144,284.59 
75,819.73 
129,570.56 
321,827.12 
175,346.41 
178,134.63 
84,560.24 
70,349.98 
430,230.92 
340,353.08 
77,627.89 
55,132.41 
94,164.93 


404,882.37 
139,325.94 
96,269.56 

6,290,661.78 
3,649,325.33 
1 ,4 ( o,y4o.DU 
167,387.85 

$10,091,280.11 



BaiouaSy 



Suipnpui 
JO aouBua:>uiBi^ 




lo 00 Oi «£: o cc o oc_ « ic ic X 00 ~ 

ec e<? in ct in oc — ' -^^ d t-' d — ' -r^ d d . — ^ — 
T-< mc^n-ooooccCir. — in(Noo<co — a;oc--<s>-H 



- d 00 CO 
t-' oo' d in eg CO 



'oo't-'cq NN^" to* cT-qT oTcc'no 



JO uopBjado 



uoporij^jsuj puB 
uoisiAjadng jo 

^603 i^^oj. 



Z> m o: CO -rr ec O a: T- tc 00 (N <N 00 C IN m o o o — 

-. in 00 o ec -^^ <N t> ec o o o — _ 00 IN ec m_ co co 
30 CO* ci co' -r«-' oc c; ec d cc* 00 in «' d t-' co in co' co' d d 
50 Ti-^t-coo-.NC-t-t-ccccc-ooot-inoiiN'-cotoiNeo 
t-__i— CO o^,^ a:_^CJ CO ^ "^.00 ec <ft to oo^^ec r« t- in in ec__in o 
N a: ec cc c<r cc' '-<' d tc cc ci t-" c^* m* tc c^T m" r-* co' t> d^ d" oo' 



(N^ 



to CO o CO 
m ec Ci ec 

d'm'd'ec'" 
too Tj<co in 



in • 



05 



oooomec-^-^cc — ececin.--toc<ioocr. m-To^oecoco 
c;t~ec^c<iO'<?'cot~c^c^3r?ecocoecmooinoot~co-s' 
ocotooieco: — m — 'nocincoc<!«oocgecc<ii?;t>'^oo 



Occt-o3^i-i'^t--!-"t-eC' 
■^otococoin-H..yC5C<ico. 



iOO-HOooOino-r}>T-< 
'COtomecc-in-^oto 
ec ec 



o — CO CO 

O rr ^ 

c; t- 
-H'co'm' ec' 
05 ec 



uoponj:j6ui jo 



to CO to ec CO o o 



vitoeccooo'-ooino'—cooctoaiciint-toinecco 
5 in to o o t> LO o rr CO c- to ec CO ec co -h co oi 
to' co' t-' ^* d d co' d d d ® t-' d d m' 06 d d d in 00' 
oec-Hin^i?sin^t-cc<T,totOinco-<eccoinoo05a:eo 
'-i<jiOiCoececc5inoOTj>o"^^int^'^'^'^cDmt>coco 

to'-*-ec' -^-T-^ ^«*eo"^ -^co-co"^ co*"^ 



co in oi c- 
CO CO o 
00 -I m -< 



uoponJisuj 

JO SIBUeiiBI^ 



B3tooq:;x9x 



sjaqosaj, 
JO sauBi^s 



uoisiAJadng 
JO sa'suadxa 



eCkninTrcoecinoooojCioooim-Hcc^inint-oooec 
t- 00 to ec CO in 00 ec t-_ t- to OJ o ^n ■>a< X 35 to o CO ^ 
co' t-' d 06 d co' C-' CO in co' cc co' d 00 00 d d -4 to' «' 00 tjI ^' 
^oooococoOt><j;coint>ecococ~ccooec-^'-osOO 
<x co_^c:__r- o__'i'__a5 ec ec CO » ec oo__ec__ec co cc ■<»' to 

C-' -«'■*' ^'^' co' ec'co' CO 



Tf m C5 C5 
a> c- o o 
o in -H JO 



i:~c~-i>c~c~cC"^COXtOtOO;c— C0C0t>MLn-HO^a> 

cj;too5toocotcinintoec---^coeccO'-in-<3<a5ino 
06 d d co' oc x to' in d x' cc x' ec ^ — ' c-' m' to' t>' m' cc cc 
ecoir-cocoomrr-^in — xec coroxo-vminm 
in co_^-- ,-1 o_^x__t> co__-^__t> CO r-^t^ '^.."^.^.l"^.".'^."* 
in did co'x'"i3''cc'co'o*ec''3'*co Trd'^'^'co'^^'m'Tr' 

rCOCOCOOCOOOCT-. OCCtOOtO^XCiCS — -"-"XaJC- 

3 CO CO ec o ec ec a; o x -q- o cc co co cc 
:' t-' to in d d d 06 to' cc t>' co' co' t-' -<' r« to' 06 00 -v' d ■>*' 



Si- ir; cr. ij; ou «J o CO CO ■'I' C- •-< T?- to X X O f 

Oject-mxc-. inxcicoTj-cicoto-^cotoinotocccoa^ 
t- CO co_ CO i> m X t> o_^ec in co_^c~ in -h co m o C'-^'^.ci 
: to ec'ec c— m'ci o in'rp t>>".-<'o m co 
"XO — ecinTrOTj-Trectomcoajin 
eg _ ^ ec CO cc 



x'ln't- o m'ln'TT I 
OS X ec CO in ec o ■ 



to Tr ec a> 

CD CO t-. O 

06 in CO c£5 
irt oi to 
o__-« t-^o 
t'co'c-'o' 

X -H CO 

— X CO -H 



aouBpua^HV 

eSBjaAY 



3ui3uoi3a 
eSBjaAV 



toxooocom-Q-ececxcocoecoino^oo-ir^as 
o a; o CO CO i-H i> a> t> o x to cts t- ci t- o 05 ^ co 
m d in d 00 in d 
TTco-^minoot-ec 
t~inec-^-<rina;'rto 
^ to' co' co' co' •"T co' co' ^n 



omo-^oo^o — — omtoxto 
ecoiOTt^-'inccxtoinincs^-ai 
tocr. cj-^^^aixt-inTT^cot^ecoc- 
m' co' co' t-' t-' co' co' CO co' d" d" co' 



co_^co ^_ec '-•^ 
o't-'-^"^' in* 

C5 to CO o 



t~cot~coeC'^inxt>xc-t~in— otocotC"T«<-<s'coc 
o-'joecxcoecto^eo — mc-toxoxoxcoococo 
co-<Tcocoxecxcot-cointcc-cot~ecccc:cj5inooo5 



o'co'co'. 
t- m « 



coma-.xxmt-^a-. ecc. -^cocomx — cooic^cooiin 
inrT'VTrecX'^-»rt~t~rfXt-a;in^«C5coinooco 
^O5^t-ot>'-''^a5eoo;oc5ecinciina2'™cooec — 
c^'m'co' co'-<t'ec*.--<'co*t--*ec*-<s-*'-<'.-.*c--*c--*.--r co'^'^'cc'co 



— --I CO X 

o ec t~ 

CO CO ec CO 



[in^ JO J^qd^nis^ 



co^x toco X m CO coo x c- to 

t--<inocoxai0ina50inx-^t~coecininocoect^ 
eccoxcoinecXTj'XOi-HcoinTj"co.--Teccoinoo>in 
ec^cc — .-.^r- coco ec 



X t> 05 

— ^ -^to 10 

t-__«o 4) ec 

CO*.'-' 10* 




00 

in 

CO* 



o ea c 

-iiii 

J = e 

t: -.JO 

05 C C 

-S M> £ 
£ > 

£in ^ 3 



to' 



. c " 
J2 '-S 

u r 



- CI. S C 

o c !; c: oi 

— O*- 2 cc BjtOX 

ecm-^.S !r-t-'*? 

f^. CO — .5 X ^- 
tot-ec . o ytOO 
in ec ~ rt ei 
^«^co.:: t^^^- 

05 p^fin CO CO c- 
59..!2««--^ecto*o-6e- 

toScoiCBJeOoj* 

S 2.20 3j 0) £ Ci 
3 3 353 

■y u «^ ? w 



eCT3 



a to 

3 CO 

c-m' 
a rt 

0! 

y c 

11 

j= a) 
o 

2 -- 



-5 

n oc 



^ «5 
-is 

. c ^ 
CO » 

cc t- w 
o 

dS-° 

1=1 

.C CO c 

ec 

3 ^ 00 

•^.:^'^ 

~ .0. 
c c'^ 

X 5i O 

«2 g 



CO ' 



0) ^ t— ^ 
to a; m' 



-r _ ^ - • - 

3 3 

c 5 



K c c 

C 0) S 



314 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



.s 

«2 



'V CO 



1 



lO Tj« O 05 
N CO CD ^ 
00 CO O lO 

lo -rfi o o 

CO IM ^.CD 
lOio" 



^ O (M -rf 
00 CO O rH 

i^j in a> t- 



00 o 
CO CO in OS 

-I T)< 



; CO in 
: -H 00 

. O 



-rf CO (N 

in CO in t> 

in ^-o't-" 
^cocoo 

l-H 1-1 CO 



CO t~ o ^ 
in 00 CO 
(M .-1 in oi 
t-'o'o'c-'" 

CD O t- CO 

,-1 r-l CO 



05 CO O OJ 

00 o t- CO 
o t> o 00 



t- (M CO 

oi d ^ 
c- 00 o 
oo__a5_^in 

^"-^'co'-o" 

05 in t-i CO 



O ^ 00 (M 
05 CO -rf t- 
05 ^ CO 



c- in 

O-rcD'o'co" 
CO CO (M 



CO 00 c^ 
t- X CO 

(M 



I 2 



o^ oa — I (M 
in o CO 05 
co' d c^i t—' 
CO CO CO CO 

O^^C0_^00__rH 

t-""co*in t-' 



—I ^ CO ■ 



T« o -f OS 

CO <NI 05 

in 00 t~ 



S 05 00 CO 

(N t~ 00 o: 



CO t- (M CO 
CO -rf rt"M 

c> in m 00 



^ ^ ^ IN in 



^ o in 



IN co_^co_oo_^ 
i-H^'co'in 



(N CO ^ O 
d co' CD d 
CO 00 IM -t 



o o o o 
00 CD CD 



in CD in 

CD ^ O ^ 

o_oo__-H 
co'l-H co'w" 



1^1 1—1 1— I m 
CO o ^ 
(N in c- ^ 



m 05 -r* 05 

CO in o o> 
CO CO « ^ 



in 
in (Noq 

i-I CO t-' 

t~ C^l 05 
i-<_CO t> 

in'cD'rH 



O 00 c- t- 
CO (N C^l ^ 

CJ t- in in 



1-1 05 
05 05 00 CO 
CD CD CO 



O O^ (N CO 
OS CD t- 
O_o;_oo_^o0__ 
ooco'iN t-" 



00 CD in o 

(N 00 CJ5 

in 00 o> CO 



(N CO CO in 
CT5 in (M 

O O O OJ 



O CO CO CO 

05 CO in o 
-HCD^^oq^ 

d'oo'oo'" CO 

CO t> CO 

^ ^ CO 



uoponj:jsui 
JO \so^ {■e^oj^ 



00 in c^i CD 
o 00 in 
co_^co i« in 

05 in ^ CO 

1-1 IN 



t- <N (M 
f CO O 

05 05 in -rr 
in IN co' 

^ (N 



in in t> 
in 00 c:5 CO 
i-I in iri CO 

CO — O rH 

C^__CO_^00_t> 

(N c^iin d' 



CO CO 05 00 

Ti; CO -rj- IN 
d (N t-' d 
in 

05 t-_oo in 
■^"(N in co" 
^ ^ CO 



« CO CO 

CO CO ^ 00 
CO t- ^ 



<N 00 

^ 05 

in IN t-* 

05 T*> CO 

(N (N in 



uoi^onj^suj 
JO s^^soo iB^'\o 



CO t- o> 05 

CD (N CO 

oo' co' 00 d 

CO 05 C^ t~ 

o^cM__oo__^__ 

IN CD* 



00 03 05 X 
— CO CO (M 

CO « CO in 



in in o o CTJ CO (N 

IN o o X o 

in d un ^ t~-' in 

^ X CO -g- CD 05 o 
CO (N 



OS 05 CT-. 

IN (N a; in 
-^' (N in d 

(Vl (N OS CO 
CD CO IN (N 



IN CO IN 

1-; ^ (N 

d c-^ d 

<N e<i 05 

X M O CO 



uot^onj^suj 

JO SIBUa^BJ/^ 



sjiooq^xaj, 



X X ^ 

t- t~ "T* O 

1-1 IN CO 



in in CD ;d 
o i>i in X 

CO IN co' X* 

X in X ^ 
i-' -Teg- co- 



co in in -rf 
It d t-' (N 

t> IN 

CO 



^ m X m 

t~ 1-1 — < 
O IN I* 



X ^ 05 X 

CO 05 in X 
in o 



m in IN oj 

X X 1-1 

co^co^^in co__ 
i-T^'i^-t-' 



in CO (N CO 

CO t> !>• 00 

d x' in Tjl 
in t~ 

'^"iN CO-t-* 



1-1 rl< CO X 
CD t- X 1- 
-C CO X CD 



^ X O 05 
CD t-; -rj. 

CO* ':^' d 1^' 

05 o in in 

C<I_C0_^C0__05^ 

eo'c^T^-d" 



05 1— CD t- 
C<l CO (N — 

M in t- in 



-ri. CO 

I* in 

■rj< in in in 



X ^ CO 

05 CO CD 
CO X IN 



JO sauBiBg 



in (N CO 

CO X CO 
t- C- •^_<35_^ 
IN t-" CO* CO- 
OS ^ O Tt 
^ (N 



CD CO 05 CO 
1-1 O — 
t- O X 



CO (N 05 05 

o X CO 
-* in --t 



CO 05 (N X 

oi t~- CO o 

X O CD CD 



o: t- 

05 05 t- CO 

— ' -h' d d 

O CO 05 CO 
CD CD ^__t- 

Tri-T^'o" 

— I -H CO 



Tt- CO 



t- CO CO 
t- o> t- 

O X 

co'dm' 

CO (N 
(N (N 



suiSuopa 

ndn J J9J :>soo 


$62.64 

48.49 
56.75 
66.90 
56.76 

58.95 
63.25 
62.95 
62.20 

44.13 
54.50 
66.06 
56.67 

71.61 
86.18 
107.02 
87.51 

36.53 
66.08 
64.50 
58.24 

37.53 
51 . 13 
60.28 
49.14 

80.40 
80.35 
80.39 

$72.49 


I 05 0(Nco05 ocox-* in 1-1 1- ^ x^ 

JSUDBBT J9^ ^-^050 050505in t~-^-^in -^ir 
uoi^i^noj^aoji ^ j.5_^^^ ^CDCDCD O(NC0(N 

1 ^ 


OCD CD t- O ^ C^COr-^CJ ^OJin CD 

X c<i oscococft O5coc<ic<i 'fOco co 
in in o CO CO c<i »^co-ri<co 05 05 o> c- 


5,829 

70.8 
33.1 
69.3 
173.2 

32.7 
47.6 
81.0 
161.3 

4.1 
4.5 
8.5 
17.1 

46.2 
25.2 
56.1 
127.5 

4.2 
8.7 
10.9 
23.8 

28.5 
16.1 
35.4 
80.0 

627.5 
117.5 
745.0 

1,327.9 




16,559 

2,239 
1,024 
1,869 
5,132 

1,049 
1,487 
2,543 
5,079 

131 
118 
206 
455 

1,187 
598 
1,017 
2,802 

156 
214 
272 
642 

986 
500 
963 
2,449 

16,8P1 
3,289 
20,180 

36,739 


3ui3uoi9a 


17,583 

2,387 
1,076 
1,947 
5,410 

1,141 
1,584 
2,709 
5,434 

138 
123 
213 
474 

1,283 
638 
1,089 
3,010 

164 
226 
286 
676 

1,052 
523 
1,004 
2,579 

18,332 
3,590 
21,922 

39,505 




C<I 05 05t~05 ,-1 1-1 t> rH t- t- (NINNIN (NiNi-lIN X C<1 

CO _( ,-t in 



siooqog JO jaquin^ 



•5 







; u ; 


++ . ' 







rt eu cs I c_( C cs ca^ 
< P5 



01 a; .1^ cj 0) 0) 

'CO ^ o-r'O'C 
■ ■'^H oi 2 2 



Ma; cu^-S g o; S 



§ooS .SaoJs §aoS ^ 

S Ph ^ W Eh E- 



Disbursements, White Juns. Jun.-Sen., Sen. High; Last 4 Years of 315 

High School 



sasuadxa 



»ra_^_oo t-__o <x o rc ^ N :oa;_^t-- 



00 <N M N IN c: (N -rr ^ a: -ff O — IN c~ X 00 
ec CO w N t- ^ t-- c~ 00 ^ o; t- c<j _ 00 irt eg 

to o" o — ci -rr o* IN d in d t-' co' ^' oo' <o' to' in to d 
f^c^-^ooia. t:~toox-^<r. cctOTfccc^owoojoeoto 
to^^os N ir?_(N to ^__x 1- 05 ir: o: s^.^-,'^^"^.*'^.''^. 
in oc o" ' <^ d' «" d" to" d" t--" co' co" d' c-* d" x' r^" ■r' t~ 
j^c^t^Mtorcxict^roxc. TT'S't-torrcJioirtinxto 



XjBi[ixnv 



Suipnpui 



«<r(N005c^xiN^crf;oa;(N'^c<i-^t~-c<ito^m.-( 
cc to ^ M X to CO o c ^ tT) to t- OS to X ^ "5 
ift x' X* t-' in' tc' — • (N oc ic t-' ^' oc to t~-' d d d 

XtCCOO-^OTTC-tCOC^i-rrCl-'S- — C^lCOO^XNO 

to c?_x^r« T. m ^,t-__c^ ^ lo c^i ^ to__co x_^a:_o_o^x_^ 
•^'"x''t-"x'"t>to"x"—' o'd^' icc-*c^'x"x'"c<rto'"x"cg'"o x* 

»-H.-iN — IN —I --"-i 



cr. icioo2iNa>xou5to-^^-r?iNcncc— 'X-^iNXtcco 
irt Ti< t- « X CO c<; Ci o t- CO to •-; ^ ir. oq in c^i c<: 
CO d d d 00 d d c-i d d d d x' if: t-' c^" d d d t-' c-' 
"eoO"— t--^oco(M^cr!-^^tD-^t~a;iN'r«r?coif: 
« eo oirtictoc^itcicc^J^co-^t-rroo^os t--^to_iN_e^__^J^ 



JO :jsoQ 



CO Ca-^C<lt~<MCCXOC^CO-^OfCi^^Xt:~»-^iCOOt>X 

CO e';'»s<ioc<JO--cox— 'XI.--CC — '-toc-_u';'3'ic«c0'*ca 

eo lo d fo d d in" d oc t> 00 CO d (N d — ' d d d t~' d 

O CCOCCXIO— ivf5t-«' ■ 



CCOCCXIO— ivf5t>«-^r-<t-XfMXC5-<4'iOXC5tOO^ 

t- co^ c^_^ co_^ CO t> -rr^ x_^ <j5^ o t-_^ n co co^ to_^ in — 
r-T d" 1-H TjT oc" d co" x* CO to' (n co d" co' rr' .-' eo' (N c-' i>' 



to co-^eoto<N^X(N — ..N. — 

X O t~ <N CO 0> irt O CO CO C; N -"S" to to O IN 



- C<I — CO X to 



<J5 Ol O X 

_ _ _ , . . 00 OS X 
d i> t> d d CO d CO ci 




uoijonj:jsui 
JO s^soj 



uoi:)ona:;sui 

JO SJBUa^BJ^ 



sj^ooqjxax 



tooxc. toccoo 
X C5 a> CO oi ~ 



(-aw^uJi-iifttOCOtCt-XCOCOOirtCOeO 
-rf O Oi to 00 to to 00 to ^ Oi eo 05 Tl- CO 

00 d -r* d t>' co' co' d i-H t-' CO d — ' d d d d co' d d 06 
^c-ot>o:uitoirtcoto»iiCTj<otoa5-^^-^--^05to 

~, -_„^p,jg^t,t^^„^^X-^CO 



35 I— ic-ot>a5u:to 
» e^.'-<^« CO t- irt 



3cj>t-cotoicio — oitoincoxostotot-oeo- 
rcoto^eoasTTCococoT^xcoco '■ 



w CO ^ CO to CO d CO f5 CO ^ X CO CO »-< 10 
06 00 d co' co' t-' d 00 d d x' d d d t-' t-' c-' d d d d 
Or-cot-coxco^xcocomcocotoffscoo-. cocotoeO'-i 
co_^o_x_^T)> o: CO OS irt t~ CO t-_co CO a. '•^^^n C5_^co co__co_^t-_^ 
to' to' 10 eo' co' ^* r-T ^' ^' co' co' to' d" ^* — ' i-T ^' co' co' 



saiaBiBg 



aDUBpua:):iV 

aSBjaAV 



3ui3uo[aa: 
•0|si aSBJaAV 



sjaqoBaj;, 
JO -OM 



CO — oooiT-coict-oc-eoTfcovrM'ik-oooot-xcoo 
cocococomc-occox-^co— >in — a2t-c.cotcc--rro 
o^x^^o^co CO '3"__o_'g> X t\x co^i^ to__a; -i^" co to co t~ 
eo i-H i-Trt' ^' >-<' ^'.-T co'i-T 



t-coeoxt-oinicxotco-'S'iftt-coiO'-ieoioco^co 
t-TC. cO'-'OojcftTi'O-HCOTj'Oco^ococo-^XOTrj- 
^OiCoc^t-iooTrxxoicoirtint-— iocotot>cO'-«c~ 



t- eo to in ■ 



CO OXXOtOOtO-«*'OX«COTl<-^,-it-CO^OCOCDXtO 

o —I to CO ^ eo X CO t~ eo in CO CO X X CO -H eo eo X eo 

CO 1—1 I— ( 



^ CO 

eo to 
o eo 



X CO 

— ' d 




o ,— CO eo eo CO in o CO CO t- i-H X X CO o o « CO t~- CO o co to 

D ot>CT.tDcoxinm^n'inc:coma3X'^m^t>inxoi eo os 

2 05 CO d d ■^' t-* d d d d d d d ■^' — ' d co' -i-' •^' x d d 00 to d 

o cottcoco— -Hcoxcococo-^-^o — — coococ:c;coco t- o 

Ni_ tD_x_^x_^t> o_.-^ CO CO t> t~ CO eo CO oi CO o -"r t> m o o_ eo__ 

■^"dd'co'ic'co'-^'co'co'o'd'— '— 'd'd— 'co'x'^'d'd'co' '-«' x' 

CO C5 " .-^ TMJ5 CO CO m o in X eo eo CO ^ eo ^ CO •'9' CO CO Tf >-< 

T-< CO ,-1 ,1^ © t- 




m 



m g c 
in 2 eS 
eo__-g J3 
d" co,^ 
CO o 

» £ § 



m 

c 

is as 
u a> ai 

3 O 0. 

— w 



o m CO o 
o ^ o 
d X CO o 
m o in__in 
eo'-^'e^" 



c 

=: c OS £ oj = 



316 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



U tell 
— "O 





i-H O (N 




00 


1-1 O CD 




d 




CO 




05 CO CI 






« Tf (M 




oT 


IN 


(N 















IN O 0> 
05 CO 



t-COOi 
05 CO 


o o 
o o 


o m 
c— o 


05 05 


in 


«" (N t> 
(NiO 
-I (N 


lo in 

05 (N 
Tl< (N 


do* 

in 00 


,655. 
,655. 


■,116, 


t>i-r 






(N <N : 


c— 
O 

eo 
««■ 




aauBuacjuiBj^ 



inoot-'>i<oot-coo^t>oo.-ioooeoc£>oo ^ ^ 
t> t> in 00 in (N o in t> o 00 00 o 05 05 o o IN IN 
in d 05 00 «o d d t-^ d in 05* d d (N 00 oo" in 00 <N 

005Nt>i-<C^T-it>COO-^ ^ 

in,-r T-Ti-TiN r-T,-! 



(ID Tj< O i-( 



i IN 



ooiiNi-ic-oin-^cocot-ocDCDOininiNineofOt- 

rH (N 00 'S; CD O IN CD 00 CD 00 00 O) 00 CD 00 eo CO 

d i-H in d oo' (N t-' d co' d oo' d »-5 d >-< co' m' »-4 »h 

005inx^OOOOTl<rH'^IN00500t~-<i<lNOOOO'V<N 
(N O^C--^iX> CO^CO CO t> W t~ <N IN '-'^O^^OS oo__in "^.^ 

t-Tt-T (N WINCo" rH COt-T 



CO T-H in t- 05 

00 t:-_ (N 00 00 

t> tr-' d eo' d 

eo in (N in oo 

i-H t- CD eo 



rHCD05inoc-05t>iNeoot>05incoooooot-oooeo 
'd'^ CO CO CD --t c> <N M o CD t> .-I eo o o5 o 00 CO in t-_ 
in C-' d d d d ci m' t-' in d eo d d oo' i-h d i-I in t-^ 
T-HooOi-i(Ninco(NoOT}<rHcot-t>iNOt-t>oooiincD 
oi i-l^cD^^o^ -^^00 T-H in in o_ix>_cD o in t> o> eo_t> oo m o_oo 

t-'d ^ i-TrHr-rCvTi-i t-Tt^OO" l-r.-H(N INi-T 



uoi:;Bjado 



in CD 05 o 

CD i-H CD 00 

d Oi CO t- 

W O CD 
<N i-*^CD_^-<* 

doo^oooT 
in o eo 




uoi:(onj:isui 
puB uoisiAjadns 



IN .-H 00 (N 

in t- CO 
t> oo^o^oo^ 
t-'eo IN T-T 
CO in TT 

(N 05 IN 



t-Oi-HOOcomoeoN 
w. v.~j - ; V - w w w o o CD in 00 o 05 CD 
00 in d CO in in eo' •^' in 00 1>' d in CO •^' d in in co' 
Oit-inc^cDiN-^incDoiNt-int-eooiiNOiNCDt- 
cg,H ,_(,-tcg,_i ,-iininiN eoi-t i-i i-t 



T3 O 
O 2 

.5 c 



© 



uoponj^suj JO 
s^so3 jaq^o 



JO siBua:»Bj^ 



sjiooq:>xax 



sjaqoBajL 
JO sauBiBg 



oooommTfOi-HOinoo-^-^t-Oi-H 
oino5c<i'-;t-ocDocD05ooinoocD 

r*^ ^ lr^ lO k/^ nr\ ^— ^ 



1-1 -tt in ^ 
CD CD CD CO 
t> CD_^0_0^ 

oTin eo'i-T 



05 »-i CD O .-H CO 00 00 (N o o o 

o CO in in (n o o in (N in 

d in in eg (N t-' d d in d d w -^' 

i-H rH ,-1 CO rH CO ^ i-i CO 00 in 

O OOCO W r-<T-<T-i rH 



t-050>ineoc<icDin^ocgt- 

CD O in O t> O 00 CD 05 -rt 

d oo' d d 00* i-H oo' d (N -H eg (N 
»-iino>t-coint>in,-ic<i^in 
CO in eg CD in t> ■> >-i o CD 



IN 



IN 1-1 .-H 



Wt^lNCDOOSCDfOJ 

co—iooosTtco-^oc^ 

O t- .-1 ,1 'S" (N 



t- CD t- CO 
O T-H 05 o> 

05 -n< o CO 



incomeooicgoiinoo 
cccDTj<cgcDcocDt--eo 
riint-TfosinrHT-ieo 



(N in CD o 
in eo__oo__co 
in d'^jT 

(N IN 



05(N'i<<N'-i'-ieOOC75incDOXOOt>(NlNOinoOOOlN 

i-icDincgcgooo5i-iooini-icDco05coo5000incoiN 
eo-^t-t-oo5CDiNeoooooOi-it>Tr^c-oot>i> 



o 00 eooo 
t- in o o 
co^^os in 05 
dt-'co'c-" 
in 05 IN CO 

r-l 00 IN 



oc-05 0inoinoooiNt~ininiNO 
o CD CO CO 00 o o o rH in cd o m o o 
d in eg d co' m' d d d oo' co' d d d eo' d 
'cDoot>inoot-incDo;ocDt>c-c-oo 
cg-*aiOinoot~cDi-iT}<Tj<t~eooeg 



uoisiAjadng 
JO sasuadxg 
puB sauBjBs 



o> in 

CO 

d eo 
eg CO 
.-I eg 



in ^ o 

T)< O CD 00 

oo' d C-' i-i 

00 'S' 05 

-rrin rH 



aouBpua:i:iV 

aSBjaAY 



cDcoc-cDoooicDOf-icDrHcooinrHcocg'^ot-oseg 
eoinco-^ooi'-HCD03coc~rj<int-xoo5coooeg050 
eg eo^^^t- cd eg eo '-',o^i> cd cd eg^^eg cd oo eg t- e^ o -h 



S 5 S CO 

co_cD__cg_-^ 
rH eg'oo'co" 



3ui3uoiaa 
jaquin^si 
aSBjaAV 



c-oowoegt-ooocgooin-^cDrHcoojinosTfeoeg-^ 
int>oeorHinint~-r}<-^o^cDc-i-i05CDt>t-cDincoeo 
egooiot-eoeo-^cooot-int-incDcDO-^ooeg cg^c^ 

Cg-rH-rH* rH*"rH* rn'tNT rH*'rH*' rH-rH*" 



t> eg CD CD 



CO CD t- O 

o CD rH eg 
t- in .-t 



eo eg o rH oo 

0> 05 05 t- 

in -r)- in 00 



g*^ a 

« 



J 2 • ; tri' T) tJ : o '"^ ■< Si ; c-" b o 5 c 
mUUUUOQfeKWWSpHCyc«c«EH^^^ P3 



Si. « 

0) o c 
C 01 c 



00 g'S "g 

■So ^ 



Disbursements, Colored Elementary and High Schools 



317 



oc^jcooofMOvnio 

: C^l CO ?C O Oi O iM 
^ O to 00 Oi C£3 lO to ^' 

eo 05 t£>co f o 



: o in 00 

: O 00 I - N 
i S o ^ S 



sasuadxa 



■'Ooocico'XicocC'^-^oin-^ccaim-^ 




O 00 



saiouaSy 



^CDOlOCOOOOCJiO 
lO -r); (N O (N ^ O CO .-H 

;d in CO (Tj to 00 o 
t~eoooi:ot-kn-r»<TK,-H 

05 C^'^^Ol^OJ CO o <x> 



OOCOOOOJ 
CO C<l 00 05 03 
CO CO CO CO CO 



t- o 
CO «o 
t-'o 



Suipniouj 
aouBua:^uiBj^ 



a5?Din,-icoinooot>in.-<'3'0(?5in^i-(oococo 
;d CO eo «d co eo in oo «d «d co i-. so eo c-^ tj< c^i ct> in 
CO r-I CO 00 in o* CO -"S" oi in t-h co' ctj co* co o 
tj" o 00 in t~ CO CD Oi CO 05 1-1 05 CO in rH CO 00 CO 
rHco i-(.-(.-(CO oo^^t- .-it-< in^ 



uopBjado 



TfOt-cocDoooot-i-i-^r-it^coinooeoot^inco 
cooo«cot-Ht-^coco^t-co^inin-rtoo-fcc^ 
inco in eo CO CO CO in CO -1 in -rf ^ cococot-co 



uoponj'jsui JO 



coinTj<ino5Coinco-^inot:~incococococot-_co 

o co' 00 CO oo" in CO i-H ^ t-' oo oo' -r oi co' co 

inOCT>inot-Tt'050^coo£^cooinooo--co 

CO -^^m 00 1~ CO 05 CO in co^t> '~~.co oi 

in 05" r-T in CO co* ■^'' co" eo" co" co" co i-T ■^" •^" co" 00" co" 



uoponjcjsuj JO 
KJS03 Ja^:^o 



ocDOt~-OT-HOeoint 
CD 00 CO CD in o o 00 o c 
05' C-' 06 cd' o o in -nl - 
coo ^ 05 in 00 CO 



00 00 eo 
2 



CO O O C- 03 
CO O CO -5l< 

t-' o in ^' o 

eo CO CO CO 



^ CO 



uoi:^3nj:>suj 
JO siBua:»Bj^ 



05 T-H 



0- ^oo<75c75ineO'*05ino5co005CDooco 
eoo5ooeot-int>coeoococoeo-*-<3'CDin 

1- l-'J'CO 1-1 —I CD CO CO 



S5iooq:;xaj, 



05 


■»i<ino5ino-"#oino-^ 

05 00 CO CO t~ CO 


:oo5coint-oinTj<^ 
: CD 05 in CO in CO co 





05 
CO 


CO 
in 


int'eooococo'ococDTf 
t^oin-rfi-icoocococD 
i-iinf-Hco—icqx^coco 


■ co' -<*•' eo' 06 ^' t> 
iinincocointcoooco 

:^C-CO^COCO TfCO 


05' 

m 


co' 


CT5__ 




in" 

<«■ 






co" 


00" 



sjaqoBax 
JO sauBiBg 



eo-<tococDOincot>^oincoooT}<^cooo 

COC^OC005005COC0050incOOOt:-C-C^1-r«0 

CO* in o CD CO eo' m' cd' 00' 00 1— ' m' 00 o 00' co o 00 in 00 
ooco-^Oiooc-ininooo-. ocooO'^-^coinTj'coo 

O!^ CD__ -^^^ C0_ 0_ t> 0_ 0_ CO^ 0_ CO r-| oo__ 

•^" 00" i-T in" co" co" •*" Tt" eo" eo" co" co" o" co" ^" -^" ■«a'" co" t-" co" 



jaqoBax 
jad Xjb[bs 
aS^jaAV 



i-iooot>in-rr^cDcocD'*o>t-ooiincoooco 
^incoino5COr-<c~ooincDinooooo^cocDO 

e003C~C-CD0500CDOOt-t-OOXCOt-CDt-OCDt- 



ia< CO 
00 

05 CO 



jaqDBajL 
aad 3ui3uo[aa 
jaqtun^ aSBjaAy 



t-oinr-i«oocDoot-inino5COcoooinoooO' 



SuiSuojaa 
jaqxunj^ 
a3BaaAV 



OicoosojoscDPOcoTf^eoeocoeocoeoosineooo 
t>-<s<oocoincoooooooocDinoo5050-^Oin 

CO —1 CO.-1 .-(.-iCO'-i —1^ CO ^ 



sjaqoBax 
JO jaquin^vi 



CO CO 05 CO t- eo CO in CD CO ■ 



I CO CO CO t- in CO < 



i 



c 

s c 

« 







0] 




'I 


— 




0) 









-f, o) o 



85 



u o u Q K tij S Oh cy w c« H ^ ^ ^ 







_o 




'c 

a> 




O) 


■o 


>. 


an 





tal 



<1> 

O H e« 



318 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



05 s^uBj^ug 



sXog 



(M O C 



00 • 
C<1 ^ 



o t- 
oeo 
to 



00 t- '-H W P3 O 

T-H eo,-i 



oocoioiO'-'criaJOi 

1— (00ioin"<3'Tr'3'«o 
cDoiooo-^t'-ieoeo 

CO ^ tH IM r-l 



lOC^OSOOOOOS^D-^N 
CJ M 1-1 



o in CO o y-i y-i a, ^ 

(N IN --I 



t>Tt<^0(N05C^OOO 
O 10 -<t CO «-i 



(N05 

<?j CO 



3uipua:HV 



icio«D»-Ht-a3iot-t-ooc<i 

CrHOOt-N'-l'-l'-l^'-l'-l 



ClOOCOCJt-OOOCSOOt- 



t- CO in eg t- 00 



icoo^cg'*>ft<Ncg'-i»-^o 
eoomMcooooot-eoco 

1- ^ CO (N —1 



O CD «• C<I 

tr- ift OS o Tj" 
00CD.-1 ^ 



c^ji-iinoocgincDOCDOs 



eg«^«D<— oooocegooooo 
f~ooco — iNOajt-tDcceo 

O 10 CO <N '-H 



eg 
eot> 
o 



T)< CO ift o~. CO ' 
CO oc 01 ■ 
00 CC — 



ooosiccorj-uiot-ioegcc 
cgcDocoit-cococo-^T-i^ 
eg T-> 



eg ^ 
cico 
o> eg 



eoiflocoicicoco- 



coeg-^oooooo-*eoT}<eg 
cocDeg'»*c^coeoooocgeg 
cgoocDicrj<eg^i-i 



o 00 
^1 eg 
00 eg 



eot^-'tcDTfcocgccoocgo 
cDOor— Cicgcgcit^cgcg 
f-i 00 ift in CO eg --I 



oo'-i-'^incgooooo 
ec t- in CO CO eg t-i 



»-i in eg CO o • 

(Ji cc ' ^y-^ 



in CO 
00 eg 



t>cgc-ooino.-it-in'<i<Tt 
05 1- in T)- in eg »-i 



DiuiapBoy 



cgoocgcooocgcjinoo 
cg'e^i^'^t-t'f^'^cg'H^ 

eg »-l r-l 



CO O 00 t~ CO t- 

■-I t- eg eg <-i 



iTfcoi—r-^eoegoct-ooo 
'ooeg—iosineocg'-i 



ooegocoinooooo 
ooinincct-_ 00000 
d o t-' in t-' o o' o o' o 

ooo-^c^ooinminmin 
o_o_in_^cn^Tj<_oo__co CO CO CO CD 
in in'co'^'in 



piV IBJapaj 
puB d^i^^s 



mooooooocgoo 
00000 00 e^ccoo 
d o' in in ic — o 
aiocimcgt^o^co^inin 
o 01 o ^ ^ o t>^in CO CO 
00' in eg" so' -"a"' eo* 



c~ in 
'-"'eg' 



o o in T}< o o 
o o t- m in 

O O CD CD 



05 o 

— o 

in Ci 



|idn<j aad '^so^ 
a'suadxa cjuajjn^ 



dnojr) 



0.^ 



w 
Q 
Z 



ft 



i-H i-H ,-( i-H rH eg eg 



^1 



5| 

ml 



a o 



'o 

Ph 

^ o.„ . 



.&Ht-in 
> eg eg eg 



Costs, Teachers, Pupils, Courses in Individual High Schools 319 

I 



ec in 00 CO lo 



1 00 o 

^ eg I 



• in lo 1— o ■ 



t- o — c- in 



?com->!3<i;ct-c-oo' 



M <X) 80 « ■ 



(N — <N O O 



!J! c- 00 « m 
9) 



OC «3 I ■>g< lO 



in CO CO • 



^ (35 

(N 
(N 



in 5£) ^ ec 



00 00 «D in 



-<j< CO 00 

eg 



o«oc-oin;o(Ncooot- 

inoomcocjs — 000 05 05 
t^oomcc(NC<i<N0050 



050;£>oic-05i-iin 



00 CC 00 03 (M 



in in 

05 

o 



«> 05 (M 



05 l> ^ -!r ■ 



(N05ino:5oco — eg 

5D05-H — C0T«inO5 

ooc-t>oo>;o;oeo 
eg '-^ — I 



^'od 

o in 



CO in t- eg 



m eg c~ o> !0 
CO eg eg 



05 — o t- CO eo t- t- «o ■ 

Oi-H 00 CO CO CO eg eg eg eg - 



o eg o o 
CO eg^ -H eg 



a? — 00 - 

eg eg 



-H O 

d eg 



^ o 

00 eg 



o 00 CO ^ 
t- ?o in CO 



«0 05 

tc in 
eg 



omt-ocoTS-cgcocg" 
o in -"i" Tf" CO Oi eg 



ooooooooooo 
ooin^-«s«eoeoeoeg 



CO 



Tf OS eg OS 
Ti< CO CO eg eg 



t> o 

<£>0 

OS in 



in t~ OS CO o 
eg CO Tf t> t> 
-<__cg__co__os__eo__ 
-^'rrrr cg'cg" 



in o oooooooooo 

eg m o o m o o o o o o o 

in t-' m" os' [>' t-' 00 o" o o o 
in CO — « eg eg 00 o; in ic c~ in 
o_o_ oo^c~ ;o m m Tj- Tf eg m 

00 CO CO CO co'co'co'co'co'co'cg* 



oooooooo 
o o c o o o o o 
^' co' d o oc o" CO d 
T-egmoc^orto 
t-. o_ CO in 
co' co' fo" co' eg" eg 



00 o 



o o — > m o 
o o 00 o 
o" ~ oj ic d 
o 00 t- 00 00 
OS^fO o_co__oo__— ••£> 
co'-H CO eo'cg co*^* 



So., 



:= c 2 o 

c <y o m 



i. 



5 ?< 



■63 
§5 



3 



c t: o 

=11 

C i 



bo M 

00 kO 

S c 



it 01 
3 3 



320 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

siJiO ^ 



o 5 
US 



£ 2 



050 I lO 
N(N 1 00 



lo o; ; I <N C5 ;o ic c- ' 



ic N o i« eo 





Aca- 
demic 






oot- t- o t- c- t> cc 
NiM 03 Iff c- ec eclff 

N IN 


to 00 o t- : T)< 
Iff ^ 


CO 


CO ^ 00 00 eo 00 1> to o 

00 _ 0»fftOrHTj<Tl< CO 


to 

CO 






i ^ « N 03 

1 




00 ^ <£> O C5 o t- 

^.-1 to Iff ec CO cc ^ r-1 


t- ^ t> — c — 

CO 


IN 


O O O t- 00 N (N t- 
t- t- t~ CO CO 


o 
t- 






s83ano3 










Iff 










1 ^ 

! 










1-1 CO 




IN ^ 






tO(N 1 

1 ^ 




sXog 








Iff 






















(N 
















jBaj^-jno^ 


siJiO 


IT O «0 t- OC 




00 (N t- (N 1-1 (N ^ 


050 tOC^TtC-^lff 

Iff -H cci ^ « 


1 t- O to t- <N O t- Oi Iff 
O Iff ,-1 ^ ^ 


to Iff 
CO 






eg ^ lO Iff 




COtJ< c -<t «c ^ c- t- 

;0 "-I «C C<1 rH i-l 


OltO TfOOTfOtOlff 


t- IN so O CO O -"T CO t- 
00 CO —( IN -H 


o 





s- OS 
^2 tec 



« I- 



-2 © 
ecu 

•s ^ 



W r~ 

03 ^ 

© 

I! « 

O 
o 

•S 

c 
© 



CO IN — -< ' 



.-I Iff CO . 



Iff -<r CO ^ »jo 



t- 05 Iff O 00 Iff 



OO'^tOt^O'^tO ifftO 
^ ^ eg ^ , 

CO 



CO CO CO CO 00 t- 



I ^ t- to 03 05 I o o 
1 eo 'I I ^ 



sXog 



05 t> O t- O 00 
- CO CO CO ^ r-l CO . 

CO 



00 to 00 00 00 CO 



SuiSuoiag 



3uipua:>;V 



^ 00 to CO o 



c- to o; Iff ^ «c 



IBioadg 



DituapBoy 



O Iff CO Iff ■ 

^ to -^r CO CO . 

CO 



TJ- t- CO CO CO t- 

Iff to ^ O t- Iff 
CO 00 krt O 05 00 

05 CO rl —I ^ 



00 Iff CO ^ CO to CO 
^ CO o Iff Iff — CO 

t- CO Tf OV OS 00 

00 CO ^ ^ 



CO CO 
CO ^ 



C- to 00 to ^ Ti t 

CO ■'1' CO ^ 



T-Ot-OO 
I to CO CO CO CO 



piy iBjapa^ 
puB a^'e^'^ 



jidnj jad ^soq 
asuadxa :;u8aan3 



O 00 C O O: C 
O Iff O Iff O 

c_co__^_^t> to_^i« 
"^"•"f co'co'co*— * 



' O 00 00 o o 



1 O CO -T CO CO 



tOCOCOOiC-COOOO 
iOt-00 00-^COC0O5 

Tftot-cooot-t-iff 

TfCO'i^ 



CO o; 05 Iff 05 Iff I o> 

CO CO M W Iff tt to 
O CO O 05 

^ -H 00 



COCOtOOtOtOOOOi 



tot- 

CO 



CO —c CO C- 



05 © C~ TT 00 Iff Iff ' 

CO »-i ^ ^ 



coo 
CO CO 



( 00 Oi Oi IC o 

1 CO CO CO CO CO 



OV 

Iff CO 
CO c 



CO C C o; 00 Iff 

^ c o — to CO 
t- « c; 00 Oi to 



§?5 

CO Iff 



CO o o to o 

Iff 02 O Iff 05 O 

1—* co' o 

'i' Ci OC CO CO o 

^ o to Iff Iff 
to'"co*"co''co'"eo '-<" 



Iff to 
00 CO 



OitOOOOiffOiffO 

^t-to-'S'cocococo 



05 CO-- 

—.toco 

CO 



CO to o 

CO Iff CO 
CO 



CO CO to 
coco 



OtOiffCOtOiff-tiff 

ot> — tocco-^-^ 

0_ 0:__tO_^C>^ CO__CO__ 
iff'co'co'Tf-^'cO CO CO 



I CO o 
'doo 



dnoj-T) 



^1 



o 
2 

o 

rt ■ Qj^ii V o Cxi 



!^ £-0 



S3 E 



"3 e<X! 



"£ Z ^ s ^ 



2 o 
Co 



Costs, Teachers, Pupils, Courses in Individual High Schools 321 



t- eo cc 00 



ccm 00 tc t- cD oo t- co cc th • 

O 00 (N Ca N 1-1 (NOS (N CO -rf CO t> M 



OS ;C 00 O 00 
-H N C<I W5 



eoTft-eo 




t- »-i in CD M 
eo N 1-1 


Tj<in co-^oooooN 

Tt Tt CO 1-1 


j in O CD CD O 05 1* 


in in in 


00 05 in 1-1 


^eotooo 




00 N 1-1 o eo 


CD CD eo in in ^ CD eo 1-1 
CD in 'S- ^ 


"00 CO 05 ^ 1-t t- 

o 00 (N eo eo ^ 


ooooinco 


CD 05 CO in 

CO 
CO 


t- ic t- CO 




c<i in CD 
£> 


t>in t-t-caNoot 


1 Tj-X'Tr-in 


t- in in Tt in 


00O5CDeo 


^05 .-HD 
>-i 




O OSOTf^ 
CD CO 1-1 1-1 


t-C: -^00005 

CD 1-1 in cJ 1-1 


cDin 1 l^ (N cor-cotNCD 
1 in ^ t> -o* (M CO eo 


00 in t- 05 eo 


t- CD in o 

CO rH ^ 

CO 


(N^lOOO 

(N — ll-H 


1 in CO 


t- 1- o iM eo 

Tt in CO N rH 


CD 1-1 


in c^i o 1-1 o « 05 

CO rH 05 t CO 1-1 


t- 00 00 CO CO 


in 00 m CO 

CO 


00 1- 00 o; CO 

(N --I 


in Tj-OrHlO 
CD CO 1-1 1-t 


oeo <35 00 « in in 

COi-c t- CD -t 1-t (N 1-1 1-1 


eo r)< t- t- m eo t>(N N ^ t- CD in 

CDN O! in CO (N CJ CO M N 
<N 


coino-H 
eOiH^^ 
ec 


CO t- TT t- t- 
(N .-ii-i 


in o 00 
t- 1-t 


t- oj c~ ^ th m m CO o 

CDi-l CD t- 'S' 1-1 W 1-1 rH 


(N(M OrHOOOtNO: mOCOSt- 
■^(N O CD CO IN (N ^ 1-1 1-1 
(N 1-1 


1-1 00 1-1 

CO rH ,-1 

CO 


cO'T o-*^ 

eO(N(N»H^ 


(M CO CO NCD 

O in rH 1-1 


■*c<i I* eo eo 1-1 o 00 eo 
ooc<i o t- eo eo 1-1 1-1 


^J02 0>CCDO00t-'1'-*05t-CD 

^ -"t 00 00 eo cvi eo N 
eo 


O O ^ CD 
O CO CO hh 


t- T~ ,-1 CD W 
CO CO N rl 


O O CO 
(N ^ (N rH 


05 05 CD o in t- i-< rH 

C-N CO 00 CO CO N (N 1-1 


CD05 0(C5inTMnooc>)C<jeoct:~ 
■<3 eo rH t- CO eo rH .rr w (M 1-t 1-1 
CO ^ 


CO rH ^ ^ 

00 CO 1-t 1-t 

CO 


191.0 
143.5 
1 08 /> 
68.5 
32.5 


543.7 

307.2 
97.1 
68.9 
31.3 


504.5 
102.8 

570.0 
422.2 
275.4 
194.6 
117.8 
78.3 
68.7 


o rH 00 o; eo 00 H- m (N t- CD 
t- CO 05 1~ 00 o eo 1-t c<i o> 

C^HO CO eo 00 CD th T-i ;d 1* CO 

t- ^ CD CO <N 1-1 1-1 tH ^ rH 


2,116.4 
101.1 

78.4 
76.2 


00 CO o t- 00 

t- CO (>J o 

t> CO o CD CO 


513.6 

274 1 
83.9 
66.2 
27.7 


O500 N 00 1- CO o; 05 eo 

i-t CD t- CD CO — 05 1-1 

ino5 coo: inxoocD 
■V m CO w i-"H 


1,615.1 
153.2 

608.2 
350.2 
227.3 
172.0 
154.1 
135.3 
110.7 
104.3 
55.3 
45.6 
31.8 


1,994.8 
89.2 
70.1 
70 5 


(N 00 o in ^ 
(N — eoi-H 


CD in o o : 
00 eo 1-1 1-1 : 


in t- t- 00 00 CD c<i 

in CD-^CDCO(MW^ 


in o 00 N in CO c- CD CO ;co 

t- 00 CO CJ ^ ^ 1-1 rH 

CO : ; 


00 05 CO 
CO 


m in c<i CD o 
in CO CO N "-I 


00 inooo 
in a:. It CO o3 


inm ooo-^ooocD 
«eo oo(Mooin-«teoc<i 


ooo o CO 00 m CO CO o; o o o 
co^ t- 05 CD CO in CO CO CO eo CO CO 

in rH 


O 05 o o 
CO eo t eo 

CD 


$4,184.93 
3,616.69 
4,482.75 
3,399,39 
650.00 


$16,333.7(1 

4,500.00 
3,000.00 

9 Kf^C\ (\C\ 

1,500.00 


$11,550.00 
1,608.50 

7,350.00 
5,000.00 
5,733.24 
5,104.13 
3,450.00 
3,745.82 
3,592.00 


050 OOOOOOOOCOOC 

1-1 o o o o o o o o o eo o o 
in in -^t-^^ri^^ii^ciiiiiiid^ 
I— _ comino — cccm'-'oo: 

C5 CD ^.^.<^.'^.^.''v'''v''v''v 

co'i-T co'un 'q''-co'"co'"—"co'-co"co'~'H"~^■■ 
«(9■ 


$36,221.32 
2,130.30 
1,754.30 
1,304.40 


$ 69.44 
61.39 

OK Q 1 

95.51 
123.27 
53.86 


$ 78.60 

76 74 
102.44 
102.78 
107.29 


$ 87.14 
47.28 

93.41 
82.92 
109.76 
91 .41 
119.79 
1 53 . 65 
132.55 


,-l o t~ hH rH T)< t- CO 0> CD rH 

05 05 Tj< ^ 00 eo CD in eo 1-t o: 
o;cD t~-eoinoi-tOcDCDwooo 

C5 rr CD CD l~ C5 00 t- 00 t~ 1-1 00 eo 


$ 76.04 
49.12 
59.80 
48. 73 



< 



s-^ " « ^ 

W W 3 U 7i 





c 






c 




c « 


"5 


D c 


Si: 






O IS 






lie 




6 



> 

^^^^ 



"Z^ C,, 
i CU o 







£ E ^ 




i ? cc 


o 


:z X ix 













i-t « 



o 

"So"? 

o »- o 



c o- 



« cU c3 cs m 

ca bo be bo*^ 

^ w M 2 bfi 

■ti o o 2 ^ 

5 ^ = S c 

rt c3 cs ca c 

»3 in 5 ^ 
>'>^>>^>? 
C C o ® o 

CO o: ^ CO 1-1 

^ n (A ^ 03 

6 £ S aj (u 

"013 -a "CO 

3 3 3 3 3 
c c c c c 



2 

3 ^ oJ 

£ ' 3 



bc tj c£ >: Qo 

CO CO rH 

tn to 03 00 S 
3 3 3 3.2 



322 



1935 Report 



Education 



Enrollment by Course 


Voca- 
tional 


STJI 


























































sXog 1 




t- 

C<l 




1 t- 

1 (N 


















'■■ i 


























Com- 
mercial 






















CD Oi CD 
OS t- (N 


IS 




O CO 
t- CO 








1 s? 

1 
































CD t- 00 
tH CO CO 








O CO 
CO rH 










CO 






' Gen- 
eral 




(N 










t> lO o 

IN 50 in 1-1 


in 

«D 


in »-i T-H 




t- 00 CO 00 

CD in in (N i-i 








in 

a> 






1 ^ 

sAca 1 (M 








CD O ^ CO 

eg in m 1-1 


5 


CO 

(M 






t- CO CD -rj< C5 in •<j< 
coin Tj< txM 1-1 






CO 
CO 






Aca- 
demic 




»rt 00 Tj- tH 


(M 
GO 
(N 


in 00 

CC CD 


ceo COOiCDCD 
CO t- CO t- ,-ICO 


CO 
CD 




CTi i-i a> in 
CD in CO CO CO 


CD ^ CD 

^CDt-I 

CO 


sxoa 


^ « c<i oa cc j t-^ 


CO CO 


00 CO O t> Ol CO 
t~ T)< CO CO N 


CJ 
05 




in CO CO t- coo 

CO CO CO CO CO 


cr> CO in 

t> CO 1-1 


o:; s:)UBj:)ua 


! 










CO 


(M 




(M 




CO 






CO 




^ CO ^ 














i sAoQ j ; 

























































saiBnpBjr) 



C; CO O 00 rr 



sXog 



fc 00 ct. in -rr 



CD o in [- t~ t> 



CTl CO CT> 00 in 



1 1- c- CO CO 



SiCog 



iCOCDt-i OC5CD 



sAog 



t- CO O CO ^ 



sXog 



«inooini-icj 



sXog 



00 CO t- in c- 



SuiSuoiag 



CO 
o o 
in —1 



CO in 

CO CTi 



00 t~ t- OS 
5D in 00 

CO CO 



CD CD CO in o CD 

Ol 1-1 Oil CO 00 
O in C- CD CD 

C0 1-1 



OJ o 
Tj< in 



CD in 

-I CD 

00 — ' 



t- CO t> ^ CO CD 



00 CO 

01 00 
CO 



00 in CO Tf 
m T3<oo 

C^ CO 



Ot-00 
CO 05 
CD 



o <v 



in CO CO CO CO 



00 CO 



00 CD 

in CO 



in o o CO CO 

Tf< CO 1-1 



o> in 
t-'i-I 



00 CD 00 O 
t- t- 00 CO 



coino 
^eoco 



OOCOtCOXO 

t- in CO CO CO CO 



CO coo 
^coco 



piy l^Japs^ 
puB a^B-JS 



^ c o o o 
o 00 in o o 

CD_CO t-^i-^^^ 

TTCO-co'co'co" 



asuaoxg ^juajan^ 



o o 
oo 

CO CO 
oc o 



t- CO 
CO L-' 



O0C7> 

in o 

CD t- 



o o o 
in in o 
CO 05 in in 
■<a< Vco't-T 



t-CDOO 

Tj-O-H 

ICO CO 



in CD o o in o 
05 00 m Oi CD o 
ic m in ,-1 o in 
co' CO* co' co"" i-T 



t~ CO o> 

00 in o 
CO CO t> 



sill 



OH 



^1 



pa « 



dnojf) 



O 

CO 



CO 



: O .03 
in 

Hew 



Costs, Teachers, Pupils, Courses in Individual High Schools 323 



CO (N 



Ti" o N ec 
ecoo»oeo 



I IN « 



(N 



<N 1 SO ^ 


Ol 00 t- N ^ 5D t- t- 
<Nt-CO 00 to IN C<1 










:eo 00 »Hio 
:k0 050t- 

;ootj<c-,-h 


c- 

CO 

t~ 
eo 






t~ c; in cc (N 

^(N X 50 lO Tj« CC « <-! 


OOOirt — INCD'-OO 1 00 
cjTj-CO M«C0(N<N| -3" 

CO 1 








CO 
CO 
CO 
CO 




ox 

lO 


OS 

X 
CO 




<N 


















O lO 


^ --c CO 












ocot-io 

,'-iCO 


X 














■<t cc 


(N 1 


1 s-^ 

1 


^ .-1 N 










CO-H 














O T-i lO t- CO 


TT-H O 00 «C C- 

IN 


ooo5t- iD-^iaoooi 

Or-t N CO —I 


CO C5 

00 








00 135 CO 
■^Oi OOi 
CO 


CO CO 
CO CO 


ro 






00 ^ 


^OOTf (Nt-^->S*CO 


C- — 1 




IC IJO 

la 






CD in 

CO ^ 

CO-H 


O 

UO 




O ^ U5 t- 'S' 

eo 1— 1 >-( th 


t- ^ « i-H CD tD t- N 

IN 


c- r-i c~ oo?D«a50 

0(N IN(N-^ ^ 


05 ^ 








CO in 00 

COCO^OJ 

in in CO w 


CO m 
CO eo 


t- 






Ore t> w tr- ~: ^ CO 








Ol lO 

oco 
CO CO 




in 1 CO ^ 

CD C- 1 X 


o 

IN 




M t- ?o t- 00 

(NlNl-Hrt,-! 


oc- -rroo'-'ooccoiec 


CD00C5 -rrCDOCDt- 
^(N (N^CC 


CO 

00^ 








>n n< 'U* »-i 

'-I O CO 
CO CO CO 


S2 

CD CO 


o 






0«D Ci O N i« t- (N lO 


OOOTf Xt-t-«OCC 
O (N (N .-1 N '-I 


a> 




oco 

TfCO 

«5 00 




Tl« lO 

COOi 
CO 


CD t> 
XO> 

t- ^ 


C- 
Ci 




t- CO t> c- in 


asco N 00 C~ -q* 00 ■<* 
00 o-H-^^rt 

IN 


C~ 00 CO t- IC S! Tl" 
t>CO <N(N— > 


00 o o ;o 

c- _ ^ _ 




o> m CO 
CO CO CO ift 
X t~ CO 


005 

co^ 


00 




C5 ^ 'S* t- 


CON TTt-t-kOOec 

t- t- ^ ^ t- T-l 

IN 




CDOOO (NINO'S'W 
CO (N CO CO (N 


«D 00 ^ 00 C<J ^ 

O r-C CO CO 

^ 00 




in 

C5 CO 


05 CD 
t- CO 



X CO 05 o 



^ CO X 
X —I 
CO 



X o 
coco 

CO 



^ CD CO -!t ^ X r-l CO 

"S-OCOXt-OlNt-' 
OX-'S'^mrrCO-^ 
O CO CO CO ^ 



CO O CO CO CO CO CO 
^ ^ Co' CO T-^" T-I 

-H CO i-H e- 1- CD 00 



X CO 05 CO 

CO CO d in d 

05 C- t- CO 
CO ^ 



in 05 CO ' 

CO CO t- ■ 



t-O5C0X'-^-H-<i<c- 

cocDeocot~inco«o 
cococo^-^co — o 

OlCOCOCO—i^,-!,-! 



O X X C5 O CD 

eo t~ CO X a; 05 o 
X CD ^ in CO 

CD — 1 ^ 



CO X CO 
CO m 

^ IN 



CD c- in in 

CD CO CO d t> 
CO X CD t- in 
co^ 



t-in^ocDXOin 

^C0COCO.-^.-iCO — 



CO CO CO CO CO CO 



CD 05 in CO CO 

CO CO CO y-l 



c~inoint>ocoo 
CO CD in t> rr 50 •<j< 



CD O 
^ CO 



X O 03 o o o o 
05 CO CO CO CO CO 



c~ o o 

C~ CD CO 



X CO TT t- O 

CD m m CO CO 



in o o o 
-<r « CO ^ 



CO O O O CD 
0500005 

05 in o in CO 
t- t- — I CO 
t> co^in in co^ 

Tf CO eo'''^''^ 



coo 
oco 

^' CO 
t- CO 
X CO 



coo m moo 1 ocDco 

ocooicocoo; 05 c X 

o_^t-_o co_co in in | -^.t-.x 

in co"co'co"co",-r.-r I x*co* 



m o in o o 
CO O CO o o 
t~' in c-' in o" I 
o CO CO m 
in_^x_^co co_^in 
TT co'-TCo'co" 



-C" O CO CO 

X CO CO 

CO CD CO 



O O O O O O 

o o o o o o 


oo 
oo 


,000. 
,000. 
,000. 
,000. 
,000. 
,000. 


do* 
oo 
o_^o 


CD CD CD CD CD CD 


cD-co' 
eo 




05 CO 

Tfeo 




ox 

005 







o 
o 



b 





o : 






"a 


Total 


WI 

comico 
tsville 


Imar 


bron.... 


£ 


6 









'O 55 









: a 


X 


u 


c E 




c 



















a, g 

o O o 
a; o 



91 Jd 



324 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



t- o t- o t- 

„ , 05 CO -<t O CO ;C rH 



I CO CO (M 00 Tf <-H 



in Oi ^ ; t> T-^ I <£>^ 

WIN I V>y-i 



t^tO CO- i.,.-f;i-i^O(NiOiN(N 

lO O O <0 t- t- C<HD ?D in 1-1 

in ,-1 ec (N T-i rH 



CO in o 

O O t> Ti' 

eo T-H i-H 



CO 00 : OS (N 
ooo ;inoo 

CO (N 



O^-^t-OO'-icoOOCOO^ 

ocoi-ioocoot-in-"^!-! 

«5 CO (N (N ^ 



coa><ct-'^(Mooinc<iw 
in^c<J«Da5t-i(^inTj<i-i,-( 

iX> CO i-H ^ 



ajiUjnouSv 



W o 
W 



O t- CD CD O 

1-1 CO o CO ^ 
S\l]ry CO ^ 1 



1-1 1-1 in (N 

CD O 1-1 

00 CO (N 



oo-^ o Tt< 00 o ^ CO o CO ( 

coin 00 CO in 1-1 CD o t~ c<i i-i 
in^ (N N 1-1 N 1-1 i-H 



in o h- CD 
00 in 05 in in 
r-i i-( 



oocD ininc^ico-rt<tT>oi-(ine<i< 
N ->*o in CD CD o 00 o CO CO 1-1 1 

I tH CO in 1-1 (N 



HID 



bAoq 



CO CO 

iH CO 



th in ( 



05 O 
O r)< 



o ^ ^ o 1-1 
(M in t~ in in N 

CO (N 



t~Tft-eooo-^rHCDCDoo(M 
of^Ti<coininrfi-ieo^i-i 
in N i-H th 



CO ^ (M 1-1 00 CO 

^ in in in Tj< c<i 

CO (M 



-H-^cocot^ejcoasoeoc 

C50 0-. OCD^tXN'^'-l 

CO CO tH (N rH i-t 



oo(Nin-rt<ooinoinin(NCD 

t-TtiC0C0C0O5CDC0Tfi-(iH 
CO N IN 1-1 



c^t^i-ieoinofoc<i<3^cD^ 
c<iaso(NcocDin-^co^(N 

N C<I T-i 1-1 



0(NcoininiMt~incooo(N 
cDinwinooinin-^coi-ii-i 

Tj< CO ^ 1-1 



-r^t^ininoiNt-c^ocoos 
inTfcDinosaseoinTtirH 

CO M C<I 1-1 



in o o t- 1-1 CO 
CO t> CD CO M 
CO N 



Oi-((N(N-^coeoMinc<icD 
a5co(N-r«<cDi-icoinT}<i-ii-i 

^ CO (N IN 1-1 1-1 



»-^ooin-rt<t-cocT>-Ht>co^ 
^cDinoa5-5t«(NiNeoi-i(N 



OS O <N t- rH 

c<i CD t- CO in c<J 
CO 1-1 



cDTfir^t-coascocooooos 

CDCOINlNCDOt>inT)'i-l 
CO CO N 1-1 tH 



incocDco-^ineo^-^xca 
05i-iiNOineocococoi-ii-H 

CO (N 1-1 1-1 



^ o 
in CO 
o 



i-icDincoincDoc^iiniMCD 
-^oocD-^Tj<oocDinT)<i-itH 
in CO IN (N ^ 



mo 



coi-KNOmcncocviocDrH 
(N<NCDCDinininif^i-i(N 

CO CO <N 1-1 



(Nc^]Ocot^-^t-in'*ooiN 
(Nincot^oiininTfcoi-ii-i 
CD CO (N rH ,a 



CD in Tt< CO c~ ^ 
a> M 05 in in (N 

TJ< CO 



ooiNcocococococoocooi 

^CDlN^^INOm-^i-l 
CD CO CO IN ^ 



t> O CD IN 00 « 

(j5 1-1 CD in Tt c<i 
CO CO 



CD CO 
05 O 
00 1-1 



in-^ooocoooc<iincocD 
inc<i(Nt-a5C<icDinTi<i-ii-i 

CD Tt< CO (N ^ 1-1 



co-^cM-^inococJOcD^ 

IN(NCDCDincDin-^Tt"^(N 
CO CO (N 1-1 1-1 



osco-^cocoincocoocoai 
^cDWi-iM<(Nt-inT}<i-( 

CO CO CO (N 1-1 



o S 
c 



(N<NO-05t>-^00incD00(N 

c^icDcot>o5ininrf<coi-(i-i 

CD CO (N 1-1 



C- O CD IN 00 CO 

05 ^ o m IN 
CO CO 



ininoo-<ti-iO(Min(Nco 
in(Ncot-05iNcoinTt<i-ii-i 

CD CO (N 1-1 1-1 



8o 



O 

H 

:^>.> 

cS to 

tcczz 
a; c cs 

~ 0) Oi 



: S3 c 



.£2 
So 



o 



Q 



Pi 
o 

<: > 



c 

, o 



'o'o 

03 CO 

c c 

. o o 



Subject Enrollment in Individual High Schools 325 









% 1 


|;? MM; 






5 i |3 










S^g;; i i ; ; i 

1 i ; i i i 




i 55 ^ 




: c 

; c 


10 
M 


00 
<M 






1 M " ^ 


> S CO i ; : : ; 
: N ; ; : : ; 






i j S 


: c 


O 


00 






1 M - - 


. \\\\\ 

,; ! M M 


i M ' 


^ Mi 


i I ^ 

1 i ^ 


: I 


C5 












g^?^2 2 




S2 S i 


; 


















'2 ^ i 

: 










; : : I 
; ;' ' 


o 






; ; : I 


(N" 










: 


M M N 


i i i i ! i 
: M ; i i 


i N M j 




oc 

(MC 


; «« 








'S' O (M 01 

; OS lo in CY 


3 00 <M 

5 N «r> 






^ Stg i 


: ; t- ; 
; i ® : 














MM : 


i M M i 


Mi i 




• • : ; 










5C0 O 










2 : 


t> 00 


in 


i 






22S2 Sj:322^ 






: : § i 






oooot^e^ 






CP. 00«Ot- gt- t-CMOlOOt- 


1 




; : eo ; 












?D ; : : ; eo 


1^ M S 


(M ; : ; ; 


<x> 

: : ; <M 


t-OC! 


H (N : 












; m 




; : ; irt 


; 


5 ; (75 : 


I- 










52 |S 


































;^2 1^ SSiSS 














o 00 CO 












3 g" 










|5 ^^^^^ 








































CALVERT 
Calvert County 


i'l 


CAROLINE 

Caroline 

(•reenshoro 

Federalsburg 

Preston 


! 1 

il 


CARROLL 

Westminster 

Hykesville 

Mt. Airy 

Manchester 

New Windsor 

Tanevtown 


mi 1 

Hi 1 


CECIL 

Elkton 

North p:ast 

Rising Sun 

Perry ville ... 

Chesapeake City 




CHARLES 

Lackey 

La Plata 

(Ilasva 

Hughesville.__ 


I 1 i 
1 i ! 



326 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Is 

it 

p be 
© 53 



Music 












-r)<i-i in 00 as CD CO t- c 
Tfc^ in in in rf CO CO Tj< 

CO CO 1-H 


1 00 

CD 


rf CO CD O rH 

; 00 rf in t> in 




rf 

o 


sXog 


00 a> 








oot- 00 w 00 CO as 00 c- 
oi 1-1 o t- CO rf c<i 

T-i CO 1-1 


o 

CO 

in 


CO CD CO as CO 
: CD 03 CD eo CO 




CO 
CO 
03 


Physical 
Education 




CO 
CD 












CO CO in CO 
CD in 00 1-1 












t~ 
as 

CO 


o 

i ^ 










o 

CD 


sXog 


IC 

o 












in t- CO 

O CO CD 00 
CO CO 












t- 

03 


CD 

; rf 










iO 


Commercial 
Subjects 


SIJIO 


(N CO 






CO 


CD 
CD 


cocrs 
OS in 












1-1 rH in 
in rH rf 






OS 


03 
00 


svCog 


05 vn 
^co 








in 
in 


t- rf 












CD CD 

in CO 




CO 


CD 


in 


Bjn:nnoij3v 

[BUOl^BOO^ 


Si?oa 




03 

CO 


Tt CO 
CO 1-1 




o 
t- 


rf 


CD CD t> 00 O 
rf CO CO CO CO 


00 
00 


in rf : 
inio 


t- t- 
roec 




eo 

00 


Home 
Economics 


IBUoi:) 

-BOO^ 


SPIO 








CO 

CO 






eo 

CO 






















CD rf iH O CD 
CO CD CO rf CO 




OS 


IBJSuef) 




o CO 

CD CO 










CO CD rf ^ CD 

CO 1-1 i-t CO in 

CO 1-1 CO i-( 


c 
cc 


i-H CO o 
CO 03 rf 


IT. 

ir. 


in 

t- CD 










in 

CD 


Industrial 
Arts 


IBuop 
-BooX 


sxoa 




















as 00 












CO 


















|BJeua£) 




CO t> 
CD 










o 00 1-1 in 
t-ai ooo 












CD —1 

00 rf 

CO 
















French 


SWO 


C<1 o 
03 N 


O 00 




O rf in rf t- CD 
t-CO t-C0C003 


rf CO ^ 

•H CO 1-1 


ast- asoooorfcoo 

i-ICO COiHCOrHCOi-l 

CO 


CO 

03 


sXog 


CO Irt 


03 






th as rf as rf OS CO in 00 ' 
CO 1-1 m 1-1 th 


coa> rH,-(ococoo3 

rH pj ^ ^ 


o 

00 


Latin 


SHIO 


U3 CO 
CO 03 rf 


CO 
CO 






03 


t- as CO rf rH in CO 

rf CO CO 03 CO 1-1 rf 


CO 
CO 


CO rH ; 

CO CO 








U3 


sXog 


t- t- 


CO 






CO as as t- 1~ CD t> 

O CO 1-1 CO 


00 

o 

CO 


rf rH : 
CO 








in 

CO 


Science 




(N t~ 05 Oi 1-1 W 
CO CD(N W CJ 


O 1-1 

ooo 

CO i-H 


i> as in in iH CO t- 
t- rH in CD CO in 03 

CO IH 


CDO WrfinOmrH 
com COCDrfC-COCO 
CD iH 


03 

in 
eo 


sAog 


0(Mt-c-.-iai 

t- (N tH i-h rH 


cDCD t- 1-1 00 o t- as 

rfoo O as CD rf in CJ CO 
CO CO 


CDCO a^rf.*CD03CD 

rH CO CO rf in CO rH 
CD rH 


00 
CO 


Social 
Studies 




in CD C- CO »-H 
T-H t- 1-1 <N C<1 (N 


cDco as CO w in t- C0 1-( 

t~CO CO 00 t> C- CO rf 03 
eo tH rf 1-1 

* 


int- asinasoocorH 
CDC- coincocoinco 

00 CO 


in 

CO 
rf 


sXog 


(N OC t- CD 00 05 
»-i CD (M T-i --I 
(N 


ooo in CO CO »-i in CO 

inos 1-1 CD O CD Tf CO N 
03* rf i-( tH 


OrH CDCDrfaSCOas 
rfrf aseOCDiH-^TH 
00 1-1 


CD 
03 


Mathe- 
matics 




in 00 in o r-i a; 

O in Tt< (N (N T-H 


ooco as as t- o o 1-1 c~ 

CDCO in OS -"S* t- CO rf 

CO iH CO 


coco cDco-^asooo 
ascD cDinrfcocoiH 

CD i-( 


as 

CO 
CO 


sXog 


as 00 CD 00 

(N (N N 1-1 1-1 


OiOS C- CD CO 00 03 in 

coas in 00 00 in in CO CO 

CO CO 


in in rfcDoioaseo 

0003 rf03-^i-li-lT-l 
CD rH 


co 


English 


SHIO 


CD in in t- 1-1 i-H 

CO O "5t (N CO (N 
<N 1-1 

ti 


inco CO CD CO as in 00 CD 
CDCO as 00 X 00 CO in in 


a>c- incoooocoi-i 
est- o3 00 in t- in 03 
as CO 


as 

CO 

in 


sXog 


00 00 05 CO 05 
COCD(N(N(NiH 


o as CO rf in r-< t~ CO 
oas 00 o CD rf CO 

rf rf ,-1 ,-1 


as rH as rf CO as CO ai 

t>rf OmCDCOrfrH 
<Ji CO 


CD 
CO 

rS< 


Total 
Enrollment 


siJiO 


1-1 00 in c- (N <N 

-rf O TP (M CO (N 
COi-l 


inco 00 CD CO as in 00 CD 
t- CO oi 00 00 00 CO in in 

rH rf 1-1 


rfC- OOCOOOOCOrH 

ot- coooint-inoo 


CO 

03 

in 


sAog 


in 00 Tf 05 CO 05 

CD (N CO C<l 1-1 

CO 


ooo C~ rf CD — 1 CO c~ 
OO 00 t- O t> CD rf CO 
rf rH rf 1-1 iH 


inrH oscDrfaseoos 

00 rf O in CD CO rf rH 

as CO 


o 

03 
rf 


COUNTY 
Name of High School 


DORCHESTER 

Cambridere 


Hurlock 


Crano 


Vienna 


East New Market 


Hoooer's Island 


Total 


Colored.. 


FREDERICK 
Frederick 


Brunswick 


Middletown 


Thurmont 


Emmitsbure... 


Liberty 


Walkersville ! 


Total 


Colored..... 


GARRETT 

Oakland 


a. 

1 

1 

o 


Kitzmiller 


Accment 

Friendsville 


c 

B 



e 

US 


c 





WW 



Subject Enrollment in Individual High Schools 



327 



CO >-i 1-1 »o 



^00 (N 

<5 00 ^ 



CO O OS CO «D • 



' CD CO C<1 lO o 



(M N O ^ a: 05 CO 
O t> 00 t- (N ^ —I 



CC lO 05 00 05 
(N ^ OC CO (N 
(N (N i-H 



00:a: »r3C0C<IOTf 

o<Mt-coiMeocoeo 



lO CO CO t- tr- 

io rH U5 ^ 



lO CO (N ^ CO Tl< c- 

o r-^ CO t- in CO N 

COC<l»-l 



OCOt~-COOOlfttOO 

mT)'oot--«;)<->a<-<teo 

COl-H 



t^O O^O-rfOOSTf 

t~ CD 00 CO ic o t- CO 00 
oa M ^ .-I 



o; CO CJ5 
CO CO 



«ieo o CO CD CO CO t- 
eoio o CO 00 in T}« CO 

CO CO CO r-t 



t- O Orf'COCOO^'* 

t- CD 00 CO in i-H t- CO 

CO CO CO ^ ^ 



OlCOCOCrCOCOO"* 

oeoo>«0'S<eocoec 

CO ^ 



O CO o> -r* ■ 
o ^ CO 00 in • 
CO CO t-i 



E . ■ 0) C in 



Km 



|||: 



t,. _ _ 

' 0; cs C rt j:; C ^ 
CQ E-i Pi C c/2 C 



bc M 
.-I in CO 

5 S 4) 

3 3 3 



328 



1935 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



B 

B 
o 

H 

© 

B 

o 



Music 


1 SlJir) 


CO 00 >0 CO 05 cc 

CD rH in t> in 


; CO 
;co 


; ^ 


o in 

O 
CD 


















o ; 
CO ; 


o 

CD 




















CO 00 O b- CO t> 

C5 o in CO CD CO 

i 


; CD 
; CO 




in 
in 
m 




















00 

in ; 


00 
in 


















Physical 
Education 








































































sXog 






































































Commercial 
Subjects 




i-H in 00 CJ> 00 
03 in CO Ti" CO 


CD t- t- 




CO 




















CO 00 

in i-t 


o 


05 iH CD 00 
OOin rH 


-* 

CO 






sXop 


in CO ^ CO en 
^ IN in 


Tt< in CD 




05 

o 

IM 




















CO CO 

CO 1-1 


CD 


in 00 1-1 rH 

O CO 


in 
t- 






ajn:}|nou3v 

JBUOpBOO^ 


sXog 


(M 














CO 
CO 




in 00 
in (M 




CO 
(M 


0-. CJ5 I 

(M th : 














t> 00 
CO CO : 


in 

CD 






Home 
Economics 


{■Buot:^ 
-BOoX 




?o 00 












CO 

CO 




CD 






CO 


in 

(M 




00 
CO 


























j-BJauaf) 


SPIO 


CD 05 T-l -H* OS 

CD ^ 00 in in t~ 










CO o -"^r (M 03 CD 

in CD -^^ CD CD 

in 


in 

(M 




o 

CO 










CO c 






in 

CD 


CD 
CD 




Industrial 
Arts 


[■Buoi:; 

-■BOO^ 


sXog 




o 

(N ; 






■<3i 
CO 










in 












































|t?jauaf) 


sXog 


CO i-H i-H -rt< 

cT- ^ c- in 


00 

CO 










o 






CD CO 






00 

o> 










c 








O 






French 




o o in in 
in T-H cv] ^ 










IM 
CO 






<N 00 CO ^ 

in (M rH (M tH 


CO 


CD ; 
CO : 


CD 
CO 


^ CO 00 CD 
CO CO T-H 








sXog 


Cjl CO o 








00 CO 


00 






IM CD t> in 

(M 1-f 1-1 1-1 


t- 


00 ; 


00 


CO 05 CO CO 
CO 


CD 
CO 






Latin 


SPIO 


CD 

in 


in in 

CO 1-1 (N (N 










rH IM t- in o 

^■r^y-ti-i (M 


<T. CD 


in 

CO 


t~ CO 

CO CO 


o 
in 


CO CO 1-1 
1-1 ; 


o 

CD 






sXog 




in CO in 00 










(M ^ 1-1 in ^ 

CO ^ i-H r-l 1-1 


CD^ ; 


IM 


O -'i' 
CO 


CO 


in th 00 

CO 


CO 






Science 


SHIO 


Tf(MOO-lT-(CDt>CDCOCDCD 

cDioooint>ininincoc<i'-H 


o-^^(^J o^in-!to^ 
CD in CO in CO CO 
t- 


05 IM CO 05 

c<! in t> 

IM 


CO 05 05 t- t> 00 
CO CD t- CO CO 1-1 


tH CO ■* 

in CO in 

CO 


sAog 


r^t-Ttininoic^it-cDr-ii-i 

OCDCDininCD-'d'COCOIMIN 


1-1 t- O IM O CO t> 

t>-^coco inco-*(Mco 
t- 


CO in in in 

00 CD CO 


O CO CD C- CD O 
O Tj< O 05 CO CO 


05 oj in 
•T)i in Tj< 

CO 


1 

Social 
Studies 


SRIO 


-^oca;oo'#ai(NOi-it--cD 

(MOOOiOO^t-t-t-INNi-i 

CO T-t 


00OTi<(M COCOOOOtI* 
CDCOrt^Tf OOCDi-iCOlM 

o_ 


y-tOi 05 00 

CO in 05 c- 

(M 


t- oi r— in in 

t- CD O O CO CO 


1-1 CD '-I* 

« CO in 

CO 


sAo-a 


COC-^OOC-OOi-icOCDCOi-l 

^ooa:t~in-*in-rj<r-((N(M 

CO 1-1 


oomcot- t-incoooo 
(M-^coeo coco(Nt-ic<i 
<j> 


CD in 1-1 ^ 
CO ^ c- in 


CO CO in o CO CO 

CO ^ O 05 CO 


iH CM in 

CD m 1* 

CO 


(■') M 




int-a;ocDaioot>coinTi< 
(Mcoosinint-ininT-i^r-i 


CDO'^IM OrfinoiTji 
OCD^'S' CDincO-^(M 
00 


(M «N O IM 

CO in t- CO 

CO 


Cd 05 05 CO 05 t- 
CO CD O 00 CO CO 


00 CO T*< 
CO in 

CO 


sAog 


t-OCDinOCDCT2OC0C<IC0 
O0CDO0-*'^t~CO'3'iMNrH 


-rf m CO t- CO t> 05 
co'^coco iniMcoiMco 

00 


in in t- 1- 
t- CO-* 


-n< CO o 00 CO CO 

1-1 ^ t-i CD CO CO 


CO CO in 
CO in 

CO 


.2 

li 




oeoT-HinoooiiMOcot-cD 

-:l<OCOO-;Ot-t>lr-CO(M'-< 
CO (M 1-1 1-1 


TtOrfiM t~CDC000rH 

tr-co'*'* 05CO'*inco 


m CO 05 00 
o> in 1-1 1- 

CO 1-1 


t- 05 05 t-i 05 in 
oi CD CO in CO CO 


CO Tl< 

in CD in 
CO 


sXog 


^<3^00T-lOCDT-'incDC0i-i 
'^OOi-IOlCDt-inrt^COC^KN 
CO i-l T-l 


05 in T)< t- 00 in o CD 00 
-^M^coco CDcomiMco 


[> in o th 
^ ^ 05 m 

CO 


^ CO in CO t~ CO 

^ ^ Tt< 1-1 CO 


00 CO in 
CO in 

CO 


Total 
Enrollment 




■-IC-inCDOOOltMOcOt-CD 

-^oeoooc-t-c-cocNiTH 

CO IM 1-1 rH T-t 


'^OOOIM OOCDCOOOIM 

o^cD-^'Tf 05CD-<^inco 


t~ CO C75 oo 
05 in r-t c- 
CO 1-1 


t- cr> CO CO CO in 
05 CO CO in ■* CO 


CO CD 

CO CD in 
CO 


s^og 


•Tttot-ooi-it-i-HincDini-i 

-*aii-iC5CDt:-in'*cOC<!(M 
CO r-t rH 


o in 05 1~ 00 m o CD 00 
co^coco cDcointMco 

T-i 


c~ in CO 1-t 
T-i Tj< 05 in 

CO 


CO CO 00 CO t- CO 

-rf irt* rH TJI CO 


1-1 c^i in 
CO in 
CO 



o 
o 

8 = 
e 



m 
H 
O 
Pi 
O 
H 
O 

P^ = 
S> 



C 



^5 § &^ X 5 03 c 



O >-i o 



CO 

h 

"A 
< 



TJX 



Eh 

Ot5 



c3 CS (jj 



o ^ 



Subject Enrollment in Individual High Schools 329 



50 eo eo CO — I | ^irjo co m ~3 ^ 
CO u: 



t- CO 
CO r-l 



00 c- 
(N O 
CO y-l 



c- in 00 CI 



lO r)" U5 
05 -"t i-H 



o OS (M 05 in t- o ■ 
to in t> 00 t- 



ot-Ninoioiooq 
ccoixintfeocO'* 



;d 00 SI 00 

00 ^ N 
CI 



W"rr(Noooo(Nt- 
(M-^coomiX!-^'^ 

U5 1-1 T-l t-H 



o 00 00 in CO o> N 
i-« in in rr CO i-t ^ 
CO 



O ?0 OS o 
05 N C^J 



oo-*-<Tfr-<ooeoa5 
o-<*eot>»neo-<tco 

CO ^ 1-1 



CO in 

00 (N 
00 



;d 05 o 

<7S N 01 



oo-^N<«C5coint- 
|^^coj-Hooc-«cin 



CO t- 
C! o CO 



O 05 X! 

oiinwcvi 
CO 



2 -o a-~, ' 
c 2 — ; 



O 

!/i C 



cs si 



o 
o 

o . 

•-I 



^1 



|l 



3 S 



2.H ^ 



c E ^ c 



Ci— -u 



• C O S 



C i; t- 



330 



Index 



Academic course: 
Colored, 160 

Each high school, 318-323 
White, 89-90 
Administration: 

Attendance officers, 265 
General control 

Cost per pupU, 224-225 

Expenditures, 309 

Per cent for, 219-221 
Superintendents, 261 265 
Adult Education: 

Emergency program, 208-210 
Evening schools, 205-207 

Agriculture, vocational: 
Cost, 227-230 

Supervision, 229-230 

Teachers' salaries, 126-127 
Enrollment 

Colored, 162-163 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 91, 92, 96 
Failures and withdrawals, white pupils, 
101-103 

White schools having, 90, 91, 324-329 
White teachers of, 104-105 

Aid from State and Federal Funds to: 
Bowie Normal School, 7-8, 196, 283 
Counties and Baltimore City: 

Distributed by type of fund, 1934-35, 306 

1919-1935, 214-216 

Total and per cent 1934-35, 217-219 
State Teachers Colleges, 7-8, 276-277, 283 
Vocational education, 126-127, 207, 227-230 

Appropriations: 

County, 1935-36, 247-249 

County and State, 1934-35, 306-307 

State, 1934-35, 282, 306; 1935-36, 6-8 

Approved High Schools: 
Individual, 318-329 
Number 

Colored, 184-185 

White, 113-114 

Architect, consultant, 7 

Art, white high schools: 

Enrollment, 91, 93, 324-329 
Teachers of, 104-105 

Assessable basis, counties, 251-253 

Athletics : 

Colored schools, 186-188, 304-305 
White schools, 197-202, 301-303 

Attendance: 

Aggregate days of, 293 • 
Average daily, 292 
Index of white elementary, 24-25 
Officers, 365 



Attendance: (Cant.) 
Per cent of, 292 

Colored elementary, 143-145 
Colored high, 157-158 
White elementary, 18-22 
White high, 76-77 
Summer school: 
Pupils, 204-205 
Teachers 

Colored, 164-165 
White elementary, 40-42 
White high, 106-107 
Auxiliary Agencies: 

Cost per white pupil for, 225-227 
Elementary, 52, 54, 56, 58 
High, 124, 127-131 
Expenditures for: 
Colored, 316, 317 
Total by purpose, 311 
■ White elementary, 313 
White high, 315 

B 

Badge tests, entrants and winners: 
Colored, 186-188, 304 
White, 197-201, 301 
Belonging, average number, 291 
By months: 

Colored, 143-144 
White elementary, 20 
White high, 76-77 
Each high school, 318-323 
Per teacher, 300 
Colored, 169-171 
White elementary, 46-48 
White high, 115-117 
Proportion in high school : 
Colored, 158-159 
White, 77-78 
Birth Rate: 

Colored, 140-141 
White. 15-16 
Board of Education, State, 2, 282, 284 
Bonds. 

Authorized and issued, 1936, 242 
Outstanding, 241-242 
Owned by Retirement System, 280 
State, for Retirement System, 280-281 
Books and Instructional Materials: 
Cost per white pupil, 227 

Elementary, 52-54 

High, 123-124, 127 
Expenditures: 

All sehools, 310 

Colored, 316, 317 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 
State aid for: 

1934- 35, 306 

1935- 36, 7 



Index 



331 



Bowie Normal School, 194-197 
Boys and Girls: 
Enrollment, 286 
Grade enrollment: 
Colored, 148-149 
White, 25-27 
Graduates: 

Elementary school: 
Colored, 150-151 
White, 28-29 
High school: 

Colored, 159-160 
White, 79-80 
Non-Promotions: 
Elementary: 

Colored, 151-154 
White, 29-32 
White, high school subjects, 100-103 
Ratio of white high school boys to girls, 77-78 
School census: 
Colored, 135 
White, 9 

Budget(s): 

Bowie Normal School: 

1934- 35, 196-197, 283 

1935- 36, 7-8 

Local, county and Baltimore City: 
1919-1935, 214-216 

1934- 1935, 217-219, 307 

1935- 1936, 247-251 
State Public School: 

1934- 35, 282-284 

1935- 36, 6-8 
Teachers Colleges: 

1934- 35, 275-278 

1935- 36, 7-8 

Buildings, grounds and equipment: 
Cost 1934-35: 

Analyzed as above, 312 

By type of school, 238-239 
Cost 1920-1935: 

All schools, 238, 240 

Colored schools, 179-180 

White elementary, 65-66 

White high, 132-133 
Modern colored, 181 
Number of, 285 
Sanitary inspection of, 63-64 
Value of school, 242-245 

Per pupil belonging: 
Colored, 181-182 
White, 242-245 

C 

Capital outlay, school: 
Cost 1920-1935: 

All schools, 238, 240 
Colored schools, 179-180 
White elementary, 65-66 
White high, 132-133 



Capital outlay, school: (Cont.) 
Cost 1934-35: 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 312 
By types of schools, 238-239 
Colored schools, 316, 317 
White elementary, 313 
White high, 315 
Cost per white pupil belonging 
Elementary, 52, 66 
High, 124, 133 
Census, school: 
Colored, 135-139 
White, 9-13 
Census and attendance fund, 

1934- 35, 306 

1935- 36, 7 

Certificates: 

Medical examinations for, 267 
New regulations re, 263 
Number issued, 265-267 
Teachers and principals: 

Colored, 163-164, 298 

White elementary, 40, 295-296 

White high, 106, 297 

Classes: 

Evening school, 205-207 
Size of: 

Colored. 169-171 

White elementary, 46-48 

White high, 115-117 
Special for handicapped, 36-40 
Summer school, 204-205 

Clerks, county high schools, 105 

Clinics, Mental Hygiene, 38, 63 

Colleges : 

Attended by teachers for summer courses: 

Colored, 164-165 

White elementary, 40-42 

White high, 106-107 
Colored high school graduates; 

of 1934 entering, 160-161 

of 1935 entering Bowie Normal, 159-160 
Per cent of 1934 high school graduates 

entering- 

Colored, 160-161 

White, 84-89 
State Teachers, 268-278 

Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties, 1934-35: 
Colored, 168 

White elementary, 268-278 
White high, 111-112 
White high school graduates: 

of 1934 entering Maryland, 88-89 

of 1935 entering State Teachers, 82-84 

Colored schools: 

For detail, see Table of Contents, 4 



332 



Index 



Commercial subjects, white high schools; 
Enrollment: 

Each high school, 324-329 

Total and by county, 90-91, 92, 9 6 . «• 
Failures and withdrawals, 101-103 
Schools having, 90-91, 324-329 
Teachers, number, 104-105 

Conferences, programs of: 
Attendance officers, 265 
High school principals, 134-135 
Superintendents, 261-265 
Supervisors: 

Colored, 191, 194 

White, 70, 72 

Consolidation: 

Decrease in one-teacher schools: 

Colored, 183-184 

White, 67-70 
Schools closed by, 285 
Transportation of pupils, 232-238 

Colored, 177 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 128-129 

Cost per pupil, 223-227 
Bowie Normal, 196-197 
Capital outlay: 

White elementary, 52, 66 
White high, 124, 133 
Current expenses, 223-227 

Auxiliary agencies, white schools, 225-227 
White elementary, 52, 54-56, 58 
White high, 124, 127-131 
Books and materials of instruction, white 
schools, 227 

White elementary, 52-54 

White high, 123-124, 127 
Colored schools, 174-175 
Elementary schools white, 51-56, 58-59 

By type, 64, 66, 226 
General control, 224-225 
Health activities: 

WTiite elementary, 58-59 

White high, 128, 131 
High schools, white, 121, 123-131. 133 
Individual high schools, 318-323 
Instruction, white schools, 225, 227 

White elementary, 52-54 

White high, 124- 127 
Libraries: 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 128-129 
Maintenance, white schools, 226-227 

White elementary, 52, 54 

White high, 124, 127 
One-teacher schools, 64, 66, 226 
Operation, white schools, 226-227 

White elementary, 52, 54 

White high, 124, 125 



Cost per pupil, Current expenses, (Cont.) 
Salaries, white schools, 225, 227 
White elementary, 52-53 
White high, 123-127 

Excluding federal vocational aid, 
124-125 

State Teachers Colleges, 275-278 
Supervision, white elementary, 52-53 
Transportation, 234-233 
Colored, 177 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 128-129 
Costs (See expenditures) 
Courses in high school: 
Colored, 160 

Individual schools, 318-329 
White, 89-90 
Current expenses: 

Cost per pupil for, 223-227 

Colored, 174-175 

Individual high schools, 318-323 

White elementary, 51-56, 58-59 

White high, 121, 123-131, 133 
Expenditures, total, 308 

Colored, 316, 317 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools: 
Colored, 140, 142 
White elementary, 17-18 
White high, 75-76 
Days in session, 293 
Colored schools: 

Elementary, 140, 142 
High, 157 
White schools: 

Elementary, 17-18 
High, 75-76 
Debt Service: 

1934- 1935, 312 

1935- 36, 247-249 

Tax rate for, 254, 255 
Decision re Metcalf case, 263-265 
Dental clinics, 62-63 
Disbursements (see expenditures) 
E 

Elementary schools: For details see table of 

contents, 4 
Emergency Adult Program, 208-210 
English, elementary school, 72 
English, high school: 
Enrollment: 

Colored, 160-162 

Each high school, 324-329 

White: 

Per cent in each year, 99-100 
Total and county, 90-91, 92 



Index 



333 



English, high school: (Cont.) 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 100-102 
Teachers, number, white, 104 

Enrollment: 

Attending school in adjoining counties, 
246-247 

Bowie Normal School, 194-195 
Elementary: 

Colored, 139-140 
White, 14, 16 
Grade or year: 
Colored, 148-149 
White, 25-27 
High school: 
Course: 

Colored, 160 
Each school, 318-323 
White, 89-90 
Growth in: 

Colored, 156-157 
White, 75-76 
Subject: 

Colored, 160, 162-163 
Each school, 324-329 
White, 90-91, 92-100 
Year: 

Each school, 318-323 
White, per cent in English, 99-100 
Non-public schools, 287-290 
Private and parochial schools, 287-290 
Public schools, total, 286 
State teachers colleges, 270-273 
Subject: 

Colored high, 160, 162-163 
Each high school, 324-329 
White high, 90-91, 92-100 
Summer schools: 
Pupils, 204-205 
Teachers: 

Colored, 164-165 
White elementary, 40-42 
White high, 106-107 
Total, 286 

Equalization Fund: 
1935-1936, 6-7 
1934-1935, 306 

Per cent of total current expenses, 217-219 

Evening schools and courses, 205-207 
Emergency Adult Program, 208-210 
Enrollment, 205-206 
Expenditures, 207, 311 

Expenditures 

(See also general control, instruction, oper- 
ation, maintenance, auxiliary agencies, 
fixed charges, tuition to adjoining coun- 
ties, current expenses, debt service, capi- 
tal outlay) 



Expenditures, (Cont.) 

Bowie Normal School, 196-197, 283 
Colored schools, 316, 317 
Elementary schools- 

Colored, 316 

White, 313 
Evening schools, 207, 311 
Extra-curricular activities: 

Colored, 191-193 

White, 258, 260-261 
Health: 

All schools, 311 

White elementary, 55 

White high, 128 
High schools: 

Colored, 317 

White, 315 
Junior high schools, 314 
Libraries: 

All schools, 311 

White elementary, 55 

White high, 128-129 
Salaries: 

All schools, 310 

Colored, 316, 317 

Vocational teachers, 126-127 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 
Total, by major classifications, 308 
Transportation : 

All schools, 311 

Colored, 177 

Elementary and high, 232-234 
Elementary schools, white, 55 
High schools, white, 128 
Vocational work 

Entire program, 227-230 
Teachers' salaries, 126-127 

Extra-curricular activities: 
Colored, 191-193 
White, 258-261 



Failures (see non-promotions) 

Federal aid: 

Adult emergency program, 208-210 
Vocational education, 227-230 
Salaries of teachers: 
Baltimore City, 228 
County day, 124-127 
County evening, 207 

Financial statements: 
County schools, 306-317 
State Public School Budget, 282-284 

Fixed charges: 
Expenditures, 311 

Per cent of current expenses, 220 222 



334 



Index 



French: 

Enrollment: 

Colored. 160, 162 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94 
Failures and withdrawals white, 101-103 
Schools offering to white pupils, 90-91 
Teachers, white, 104-105 

G 

General control: 

Cost per pupil, 224-225 
Expenditures, 309 
Per cent for, 219-221 
Graduates: 
Colored: 

Elementary school, 150-151 
High school, 159-160 

Entering Bowie Normal, 159-160 
From each school, 318-323 
Occupations of, 160-161 
Normal school, 195-196 
White: 

Elementary school, 28-29 
High school, 79-80 

Entering State teachers colleges, 82-84 
From each school, 318-323 
Occupations of, 84-89 
State Teachers Colleges, 268-270 
Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries: 
Colored, 175-177 
White, 120-122 

H 

Handicapped children : 
Appropriation, 1935-36, 7 
Expenditures, 306 

Opportunities for education of, 36-40 
Health: 

Activities of State Department of, 58-64 

Colored, 188-189 
Cost per pupil : 

White elementary, 58-59 

White high, 128, 131 
Expenditures, 59 

All schools, 311 

White elementary, 55 

White high, 128, 131 
High schools, for details see table of conten ts 4 
Home economics: 

Cost of vocational work in, 227-230 

Supervision, 229-230 

Teachers' salaries, 126-127 
Enrollment: 

Colored, 162-163 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94. 96 



Home economics, (Cont.) 

Schools having, white, 90-91 

Teachers, white, of, 104-105 
Home instruction of pupils, 36, 37, 39 

I 

Incorporated towns, levy for, 249-251 
Index of school attendance, 24-25 
Industrial arts: 

^Cost of vocational work in industries:;, 2 y.\ 230 

Supervision, 229-230 

Teachers' salaries, 128-127 
Enrollment: 

Colored 162-163 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94, 96 
Schools, white, having, 90-91 
Teachers of, white, 104-105 

Instruction: 

Cost per white pupil, 225-227 

Elementary, 52-54 

High. 123-127 
Expenditures: 

Bowie Normal School, 196-197 

Colored, 316, 317 

For salaries, supervision, books, etc., 310 
State Teachers' Colleges, 275-278 
White elementary, 313 
White high, 315 
Per cent of current expense budget, 220-222 

J 

Junior and junior-senior high schools: 
Expenditures, 314 
Teachers: 

Certification, 297 

Growth in number of, 107-108 

Resignations, 108-109 

Turnover, 109-111 

K 

Kindergartens, enrollment: 
Colored, 149 
White, 26-27 

L 

Languages (see English, French, Latin) 

Late entrants: 
Colored, 145-146 
White, 22-23 , 

Latin: 

Enrollment: 

Colored, 160, 162 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 101-103 
Schools, white, offering, 90-91 
Teachers, white, number, 104-105 



Index 



335 



Legislation: 

Affecting rehabilitation, 212 
Certification, 262, 263 
Leave of absence, 283 
Summer school attendance, 262 

Length of session, 293 

Colored elementary, 140, 142 
Colored high, 157 
White elementary, 17-18 
White high, 75-76 

Levies, county, 247-251 

Libraries: 

Colored schools, 177-178 
Expenditures: 

All schools, 311 

White elementary, 55 

White high, 128-129 
Service from outside (see Library Advisory 

Commission) 

Library Advisory Commission, service from: 
Colored schools, 178-179 
White elementary, 56-58 
White high, 129-131 

M 

Maintenance: 

Cost per white pupil for, 226-227 

Elementary, 52, 54 

High, 124, 127 
Expenditures: 

By type of repair, 311 

Colored, 316, 317 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 
Per cent of current expense budget, 220-222 

Materials of instruction and books: 
Cost per white pupil, 227 

Elementary, 52-54 

High, 123-124, 127 
Expenditures: 

Colored, 316, 317 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 
State aid for, 306 

Mathematics, high school: 
Enrollment: 

Colored, 160, 162 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94-95 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 101-102 
White schools, having, 90-91 
White teachers of, 104-105 

Medical examinations: 
Pupils: 

Colored, 188 
White, 58-63 



Medical examinations, (Cont.) 
Teachers: 

Appropriation for, 7 
Expenditures, 284 
Number, 267 
Mental hygiene clinics, 38, 63 
Mentally handicapped children, 37, 39-40 
Men teachers, 294 
Colored, 169 
White elementary, 45 
White high, 112 
Metcalf case decision, 263-265 
Music, high school: 
Enrollment: 

Colored, 162-163 
Each high school, 324-329 
White, 90-91, 92, 99 
White schools having, 90-91 
White teachers of, 104-105 

N 

Night schools (see evening schools) 

Non-promotions : 

Colored elementary schools, 151-154 
Subject, white high schools, 100-103 
White elementary schools, 29-33 

Number belonging, 291 
By months: 

Colored, 143-144 

White elementary, 20 

White high, 76-77 
Each high school, 318-323 
Per teacher, 300 

Colored, 169-171 

White elementary, 46-48 

White high, 115-117 
Proportion in high school: 

Colored, 158-159 

White, 77-78 

Nursery schools, 208-210 
O 

Occupations of high school graduates: 
Colored, 160-161 
White, 84-89 

One-teacher schools: 

Colored, decrease in, 182-184 

Number of, 285 

White: 

Cost per pupil, 64, 66 

Decrease in, 67-70 

Number belonging in, 69, 70, 291 
Per teacher, 300 

Per cent of attendance, 18-20 

Results of tests in, 33-34 

Salary per teacher in, 300 



336 



Index 



Operation: 

Cost per white pupil, 226-227 

Elementary, 52, 54 

High, 124, 127 
Expenditures: 

By fuel, janitors* wages, supplies, 310 

Colored, 316, 317 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 
Per cent of current expense budget, 220-222 

P 

Parent-teacher associations: 

Colored, 190-191 

White, 256-258 
Parochial and private schools, 287-290 
Part-payment of salaries: 

Superintendents, 261 

1934- 1935, 306 

1935- 1936, 7 

Persistence to high school graduation, white, 
80-82 

Physical education: 
Activities: 

Colored, 186-188. 304-305 

White, 197-202, 301-303 
Appropriation for: 

1934- 35, 203, 284 

1935- 36, 7 
Badge tests: 

Colored, 186-187, 304 

White, 197-201, 301 
Expenditures by P. A. L., 202-204, 284 
High school enrollment: 

Colored, 162-163 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 99 
High schools, white, offering, 90-91 
Teachers, white, of, 104-105 

Physical examinations (see medical 
examinations) 

Physically handicapped children, 36-37. 38-39 

Presidents of teachers colleges, 2, 275 

Private and parochial schools, 287-290 

Programs of conferences, (see conferences) 

Property, valuation of: 
School: 

Colored, 181-182 

White, 242-245 
County, 251-253 

Pupils: 

Attending schools in adjoining counties, 

246-247 
Non-public schools, 287-290 
One-teacher schools: 

Colored, 183-184 

White, 68-70 



Pupils, (Cont.) 
Per teacher: 

All schools, 300 

Colored, 169-171 

White elementary, 46-48 

White high, 115-117 
Public school: 

Enrollment, 286 

Number attending, 292 

Number belonging, 291 

Per cent of attendance, 292 
Transported: 

All schools, 232-236 

Colored, 177 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 128-129 
P. W. A. Projects, 238 

R 

Ratio of high school to total attending and 
belonging: 
Colored, 158-159 
White, 77-78 
Ratio of white boys to girls in high school, 78-79 
Receipts from: 
All sources, 307 
Extra-curricular activities: 
Colored 191-192 
White, 258-260 
Federal Government for: 

Emergency adult program, 208-210 
Evening schools, counties, 207 
Teachers' salaries, counties, 126-127 
Vocational education, 227-230 
Baltimore City, 228 
Rosenwald Fund, 177-178, 284 
State: 

Distributed by type of fund, 1935, 306 

1919-1935, 214-216 
Teachers Colleges, 283 
Total and per cent, 1935, 217-219 
Rehabilitation, vocational: 
Appropriation, 1936, 7 
Expenditures, 213 
Financial statement, 284 
Service rendered, 211-213 
Resignations of teachers: 
Colored, 165-166 
White elementary, 42-43 
White high, 108-109 
Retirement System, Teachers, 278-281 
Appropriation, 6-7 
Financial statement, 282 
Members, 278-279 
Rosenwald Fund, 177-178, 284 

S 

Salaries: 

Attendance officers, 309 
Superintendents, 309 



Index 



337 



Salarits, (Cont.) 
Supervisors, 'MO 
Teachers: 

Average per teacher, 300 
Colored, 171-174 
White elementary, 48-50 
White high, 118-120 
Cost per white pupil, 225-227 
White elementary, 52-53 
White high, 123-125 
Per cent of school budget, 220-222 
Total, 310 

Colored, 316, 317 
White elementary, 313 
White high, 315 
Sanitary inspection of buildings, 63-64 
Sanitation projects, 231 

Science, high school: 

Enrollment: 

Colored, 160, 162 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94 

Failures and withdrawals, 101-103 

White schools offering, 90-91 

White teachers of, 104-105 

Session, length of, 293 
Sex of teachers, 294 
Size of: 



Colored, 169-171 
White elementary, 46-48 
White high, 115-117 
School (s): 

Colored elementary, 182-183 
Colored high, 185-186 
Each high, 318-323 
White elementary, 67-70 
White high, 113-116 

Social studies, high school: 
Enrollment: 

Colored, 160, 162 
Each high school, 324-329 
White, 90-91, 92, 93 
Failures and withdrawals, 101-103 
White schools offering, 90-91 
White teachers of, 104-105 

Special classes for handicapped, 36-40 

Standard tests: 

Colored elementary, 154-156 
White elementary, 33-36 
White high, 103-104 

State: 

Aid to health, 59 
Aid to schools 

Showing various school funds, 306 

1919-1935, 214-216 

1935-1936. 6-8 



State, (Cont.) 

Aid to schools, (Cont .) 

Total and per cent 1934-35, 21T-219 
Board of Education: 

Expenditures, 284 

Members, 2 

Appropriation, 1935-36, 7 
Department of: 
Education : 

Expenditures, 282-284 
Members, 2 
Health: 

School activities, 58-64 
Colored, 188-189 
Public school budget, 6-8 
Teachers Colleges, 268-278 
Teachers' Retirement System, 278-281 
Statistical tables, 285-329 

Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, 96-99 

Subjects studied in high school: 
Colored, 160, 162-163 
Each high school, 324-329 
White, 90-91, 92-99 

Summer school attendance: 
Baltimore City pupils, 204-205 
Teachers: 

Colored, 164-165 

White elementary, 40-42 

White high, 106-107 

Superintendents : 

Conferences, 261-265 
Names of, 2 
Salaries, 309 

Supervision, Supervisors 
Activities: 

Colored, 191, 194 

White elementary, 70-72 

White high, 133-134 
Cost, salaries and expenses: 

All schools, 310 

Colored elementary, 316 

White elementary, 313 

White high, 315 
Cost per white elementary pupil for, 52-53 
Names of, white, 2 
Number of, 294 

Per cent of current expense budget, 219-222 
Quota for white elementary teachers, 70 



Taxable basis, 251-253 

Tax dollar, distribution of school, 219-222 

Tax rates, county, 254-256 

Teacher-pupil ratio, 300 

Teacher(s"> 

Academic, high school, 104-105, 318-323 



338 



Index 



Teacher (s) (Cont.) 
Colleges, 268-278 
Number of, 294 

For each high school subject, 104-105 
In schools of each type: 
Colored, 316-317 
Non-public schools, 287-290 
White elementary, 313 
White high, 315 
Total, 294 
Sex of, 294 

Special high school, 104-105, 318-323 

Teachers* Retirement System: 
Activities, 278-281 ^' 
Appropriation, 1935-36, 7 
Financial statement, 282-283 
Staflf, 2 

Tests: 

Athletic badge: 

Colored, 186-187, 304 

White, 197-201, 301 
Elementary schools: 

Colored, 154-156 

White, 33-36 
High schools, 103-104 

Trades and industry, courses in: 
Enrollment: 

Colored, 162-163 

Each high school, 324-329 

White, 90-91, 92, 94, 96 
White schools having, 90-91, 324-329 
White teachers of, 104-105, 126-127 

Training centers: 

Colored normal school, 196 
State teachers colleges, 275 

Training of teachers: 
At particular colleges: 

Colored, 168 

White high, 111-112 
Bowie Normal School, 194-197 
Certification : 

Colored, 163-164, 298 

White elementary, 40, 295-296 

White high, 106, 297 
State teachers colleges, 268-278 

Transportation of pupils, 232-238 
Cost, 232-234 

Colored, 177 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 128-129 
Cost per pupil transported, 234-235 

Colored, 177 

White elementary, 55-56 

White high, 128-129 
Per cent pupils transported, 235-236 
Type of vehicle used, 237-238 



Tuition : 

Charge teachers colleges, 277 
To adjoining counties, 247, 312 

Turnover in teaching staff, 299 
Colored, 165-168 
White elementary, 43-45 
White high, 109-111 

V 

Value of: 

County assessable property, 251-253 
School property used by 
Colored, 181-182 
White, 242-245 

Vocational education: 
Agriculture: 
Cost, 126-127 

Enrollment, 90-91, 324-329 

Appropriation, 1935-36, 7 

Baltimore City, 228-229 

Cost of, 227-230 

Administration and supervision, 229-230 
Teachers' salaries, 126-127, 205-207, 228- 
229 

Evening schools, 205-207 
Financial statement, 284 
Home economics 
Cost, 126-127 
Enrollment: 

Colored schools, 162-163 
Day schools, 90-91, 324-329 
Evening schools, 205-207, 228-229 
Industrial courses: 
Cost, 126-127 
Enrollment: 

Day, 90-91, 228-229, 324-329 
Evening schools, 205-207, 228-229 
Vocational rehabilitation: 
Appropriation, 1935-36, 7 
Expenditures, 1934-35, 213 
Financial statement, 284 
Service rendered, 211-213 

W 

White schools (see table of contents for white 
elementary and white high schools), 4 

Withdrawals of pupils: 

Colored elementary, 145-147 
Teachers college freshmen, 274-275 
White elementary 23-25 
White high, 100-103 

W. P. A. projects, 230-231 
Y 

Year, length of school, 293 
Colored elementary, 140, 142 
Colored high, 157 
White elementary, 17-18 
White high, 75-76 



I 



DO HOT 'TB ' 

i 



DC "0^ "'-^myg